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Registros recuperados: 13
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Analysis for biotechnology innovations using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) AgEcon
Lanacre, Nicholas A.; Gaskell, Joanne; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Quemada, Hector; Halsey, Mark; Birner, Regina.
Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option to deal with this challenge. However there is a need to make strategic decisions on how to spend limited agricultural research funds in order to achieve a maximum impact with regard to finding sustainable solutions to end hunger and poverty. In international development institutions, there is growing interest in the potential use of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as part of a research based Environmental Management System (EMS) to promote mainstreaming of environmental considerations in policy development. SEA was developed as an approach to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk; Strategic Environmental Assessment; Genetically Modified; GMO; LMO; Living Modified Organisms; Biotechnology; Environmental risk; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58584
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ANALYZING NEGOTIATION APPROACHES IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - A CASE STUDY OF CROP-LIVESTOCK CONFLICTS IN SRI LANKA AgEcon
Birner, Regina.
Participatory approaches in natural resource management are increasingly being criticized for their tendency to neglect power relations and conflicts of interests. Negotiation approaches have been proposed as a strategy to overcome such shortcomings. Using the case of negotiations on crop-livestock conflicts in Sri Lanka as an empirical example, this paper proposes to apply the concept of political capital in combination with game theoretical modeling for an analysis of negotiation processes in natural resource management. The model serves to analyze both the incentive structure of the resource users, who are motivated by economic incentives, and the incentive structure of political decision-makers, who are motivated by political interests. The crucial...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural resource management; Negotiation; Political capital; Extensive form game; Sri Lanka; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25859
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Between Conservationism, Eco-Populism and Developmentalism: Discourses in Biodiversity Policy in Thailand and Indonesia AgEcon
Wittmer, Heidi; Birner, Regina.
The present paper analyzes the role of discourse in conflicts concerning nature conservation in tropical countries. We focus on the contested question as to whether and to which extent local communities should be allowed to live and use resources inside protected areas. Applying the concepts of belief-systems, story-lines and discourse coalitions, we analyze two empirical case studies dealing with this conflict: The first case study is concerned with a policy process at the national level that aimed at passing a community forestry law in Thailand to make the establishment of community forests in protected areas possible. The second case study deals with the proposed resettlement of a village from the Lore Lindu National Park in Sulawesi, Indonesia. In both...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Discourse; Biodiversity conservation; Protected area management; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42490
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Between Market Failure, Policy Failure and "Community Failure": Property Rights, Crop-Livestock Conflicts and the Adoption of Sustainable Land Use Practices in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Gunaweera, Hasantha.
Using the case of the semi-arid zone of Southern Sri Lanka as an example, the paper shows that crop damages caused by grazing livestock can constitute an important obstacle to the adoption of available technologies for more sustainable land use. The paper considers crop damages as an externality problem and shows that the classical solutions to externalities—the neo-liberal, the interventionist solution and the communitarian solution—cannot be applied in the Sri Lankan case due to market failure, government failure and “community failure.” The paper discusses collective action and bargaining between organized interest groups as an alternative solution and analyses the conditions which make such a solution work. The paper concludes that - in the Sri Lankan...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50053
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Decentralization, Local Government Elections and Voter Turnout in Pakistan AgEcon
Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Qureshi, Sarfraz; Birner, Regina; Khan, Bilal Hasan.
Decentralization has the potential to improve the accountability of government and lead to a more efficient provision of public services. However, accountability requires broad groups of people to participate in local government. Thus, voter turnout at local government elections is an important component of government accountability. This study used survey data on the 2005 local government elections in Pakistan to analyze the impact of electoral mechanisms, the credibility of elections, and voters’ socioeconomic characteristics on voter turnout. The rational-choice perspective is applied to develop the specifications of the empirical model. The empirical analysis is based on a series of standard and multilevel random-intercept logistic models. Our...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Local government elections; Political participation; Voter turnout; Public service provision; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42345
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Designing Regional Systems of Biotechnology Regulation A Transaction Cost Approach to Regulatory Governance AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Linacre, Nicholas A..
Many developing countries are currently in the process of designing regulatory systems that should make it possible to use the potential of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural development, while at the same time managing the risks for food safety and the environment that are potentially associated with these technologies. In view of the considerable costs associated with biotechnology regulation and the scarcity of biosafety specialists, there are processes in various regions of the developing world to establish regional systems of biotechnology regulation. So far, there are major knowledge gaps as to how regional systems of biotechnology regulation can be designed to be effective and efficient and to fulfill principles of good...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Regional biotechnology regulation; Regulatory federalism; Transaction cost economics; European Union; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52218
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Determinants of Farmers' Resilience towards ENSO-Related Drought: Evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia AgEcon
Keil, Alwin; Zeller, Manfred; Wida, Anastasia; Sanim, Bunasor; Birner, Regina.
Crop production in the tropics is subject to considerable climate variability caused by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. In Southeast Asia, El Niño causes comparatively dry conditions leading to substantial declines of crop yields. In concert with global warming, the frequency and severity of the phenomenon are likely to increase during the 21st century. Little is known about the impact of ENSO-related drought on the welfare of farm households in developing countries. This paper seeks to contribute to closing this knowledge gap with a case study from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its objective is to measure household resilience towards drought periods and identify its influencing factors to deduce policy implications. Using...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: ENSO; Drought resilience; Risk management; Technical efficiency; Indonesia; Farm Management; Q54; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25592
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Does good governance contribute to pro-poor growth? a review of the evidence from cross-country studies AgEcon
Resnick, Danielle; Birner, Regina.
Even though both “good governance” and “pro-poor growth” have become important concepts in development thinking and practice, studies that assess to which extent and how good governance contributes to pro-poor growth are still relatively scarce. After reviewing the two concepts, this paper develops a conceptual framework that specifies the linkages between different aspects of governance and pro-poor growth. Using this framework, the paper reviews a range of quantitative cross-country studies that include measures of governance as independent variables and focuses on the dependent variable in at least two of the three dimensions of pro-poor growth: poverty, inequality, and growth. The review shows that governance indicators that capture a sound...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Governance; Pro-poor growth; Cross-country studies; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55404
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From "best practice" to "best fit" a framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin E.; Pender, John L.; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier M.; Mbabu, Adiel N.; Spielman, David J.; Horna, J. Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc J..
The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are defined in the paper as the entire set of organizations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being… To classify pluralistic agricultural advisory services, the paper distinguishes between organizations from the public, the private and the third sector that can be involved in (a) providing and (b) financing of agricultural advisory services. The framework for analyzing pluralistic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55396
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How to Make Agricultural Extension Demand-Driven?: The Case of India’s Agricultural Extension Policy AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Anderson, Jock R..
Many countries have recognized the need to revive agricultural advisory or extension services (the terms are used interchangeably here) as a means of using agriculture as an engine of pro-poor growth; reaching marginalized, poor, and female farmers; and addressing new challenges, such as environmental degradation and climate change. In spite of ample experience with extension reform worldwide, identifying the reform options most likely to make extension more demand-driven remains a major challenge. The concept of demand-driven services implies making extension more responsive to the needs of all farmers, including women and those who are poor and marginalized. It also implies making extension more accountable to farmers and, as a consequence, more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand-driven agricultural advisory services; Extension reform; India; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42370
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Need, Greed or Customary Rights - Which Factors Explain the Encroachment of Protected Areas? Empirical Evidence from a Protected Area in Sulawesi, Indonesia AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Maertens, Miet; Zeller, Manfred.
The encroachment of protected areas for agricultural and livestock production is an important challenge for nature conservation in developing countries. The driving forces of encroachment are debated - major arguments focus on (1) the need of local people to cultivate land inside protected areas due to poverty, (2) commercial interests of cultivating inside protected areas, which indicates free-riding ("greed"), and (3) resistance against protected areas caused by disregard of customary rights. Understanding the role of these factors is important for designing appropriate conservation and development strategies. The paper contributes to this understanding by analyzing the encroachment of a National Park in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The analysis is guided by a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use change; Nature conservation; Household decision-making; Regulation; Indonesia; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q12; Q57.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25706
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Regional Biotechnology Regulations: Design Options and Implications for Good Governance AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Linacre, Nicholas A..
Many developing countries are currently in the process of designing regulatory systems that should allow them to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural development, while also managing the food safety and environmental risks potentially associated with these technologies. Various regions of the developing world are seeking to establish regional systems of biotechnology regulation. However, considerable costs are associated with biotechnology regulation, and biosafety specialists are scarce. In addition, there is no consistent understanding of how regional systems of biotechnology regulation can be designed to be effective and efficient, while also fulfilling the principles of good governance, such as transparency, voice and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional biotechnology regulation; Regulatory federalism; Transaction cost economics; West Africa; European Union; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42346
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Security Analysis for Agroterrorism: Applying the Threat, Vulnerability, Consequence Framework to Developing Countries AgEcon
Linacre, Nicholas A.; Koo, Bonwoo; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Msangi, Siwa; Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Gaskell, Joanne; Komen, John; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina.
In some developing countries the potential exists for agroterrorism to cause widespread disruption through loss of sustenance, income and production. Defense of agriculture may also be problematic because of the lack stability and basic biosecurity infrastructure for the detection and prevention of diseases or invasive species. Currently new methodological approaches for terrorism risk assessments are being actively explored for resource prioritization. One such methodology for risk based allocation of resources is Threat, Vulnerability, and Consequence (TVC) Analysis. A qualitative application of the TVC framework is used to analyze the risk of agroterrorism in developing countries relative to industrialized countries. The analysis suggests that evidence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroterrorism; Terrorism risk analysis; Biosecurity; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59238
Registros recuperados: 13
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