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Registros recuperados: 45
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Achieving Environmental Objectives Under Reduced Domestic Agricultural Support and Trade Liberalization: An Empirical Application to Taiwan AgEcon
Chang, Hung-Hao; Boisvert, Richard N.; Blandford, David.
We focus on rice policy reform required for Taiwan's admission to the WTO, and examine the effects, theoretically and empirically, of the re-instrumentation of domestic policy needed to achieve environmental objectives when both positive and negative environmental externalities exist. Policies that treat non-commodity attributes in agriculture as secondary to existing aims, such as income support, are unlikely to result in the desired supplies of environmental goods. Those supplies can be achieved at lower government and social costs using policy instruments to achieve environmental goals directly. Results are relatively insensitive to the social values assigned to environmental goods.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: WTO policy reform; Multifunctionality; Agri-environmental policy; Rice policy; Agricultural trade policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10201
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Activity level, emission intensity, and optimal GHG abatement policy: An application to Norwegian agriculture AgEcon
Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar; Vardal, Erling.
Despite the failure of the U.N. Copenhagen climate conference in December 2009 efforts are continuing to reach agreement on binding global commitments on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, efforts are still underway to conclude the Doha Round of trade negotiations through the World Trade Organization (WTO). Both of these agreements could have a significant impact on the level of activity in agriculture and the GHG emissions that it generates. In this paper we explore strategies to comply with both trade liberalization and GHG emission reduction commitments. We examine the implications of trade liberalization and a carbon tax, both of which affect agricultural output, as means of achieving emission reductions. We emphasize two diametrically...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108780
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Adjustment Policies in the United States AgEcon
Blandford, David.
Principal adjustment programs are reviewed – unemployment insurance (UI) and related long-term programs for displaced workers, and trade adjustment assistance (TAA). None of these programs has had wide application in agriculture, although the current trade act contains a new program specifically for farmers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15734
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Agri-Environmental Policy and Moral Hazard under Output Price and Production Uncertainty AgEcon
Yano, Yuki; Blandford, David.
Several theoretical and empirical models have been developed to examine how risk aversion affects compliance with agri-environmental schemes under asymmetric information and uncertainty. However, none has examined the case where the level of compliance is a continuous variable and producers face simultaneous monitoring, output price and production uncertainty. Treating conservation effort as a continuous variable, we show that risk aversion can mitigate the moral hazard problem in most cases. However, if conservation effort has a risk-increasing impact on production the effect of risk aversion on compliance is ambiguous.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental schemes; Uncertainty; Moral hazard; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44323
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Animal Welfare AgEcon
Blandford, David.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94403
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Are Disciplines Required on Domestic Support? AgEcon
Blandford, David.
The impact of domestic support on trade is likely to become an increasingly important issue in the WTO negotiations on agriculture. Domestic support expenditures are increasing and existing disciplines on forms and levels of support are weak. While a shift from market price support to output subsidies should be less trade distorting, such support may not be minimally distorting as required under the so-called “green-box” criteria. Proposals submitted by WTO members could further expand permissible support measures and weaken disciplines on their use. In some cases, most notably support provided in pursuit of environmental objectives, there may be a contradiction between the aims of support measures and the requirement that these should be minimally trade...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Domestic support; Green box; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23857
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Asian Rice Policies and WTO Commitments on Domestic Support Under Existing and Proposed Doha Round Provisions AgEcon
Yang, Min-Hsien; Blandford, David.
We examine current rice policies in four major Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan), their relationship to current WTO disciplines, and to those proposed under the Doha negotiations. WTO disciplines have prompted some changes in rice policies, but disciplines of domestic support are unlikely to impose serious constraints in the future. Using the example of Taiwan, we examine how existing support policies could be changed to reduce domestic distortions and satisfy WTO commitments. Changing from existing amber box payments to those that would likely qualify for inclusion under the blue or green boxes could allow greater market orientation in Taiwan’s rice market, while satisfying food security and farm income support objectives.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Domestic support; Rice; WTO; Taiwan; Asia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103665
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Brazilian biofuels policies and impacts on world agricultural trade AgEcon
Miranda, Silvia Helena Galvao de; Blandford, David; Abler, David G..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104534
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Bringing Agriculture into the GATT: Assessing the Benefits of Trade Liberalization AgEcon
Abbott, Philip C.; Johnston, Brian G.; Blandford, David; Kilkenny, Maureen; Bochniarz, Henryka; Magiera, Stephen L.; Dixit, Praveen M.; McGregor, Robert M.; Frohberg, Klaus; Robinson, Sherman; Hickenbotham, Terry L.; Roningen, Vernon O.; House, Robert M..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49873
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Bringing Agriculture into the GATT: Designing Acceptable Agricultural Policies AgEcon
Barichello, Richard R.; Harvey, David R.; Barkley, Paul W.; Offutt, Susan E.; Blandford, David; Sutton, John; de Gorter, Harry; Webb, Alan J.; Gardner, Bruce L.; Webb, Shu-Eng.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49871
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Copenhagen meets Doha: Greenhouse gas emission reduction and trade liberalization in Norwegian agriculture AgEcon
Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar; Vardal, Erling.
As a result of substantial government support, Norway is more or less self-sufficient in its main agricultural products. This contributes to both trade distortions and higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In multinational negotiations separate efforts are being made to liberalize trade (through the World Trade Organization) and to reduce global GHG emissions (through the United Nations). Using a model of Norwegian agriculture, we explore interconnections between trade liberalization and GHG emission reductions. We show that the Doha proposals would involve no major cut in either agricultural production or GHG emissions due to weakness in the disciplines on trade distorting support. We contrast further trade liberalization and the use of a carbon tax to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91261
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Copenhagen meets Doha: Greenhouse gas emission reduction and trade liberalization in Norwegian agriculture AgEcon
Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar; Vardal, Erling.
As a result of substantial government support, Norway is more or less self-sufficient in its main agricultural products. This contributes to both trade distortions and higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In multinational negotiations separate efforts are being made to liberalize trade (through the World Trade Organization) and to reduce global GHG emissions (through the United Nations). Using a model of Norwegian agriculture, we explore interconnections between trade liberalization and GHG emission reductions. We show that the Doha proposals would involve no major cut in either agricultural production or GHG emissions due to weakness in the disciplines on trade distorting support. We contrast further trade liberalization and the use of a carbon tax to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91729
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Determinants of Farm Policies in the United States, 1996-2008 AgEcon
Orden, David; Blandford, David; Josling, Timothy E..
This paper focuses on the political economy of U.S. farm policy since the Uruguay Round trade negotiations concluded in 1994 and established the WTO. The continued ability of the powerful farm lobby in the United States to elicit support in the political arena is evident from this analysis. Yet there have been some substantial changes in policy that have reduced their distortionary effects, as well as some setbacks to liberalizing reform. New Doha Round commitments could put further constraints on subsidies provided by some U.S. policy instruments. And despite the ability of the farm lobby to retain its support programs through 2012, there are several political uncertainties about the alignments that have allowed U.S. farm support to endure.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; United States farm policies; Political economy of agricultural distortions; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; O13; P22.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50297
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Disciplines on Domestic Support in the Doha Round AgEcon
Blandford, David.
The elements of a new agreement relating to domestic support for agriculture are set out in the WTO Framework document of July 2004. This introduces the concept of the Overall Trade Distorting Support (OTDS), which is to be disciplined and subject to reduction. In addition, some of the individual components of the OTDS will be subject to minimum required reductions and other elements will be capped. The caps and reduction percentages will define each country's future "entitlement" to Amber and Blue Box support. A base period OTDS will be calculated as the sum of the current bound Total Aggregate Measure of Support (TAMS), resulting from the Uruguay Round Agreement, plus an allowance for product specific and non-product specific de minimis, plus an...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14571
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Do Current U.S. Ethanol Policies Make Sense? AgEcon
Yano, Yuki; Blandford, David; Surry, Yves R..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Q48; Q42; Q27; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93686
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EXPLAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF QUOTA RENTS FROM US CHEESE IMPORTS AgEcon
Hornig, Ellen; Boisvert, Richard N.; Blandford, David.
A theoretical model is outlined to illustrate how rents are generated from import quotas. The model is used to estimate rents from US cheese import quotas; rents are substantial. Relative rent capture by importers and exporters is explained by estimating an industrial organisation-type model. Unequal market power is important in explaining the distribution of rents between importers and exporters. Exporters tend to maintain price-cost margins and let importers capture a larger share as rent size increases.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22500
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Facilitating Farm-Level Adjustment to the Reform of Trade and Agricultural Policies AgEcon
Hill, Berkeley; Blandford, David.
This document was prepared by David Blandford, Penn State University and Berkeley Hill, London University. It is based on results from a research project funded by the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture entitled "Policy Reform and Agricultural Adjustment" under a Cooperative Agreement with the Pennsylvania State University (No. 43-3AEK-3-80047). Additional funding was provided by the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC). Under the project, there was an international workshop at Imperial College, London in October 2003 and an IATRC symposium in Philadelphia in June 2004. The studies that are used as the basis of this paper are contained in an edited volume to be published by CABI Publishing (Blandford...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14572
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GLOBALIZATION AND NORTHEAST AGRICULTURE: IMPLICATIONS OF THE UPCOMING ROUND OF WORLD TRADE NEGOTIATIONS AgEcon
Blandford, David.
The signing of the Uruguay Round agreement on agriculture (URAA) in 1994 was a significant step towards the liberalization of world agricultural trade. A new round of negotiations on agriculture is scheduled to begin under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the end of 1999. This paper discusses the likely agenda of those negotiations and their implications for agriculture in the northeastern United States.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31288
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Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy AgEcon
Pajic, Mirjana; Blandford, David; Bailey, Kenneth W..
The objective of this study is to measure the impact of proposed Doha Round tariff reductions on the global dairy industry and dairy policy. We examine how proposed tariff reductions affect global trade and prices, and the implications for the European Union and the United States. Since international market conditions can vary, we examine the implications of liberalization under two sets of market conditions. The first corresponds to the year 2004 in which there was a global surplus of dairy products. In that year import protection ensured that U.S prices of dairy products were above world prices. The second corresponds to 2007, when dairy products globally were in short supply and U.S. domestic prices were at or below world prices. We show that proposed...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48085
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Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States AgEcon
Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David.
The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization. We show that implicit ad valorem equivalent tariffs (AVEs) on components vary substantially under the current tariff schedule. Proposed changes under the Doha Round would lead to not only a reduction in the level of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dairy; Doha Round; Milk components; Tariff structure; United States; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9240
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