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Agricultural and Food Competitiveness in Transition Central and Eastern European Countries: Social Profit Rate and Domestic Resource Cost Approaches AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
Agricultural and food products in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) in transition to a market economy experienced improvements in international competitiveness in crops (wheat and sunflower) and higher value-added processed products. Less improvement in competitiveness is for animal products. The international competitiveness is in to some extent maintained by lower factor prices, which are likely to increase by increase in shadow prices of land and labour. Product quality, technology and efficiency improvements and rationalisation of costs, particularly in animal production and food processing are areas for improvements of international competitiveness in CEECs agriculture and the food sector.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26460
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Industrial Organization; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14940
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Intra-industrieller Handel; Integration; Agrar- und Ernährungssektor; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92027
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Agricultural and Rural Capital Markets in the EU Candidate Countries: Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
Factor Markets Coordination: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels, Belgium
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capital market; Agriculture and rural areas; European Union; Candidate countries; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117489
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Agricultural and Rural Labour Markets in the EU Candidate Countries of Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
Factor Markets Coordination: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels, Belgium
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labour market; Agricultural and rural labour structures; Education; Gender; Unemployment and living conditions in rural areas; Candidate countries; European Union.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117487
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Agricultural Land Markets and Land Leasing in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia AgEcon
Petroska Angelovska, Neda; Ackovska, Marija; Bojnec, Stefan.
The aim of this study is to identify the driving forces that shape agricultural land structures, land market and land leasing in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Institutional developments and land reforms have so far been modest in the FYROM, and have not contributed to significant changes in agricultural ownership, operational structures, or land market and land leasing arrangements. Land ownership and land use are bimodal, consisting of several small-scale family farms and a few large-scale agricultural enterprises. The small family farms own and operate land on several small parcels, which is one of the major obstacles to the modernisation of family farm production. They produce food for household subsistence with mixed crop, fruit,...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural land ownership; Agricultural land operation; Land market; Price of land; Rental values; Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120176
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Agriculture in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Social Buffer vs. Development AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
This paper draws attention to the specific post-civil-war situation in agriculture and the food sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). These developments are presented in an association with the overall situation in the country. Due to economic and non-economic reasons, B&H faces a general problem of a lack of international competitiveness. In a current situation, there are rare products to be internationally competitive and the country relies on imports of food and other products. During the post-civil-war emergency and reconstruction stage, the bulk of food and agricultural inputs, were donated or granted by different governments, humanitarian organizations, and donors to mitigate the effects of widespread poverty caused by the war destructions...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Social buffer; Land leasing; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Agribusiness; Q15; Q18; O13; O52.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24726
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Agri-food business: Global challenges – Innovative solutions AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vandemartele, Thijs; Hirschauer, Norbert; Gaetano, Martino; Nijhoff-Savvaki, Rannia; Trienekens, Jacques H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno); Bachev, Hrabrin Ianouchev; Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka; Jarzebowski, Sebastian; Paus, Marguerite; Singh, Dheeraj; Prahalad, V.C.; Wangshu, Lobsang; Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Havas, Attila; Ehlers, Melf-Hinrich; Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre; Levkovych, Inna; Toth, Aniko; Forgacs, Csaba.
The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. All over the world these developments cause adjustments at the enterprise, chain and market levels. At the same time, the tremendously increasing demand for renewable energy has led to the emergence of a highly promising market for biomass production. This has...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Marketing; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92317
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Communication Costs and Agro-Food Trade in OECD Countries AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
The paper analyses the effects of communication costs for agro-food trade in OECD countries between 1995 and 2003 using gravity model. We find that the link between the communication costs and agro-food trade flows in developed countries is significantly stronger for agricultural than for food products. The improved communication services reduce trade transaction costs. The estimations also confirmed importance of the economy size, level of development in importer countries, and trade distance. The other traditional gravity variables like contiguity, language and regional free trade agreements have significant impacts in the majority of specifications
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Communication costs; Agro-food trade; Gravity model; International Relations/Trade; F14; F23; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50937
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Comparative advantages and competitiveness of Hungarian and Slovenian agro-food trade in the EU markets AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
The paper investigates comparative advantages and competitiveness of Hungarian and Slovenian agro- food trade in the EU markets. Applying a highly disaggregated trade dataset, we describe the pattern of agro- food trade in Hungary and Slovenia using the Balassa index. The extent of trade specialization exhibits a declining trend. Both countries have lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over time. The indices of specialization have tended to converge. For particular product groups, the indices display greater variation. They are stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but product groups with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The price competition, quality competition and the one- way trade...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Comparative Advantage; Price Competition; Agro- Food Trade.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10069
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COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES IN AGRO-FOOD TRADE OF HUNGARY, CROATIA AND SLOVENIA WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
This paper investigates comparative trade advantages in agro-food trade. We analyze comparative advantages of Hungarian, Croatian and Slovenian agro-food trade in the European Union (EU) markets. Both the levels and pattern of the revealed comparative advantage measure are investigated. The empirical research seeks to explain how revealed comparative advantages have developed across countries, main product groups and over time and what are likely their implications for multifunctional rural development in the enlarged EU. We employ a disaggregated trade dataset to identify the revealed comparative advantages to provide broader policy implications. The empirical results confirmed bulk of agro-food and forestry products with revealed comparative advantages...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Comparative advantage; Croatia; Hungary; Slovenia.; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90870
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Competition and Dynamics in Trade Patterns: Hungarian and Slovenian Agri-Food Trade with the European Unions' Trading Partners AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
Trade balances and unit values in Hungarian and Slovenian bilateral agri-food trade with Austria, Germany and Italy, respectively, to distinguish types of the one-way and the two-way trade flows, categories of price competition and categories of quality competition in the twoway trade flows, their dynamics and stability over time are analyzed. The two-way matched trade flows prevail among trade types. In the matched two-way bilateral agri-food trade there is prevalence of categories of price competition over categories of non-price competition, but varies across trading partners. In Hungarian agri-food trade the first category of successful price competition and the third category of successful non-price or quality competition prevail, suggesting...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Competition; Trade types; Dynamics; Mobility index; F12; Q17; Q18; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25760
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Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan.
Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and the fears and strategies of the stakeholders, particularly small-scale farmers. This report attempts to close some of these knowledge gaps by reviewing Croatia’s rural development dynamics and farm structures, as well as agricultural and rural policies. Based on an...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Croatia; Rural development; EU accession; Slovenia; Farm households; Competitiveness; Agricultural policy; CAP; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; O18; O13; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53665
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Determinants of competition in agro-food trade between Central European Countries and the European Union AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
This paper investigates determinants of competition in agro-food trade between five transition Central European Countries (CEC-5) (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and the European Union (EU-15) countries during the preenlargement years 1995-2003. We distinguish between one-way exports and imports, and two-way successful and unsuccessful price and quality competition in agro-food trade between the CEC-5 and the EU-15. The effect of trade balance on trade competition is found more significant than the effect of export-import unit values difference. Natural and human factor endowments increase price competition and reduce unsuccessful quality competition. Higher level of economic development reduces quality competition, whereas the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Competition categories; Determinants; Agro-food trade; Central and Eastern Europe; European Union.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7779
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Development of Agricultural Market and Trade Policies in the CEE Candidate Countries. AgEcon
Sepp, Mati; Gorton, Matthew; Miglavs, Andris; Kazlauskiene, Natalija; Meyers, William H.; Guba, Waldemar; Ratinger, Tomas; Safin, Marius; Simon, Françoise; Bozik, Marian; Michalek, Jerzy; Banse, Martin; Ferenczi, Tibor; Bojnec, Stefan; Turk, Jernej; Dalton, Graham E.; Turtoi, Crina Sinziana; Vincze, Maria-Magdolna; Davidova, Sophia; Ivanova, Nedka Momtscheva; Mishev, Plamen Dimitrov; Abele, Steffen; Frohberg, Klaus; Hartmann, Monika; Matthews, Alan; Weingarten, Peter.
This synthesis report focuses on the evolution of agricultural market and trade policies in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) candidate countries in the period 1997 to 2001. The developments were crucially influenced by (OECD, 2000a): • the situation in world agricultural markets; • the overall macroeconomic development in the countries considered; • the prospective EU accession; • bringing domestic agricultural policy in line with the Uruguay Agreement on Agriculture (URAA). High 1997 agricultural prices on world commodity markets were followed by a marked depression in 1998. With the exemption of milk products this trend continued in 1999. Likewise the economic and financial crisis in Russia had a considerable impact on agricultural policies. It hit...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization; International Development; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93083
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Developments in the Agricultural and Rural Capital Market of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia AgEcon
Angelova, Biljana; Bojnec, Stefan.
Factor Markets Coordination: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels, Belgium
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capital market; Farm income; Subsidies; Loans; Agricultural and rural development; Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117490
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EXCHANGE RATES AND THE MEASUREMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRICE DISTORTIONS IN CEECs AND OF CEEC-EU ACCESSION COSTS AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Munch, Wolfgang; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
Exchange rates were heavily distorted under the central planning system in Central and Eastern Europe and are still adjusting in the transition process. The use of nominal exchange rates introduces a bias for international price comparisons and in calculations based on them. We present various exchange rates and discuss their relevance and usefulness for CEEC economic transition studies. We show that calculations of agricultural price distortions, protection rates and budgetary costs of EU-CEEC accession are sensitive to the exchange rate assumptions. More specifically, our simulations of EU-CEEC integration effects show that net exports are substantially smaller and budgetary costs less under the assumption of continued real appreciation of the CEC-4...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31863
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Farm growth in Hungary, Slovenia and France AgEcon
Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre; Latruffe, Laure.
The article investigates the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian farms with FADN data and Heckman selection models, quantiles regressions and panel unit root tests. The contribution to the literature is threefold. First, we compare farm growth in countries with rather different farm structures. Second, we apply two different testing techniques. Finally, we focus on specialised crop and dairy farms rather than all farms, avoiding biases due to heterogeneous structures across the agricultural sector. Results reject the Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in France (except for one sub-period) and Hungary but confirm it for French and Slovenian dairy farms.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm growth; Gibrat's Law; Panel unit root; Quintile regression; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60911
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Food retailing and prices in Slovenia AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
This paper focuses on agro- food chains and agro- food consumer prices in Slovenia considering its European Union (EU) membership. As the Slovenian agro- food markets were distorted prior to the EU accession with some agro- food prices that were greater than comparable EU prices, the empirical results confirm that with the EU membership Slovenian real agro- food consumer prices have largely downward adjusted. Besides policy changes, internalization of retailing and distribution chains by entries of supermarket s and hypermarket s have had impacts on market structures and rationalization of marketing activities. Supermarket s and hypermarket s are taking over a substantial proportion of retail trade in agro- food products with implications on increasing...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Marketing; Segmentation; Price Adjustments; Slovenia.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10106
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How Effective is the Invisible Hand? Agricultural and Food Markets in Central and Eastern Europe AgEcon
Hockmann, Heinrich; Brosig, Stephan; Popp, Jozsef; Wilkin, Jerzy; Juchniewicz, Małgorzta; Milczarek, Dominika; Ferto, Imre; Forgacs, Csaba; Juhasz, Aniko; Kurthy, Gyongyi; Hein, Piret; Hobbs, Jill E.; Nuppenau, Ernst-August; Brümmer, Bernhard; Zorya, Sergiy; Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Bojnec, Stefan; Svetlov, Nikolai M.; Hurrelmann, Annette; Maack, Kai; Hanf, Jon Henrich; Glauben, Thomas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Wang, Xiaobing; Balint, Borbala; Lerman, Zvi; Shagaida, Natalya; Benner, Eckhard; Wandel, Jurgen; Nivievskyi, Oleg; Kuhn, Arnim.
Since the seminal work of Adam Smith, markets have been considered an efficient tool for co-ordinating the behaviour of economic agents. The basic characteristic of a market economy is that the complex system of interaction among individuals is not centrally coordinated. Under the assumption of profit and utility maximisation (and a whole set of assumptions about the institutional framework), relative prices and their change over time provide the signals that guide, like an invisible hand, the allocation of resources, i.e., the structure of production and the intensity of input use in the various production processes. They do this by co-ordinating the activities of economic agents, i.e., of resource owners, producers, intermediaries, traders, and...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Industrial Organization; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93018
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