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A Note on Technical Efficiency, Productivity Growth and Competitiveness AgEcon
Nivievskyi, Oleg; Brümmer, Bernhard; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan.
‘Productivity and efficiency growth enhances competitiveness’. Similarly formulated statements are common in the literature on the economic performance of firms, industries and nations. This conventional perception in the economic literature, originating from trade and growth theory models, however, lacks a clearly defined mathematical formulation. Earlier work by Page (1980) and Nishimizu and Page (1986) provides an elegant formalization of the relationship between the productivity growth and competitiveness measured by the Domestic Resource Costs (DRC) ratio. However, the relationship between technical efficiency and competitiveness has not been addressed in the literature. Moreover, the DRC is a biased measure of competitiveness. We propose static and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61759
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Agglomeration Economies in Ukrainian Dairy Sector: a Marked Point Process Approach AgEcon
Brümmer, Bernhard; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Nivievskyi, Oleg; Schlather, Martin.
Even after more than 15 years of transition from plan to market, agriculture in Ukraine still faces many challenges in terms of its structure. The evidence in the literature points to significant heterogeneity of technical efficiency and productivity scores in Ukraine. Moreover, both the recently approved WTO accession, and the ongoing negotiations on a free trade agreement with the EU will require further improvements in productivity and competitiveness at the farm level. Using farm-level data for 2004-2005, we study the presence and possible causes of agglomeration economies in Ukrainian dairy sector. One of the most important results is that there are agglomeration effects in the sector. The performance of dairy farms is influenced by the performance of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ukraine; Dairy farming; Order-m frontier; Spatial dependence; Agglomeration.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94990
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Auction Experiments and Simulations of Milk Quota Exchanges AgEcon
Brümmer, Bernhard; Loy, Jens-Peter; Requate, Till.
Since 2000 Germany has introduced a fairly unique market mechanism to trade milk quotas between dairy farms. The two major features are: (1) a quasi auctioning system that produces excess demands which are covered by state reserves free of charge and (2) a price band that is used to exclude highest bids. For both features an experimental design is developed to study the impact in reference to a regular seller’s sealed bid double auction. Results show that both treatments lead to significant misallocations. These are due to the direct impact of regulations and due to an imperfect adjustment of bidding functions. The major goal of the market design to reduce quota prices is reached, however, at significant trade losses.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114377
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Auction Experiments and Simulations of Milk Quota Exchanges AgEcon
Brümmer, Bernhard; Loy, Jens-Peter; Requate, Till.
Since 2000 Germany has a fairly unique market mechanism to trade milk quotas between dairy farms. The two major features are: (1) a quasi auctioning system that produces excess demands which are covered by state reserves free of charge and (2) a price band is used to exclude high price bids. For both features an experimental design is developed to study their impact in comparison to a regular seller’s sealed bid double auction. Results show that both treatments lead to significant misallocations. These are due the direct impact of regulations and due to an imperfect adjustment of bidding functions towards them. The major goal of the market design to reduce quota prices is reached, however, at significant trade losses.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Double Auction; Experiment; Milk Quota; Germany; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; L11; D44; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61304
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AUSWIRKUNGEN DER FISCHLER-REFORM UND DER BLAUZUNGENKRANKHEIT AUF DIE EUROPÄISCHEN KÄLBERMÄRKTE AgEcon
Ihle, Rico; Brümmer, Bernhard; Thompson, Stanley R..
C1_3
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Entkopplung; Europäische Union; Faktormärkte; Fischlerreform; GAP; Kälbermarkt; Marktintegration; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93953
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Bestimmung der Determinanten der Rapspreisentwicklung in der Hochpreisphase auf Basis von Markovzeitreihenmodellen AgEcon
Busse, Stefan; Brümmer, Bernhard.
Der Einfluss der Entwicklungen auf verschiedenen Agrarmärkten auf den deutschen Rapsmarkt wird im vorliegenden Beitrag anhand von multivariaten Zeitreihenmodellen für die Produktpreise untersucht. Da sich in Hochpreisphasen die Preisanpassungsprozesse möglicherweise im Vergleich zu Phasen niedriger Preise ändern, wird auf ein nichtlineares Vektor-Fehlerkorrektur-Modell (VFKM) zurückgegriffen, das regimeabhängige Anpassungen zulässt. Die Spezifikation des Modells als Markovsprung-VFKM (MS-VFKM) erweist sich hier als vorteilhaft, da es keiner a priori Regimespezifizierung und -abgrenzung bedarf. Die Analyse zeigt, dass in den Jahren 2007/08 signifikante Änderungen in den Anpassungsprozessen der Rapspreise im Verhältnis zu anderen Agrargütern auftraten, wobei...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Markovsprung-Vektor-Fehlerkorrektur-Modell; Regimeabhängiges Verhalten; Rapsmarkt; Hochpreisphase; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53271
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Beurteilung des Milchquotenbörsensystems in Deutschland AgEcon
Brümmer, Bernhard; Loy, Jens-Peter; Struve, Carsten.
In this paper the newly established rules for trading milk quotas in Germany are analyzed. These regulations have been in force since April 2000. Following a brief historical review of the quota system, the major changes in economic incentives regarding trading milk and the expected welfare implications are derived. Next, the effects of the new trading rules on quota prices in comparison to a reference system (sealed bid double auction) are discussed. In the empirical part the significance of the theoretical effects is illustrated. Recent changes in the regulations for quota trade are shown to have little effect in terms of mitigating these problems.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rules for milk quota trading; Auctions; Agricultural and Food Policy; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97978
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Demand for Irrigation Water for Pistachio Production from Depleting Groundwater Resources: Spatial Econometric Approach AgEcon
Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali; Brümmer, Bernhard.
Depletion of groundwater resources is an international problem, and groundwater is probably the world’s most extracted raw material. The agriculture sector is one of the biggest users of groundwater resources for irrigation activities, and it plays an important role in the depletion of these resources. The estimation of demand function for groundwater resources is the first step toward any policy recommendation in this field of research. However, only scarce attention has been given to empirical studies of the demand structure of groundwater resources by the help of econometrics and considering the quality of the resources in the context of a single aquifer. Therefore, an empirical estimation of the demand function for individual users which considers...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Groundwater resources; Derived demand function; Pistachio; Rafsanjan; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114457
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DETERMINANTS OF ARGENTINEAN WINE PRICES IN THE U.S. MARKET AgEcon
San Martin, Guillermo S.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Troncoso, Javier L..
A hedonic price function for Argentinean wines in the U.S market is estimated in order to evaluate the effect of the most important attributes of wine on price. Results show that labeling practices and the choice of the right wine quality attributes are far more influential on price than expert panel opinions or oenological wine improvements such as aging.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wine prices; Argentinean wine; Hedonic price model; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37327
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Determinants of Economic Growth in Organic Farming: The Case of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg AgEcon
Brenes Muñoz, Thelma; Lakner, Sebastian; Brümmer, Bernhard.
The organic sector in Germany has experienced a substantial growth since the beginning of the 1990s until today. During this process of expansion, most organic farms have grown in terms of factor endowment, while others have disappeared or reconverted to conventional agriculture. This paper investigates the potential determinants of farms growth in the organic sector. This paper models potential factors that might have an impact on the economic growth of 332 organic farms in Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The econometric model was developed based on ‘Gibrat’s Law’, using a fixed effect method (FE). The results suggest that direct marketing and livestock intensity significantly influence farm growth. In addition, less efficient farms grew faster than more...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm-growth; Gibrat’s law; Technical efficiency; Direct marketing; Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114270
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Determinants of Land Use Change Dynamics in the Margins of Protected Forest Areas: Evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia AgEcon
Reetz, Sunny W.H.; Brümmer, Bernhard.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114794
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Die Gemeinsame Agrarpolitik der EU: Die Wirkungen von Direktzahlungen aus entwicklungspolitischer Perspektive AgEcon
Brümmer, Bernhard; Fahlbusch, Markus.
In der Diskussion über die Fortführung der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik nach 2014 spielen die entkoppelten Direktzahlungen eine dominierende Rolle. Während sich die Debatte innerhalb der EU vor allem um die langfristige Begründung solcher Direktzahlungen dreht, steht aus Sicht der internationalen Handelspartner stärker die Frage im Vordergrund, inwieweit von den formal entkoppelten Zahlungen nicht doch Produktions- und damit Handelswirkungen ausgehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden in der vorliegenden Studie zunächst die theoretischen Wirkungen, die von formal entkoppelten Direktzahlungen auf die Erzeugung von Agrargütern ausgehen können, erörtert. Anschließend wird mit Hilfe einer empirischen Analyse der Handelsströme bei ausgewählten Agrarprodukten im Export...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Handelsanalyse; Politikfolgenabschätzung; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F-13; F-14; Q-11; Q-13; Q-17; Q-18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123355
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Estimating Technical Efficiency, Input substitution and complementary effects using Output Distance Function: A study of Cassava production in Nigeria AgEcon
Ogundari, Kolawole; Brümmer, Bernhard.
In this study, we estimate an output distance function in the context of a multi-output and multi-input production technology by stochastic frontier techniques. Unbalanced panel data for smallholder farms that grown cassava and other crops in Southwestern Nigeria covering 2006/07 to 2008/09 farming seasons is used for the analysis. The results show that the marginal rate of transformation (MRT) between “other crops” grown by the farmers and cassava produced relative to the output mix is negative and significantly different from zero. We observed also that increasing returns-to-scale as well as technical progress characterized cassava production in the region. Furthermore, fertilizer and pesticides are found to have significant substitution effects on...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cassava; Technical efficiency; Inputs substitution; Complementary effects; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95773
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ESTIMATION ISSUES IN SINGLE COMMODITY GRAVITY TRADE MODELS AgEcon
Prehn, Soren; Brümmer, Bernhard.
Recently gravity trade models are applied to disaggregated trade data. Here many zeros are characteristic. In the presence of excess zeros usual Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) is still consistent, the variance covariance matrix however is invalid. Correct economic interpretation however requires also the last. So alternative estimators are looked for. STAUB &WINKELMANN (2010) argue that zero-inflated count data models (i.e. zero-inflated Poisson / Negative Binomial Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (ZIPPML / ZINBPML)) are no alternative since under model misspecification these estimators are inconsistent. Yet zeroinflated Poisson Quasi-Likelihood (PQL) is a reliable alternative. It is consistent even under model misspecifications and beyond that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Gravity Model; Excess Zeros; Poisson Quasi Likelihood; Generalised Two Part Model; Gravitationsmodell; Exzess an Nullen; Poisson Quasi Likelihood; Generalisiertes Zwei-Teile Modell; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114524
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Estimation Issues in Single Commodity Gravity Trade Models AgEcon
Prehn, Soren; Brümmer, Bernhard.
Recently gravity trade models are applied to disaggregated trade data. Here many zeros are characteristic. In the presence of excess zeros usual Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) is still consistent, the variance covariance matrix however is invalid. Correct economic interpretation however requires also the last. So alternative estimators are looked for. Staub & Winkelmann [2010] argue that zeroinflated count data models (i.e. zero-inflated Poisson / Negative Binomial Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (ZIPPML / ZINBPML)) are no alternative since under model misspecification these estimators are inconsistent. Yet zero-inflated Poisson Quasi- Likelihood (PQL) is a reliable alternative. It is consistent even under model misspecifications and beyond that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Gravity Model; Homogeneous Firm Trade Model; Excess Zeros; Overdispersion; Negatively Skewed Distribution; Poisson Quasi Likelihood; Two Part Model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114776
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Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology, and Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya AgEcon
Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets are gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on productivity and efficiency have hardly been studied. We use a meta-frontier approach and combine this with propensity score matching to estimate treatment effects among vegetable farmers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels increases farm productivity in terms of meta-technology ratios by 45%. We also find positive and significant impacts on technical efficiency and scale efficiency. Supermarket expansion therefore presents opportunities for agricultural growth in the small farm sector, which is crucial for poverty reduction in Africa.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Technical efficiency; Scale efficiency; Meta-frontier; Meta-technology ratio; Sample selection; Kenya; International Development; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; D24; L23; O12; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113508
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Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology and Technical Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya AgEcon
Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets are currently gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on farming efficiency have hardly been studied. Productivity effects in previous studies are also estimated with respect to different frontiers. Using a survey of Kenyan vegetable growers and a meta-frontier approach, we control for self-selection using propensity score matching and show that participation in supermarket channels increases farm productivity by 35-38%. Effects on technical efficiency are, however, insignificant. Supermarket expansion therefore presents opportunities for realizing agricultural growth, thus enhancing poverty alleviation and rural development.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Meta-frontier; Productivity; Meta-technology ratio; Sample selection; Kenya; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61190
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HOW DID POLICY INTERVENTIONS IN WHEAT EXPORT MARKETS IN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE DURING THE FOOD CRISIS 2007/2008 INFLUENCE WORLD MARKET PRICE TRANSMISSION? AgEcon
Goetz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas; Brümmer, Bernhard.
C1_2
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International price transmission; Wheat market; Food crisis; Markov switching error correction model; Russia; Ukraine; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93952
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How Effective is the Invisible Hand? Agricultural and Food Markets in Central and Eastern Europe AgEcon
Hockmann, Heinrich; Brosig, Stephan; Popp, Jozsef; Wilkin, Jerzy; Juchniewicz, Małgorzta; Milczarek, Dominika; Ferto, Imre; Forgacs, Csaba; Juhasz, Aniko; Kurthy, Gyongyi; Hein, Piret; Hobbs, Jill E.; Nuppenau, Ernst-August; Brümmer, Bernhard; Zorya, Sergiy; Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Bojnec, Stefan; Svetlov, Nikolai M.; Hurrelmann, Annette; Maack, Kai; Hanf, Jon Henrich; Glauben, Thomas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Wang, Xiaobing; Balint, Borbala; Lerman, Zvi; Shagaida, Natalya; Benner, Eckhard; Wandel, Jurgen; Nivievskyi, Oleg; Kuhn, Arnim.
Since the seminal work of Adam Smith, markets have been considered an efficient tool for co-ordinating the behaviour of economic agents. The basic characteristic of a market economy is that the complex system of interaction among individuals is not centrally coordinated. Under the assumption of profit and utility maximisation (and a whole set of assumptions about the institutional framework), relative prices and their change over time provide the signals that guide, like an invisible hand, the allocation of resources, i.e., the structure of production and the intensity of input use in the various production processes. They do this by co-ordinating the activities of economic agents, i.e., of resource owners, producers, intermediaries, traders, and...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Industrial Organization; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93018
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Impacts of environmental regulations on the efficiency of arable farms in France and Germany AgEcon
Piot-Lepetit, Isabelle; Brümmer, Bernhard; Kleinhanss, Werner.
This paper develops a methodology for asymmetric treatment of desirable and undesirable outputs. First, a hyperbolic output efficiency measurement is used to describe a middle term transformation of production processes where producers try to improve their competitiveness together with a reduction of the negative impact on the environment. Second, a radial efficiency measurement, called directional output distance function, is used to depict a long-term transformation of the production process. A non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) are used to evaluate the impact of agricultural policy changes, both in France and Germany, on the technical and environmental efficiency of arable farms, taking into account...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Frontier analysis; Technical and environmental efficiency; Environmental regulations; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98867
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