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Registros recuperados: 16
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CLUSTERING OF SMALL AGRO-PROCESSING FIRMS IN INDONESIA AgEcon
Burger, Kees; Kameo, Daniel; Sandee, Henry.
Small-scale industries in Indonesia provide more than 65% of total manufacturing employment. Sixty-three percent of small-scale firm employment is in firms that are clustered. A cluster is defined statistically in Indonesia as at least 20 firms in a village. For some agro-processing industries, such as bamboo plaiting, clustering does not involve interaction among firms; for others, notably the furniture industry, clustering firms make joint marketing efforts, subcontract each other, and share large orders. This article uses two recent case studies in the agro-processing sector – the furniture and the palm sugar industries – in Central Java. We argue that the target market of the industry (local or international) influences the nature of the contracts...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34229
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Determinants of smallholder farmer labour allocation decisions in Uganda AgEcon
Bagamba, Fredrick; Burger, Kees; Kuyvenhoven, Arie.
There is growing evidence of the increasing role of nonfarm activities in the rural livelihoods. However, empirical evidence on the factors that influence smallholder farmers to diversify into nonfarm activities is still scanty. The study analyses the factors that influence household labour allocation decisions and demand for hired farm labour. It was carried out in central, Masaka and southwest regions of the country, which have divergent production constraints and opportunities. The study shows that household members respond positively to increases in shadow wages and negatively to increases in shadow incomes, which implies that they respond to economic incentives. Increase in wage rates negatively affects use of hired labour. Household size has no...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7920
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Do Tenure Differences Influence the Improvement of Quality of Rented Land? Empirical Evidence from Rural Ghana AgEcon
Owusu, Victor; Gunning, Jan Willem; Burger, Kees.
The implications of migrant agricultural production for the environment have interested policy makers in sub-Saharan Africa of late. The impacts in the region of migrant destination may be short-term including initial felling of trees, intensive land use, and application of techniques. In the longer term, tenants are expected to adjust their techniques to that of the indigenous landowners. This paper explains how migrant tenants manage the quality of rented plots in the absence of clearly defined property rights with a survey data from rural area in Ghana. An empirical model explaining the probability to invest in land improvements is formulated. The empirical results indicate that tenure differences and income levels of migrants and indigenous landowners...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7933
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Exchange Rates and Natural Rubber Prices, the Effect of the Asian Crisis AgEcon
Burger, Kees; Smit, Hidde; Vogelvang, Ben.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24958
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Firm Size Distribution and Performance of Maize and Fertilizer Traders After Market Liberalisation: Evidence from Kenya AgEcon
Mose, Lawrence Obae; Burger, Kees.
Improvement in the performance of agricultural markets was the ultimate goal of market liberalisation. In this paper, firm (trader) size distribution as a factor influencing market performance is analyzed using maize and fertilizer traders from Kenya. Firm size distribution was assessed by analyzing the normality of the distribution on volume traded. Performance was assessed by the level of competition (using Hirschman-Herfindahl index), marketing margins and marketing costs. Results show that firm size distribution for both commodities is log-normally distributed but positively skewed indicating a tendency towards smaller than larger firms. A plausible explanation is that faced with inadequate financial resources and inadequate business experience, new...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Liberalisation; Firm size distribution; Costs; Margins; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade; D4; L1; Q12; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25533
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Horticultural Households Profit Optimization and the Efficiency of Labour Contract Choice AgEcon
Ndoye Niane, Aifa Fatimata; Burger, Kees; Bulte, Erwin H..
In agriculture, the coexistence of different forms of land tenancy or labour contract has been explained so far by several theories related to Marshallian inefficiency, incentives, risk sharing, and transaction costs, including supervision costs. These theories and the empirical evidences have greatly contributed to explain the reasons behind land tenancy or labour contract choice. This study follows up on this. Moreover, it intends to take a further step by focusing particularly on the production technologies at plot level, and by designing and testing a theoretical model based on household profit optimization. This model will take into account the supervision costs of labour (i) to compare optimum profit derived from plots based on household labour, a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Land tenancy; Labour; Sharecropping; Wage; Contract; Supervision; Household; Profit optimization; Efficient; Irrigation equipment; Horticulture; Senegal; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95776
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Household Consumption and Natural Disasters: The Case of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua AgEcon
van den Berg, Marrit; Burger, Kees.
This paper analyses coping strategies and consumption reactions of rural households in Nicaragua to hurricane Mitch, which caused massive losses in especially the agricultural sector in 1998. A switching-regression model confirms theoretical considerations which indicate that responses to transitory incomes depend on wealth. Asset-poor households do and asset-rich households do not adjust their consumption to transitory income changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural disasters; Assets; Consumption smoothing; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44380
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Influence of interlocked transactions on gum arabic production and marketing in Senegal AgEcon
Mujawamariya, Gaudiose; D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Burger, Kees.
Interlocked relationships are characterised by traders’ supply of inputs and cash to producers on credit, to be reimbursed at sale time based on a pre-defined price which is often lower than the prevailing market price. The study analyses determinants of choice of interlocking in the gum sector in Senegal and the effect of interlocking on market participation and gum production. Data from 422 gum producers in Northern and Eastern regions of Senegal are used. About 41% of respondents are involved into interlocking with village shop-owners or mobile traders. Interlocking positively influences market participation and production as found through a Heckman selection model.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96826
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International Commodity Organizations and Governance of Global Value Chains AgEcon
Burger, Kees; Daviron, Benoit; Flores, Vanessa.
International commodity Organizations can play a role in reducing transaction costs between producer and consumer. The current organisations do this partly through statistics and collecting and disseminating market information, undertaking projects and convening meetings. Of a traditional focus on the international part of the trade chain they must extend to the whole chain, until the natural resources on the producer side and treatment of waste on the consumer side. This requires more capacity, stronger mandate and more intensive cooperation for the organisations mutually and with UNCTAD, FAO and the World Bank. The representatives of the governments now play the role of administrators and representatives of the industry. They should be customers, guard...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Global governance; Global value chain; Commodities; Development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Q13; O19.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51631
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Labor markets and labor allocative efficiency among farm households in western Kenya AgEcon
Kamau, Mercy W.; Burger, Kees; Giller, Ken E.; Kuyvenhoven, Arie.
This paper evaluates how efficiently farm households allocate labor between farm and off-farm activities. It estimates farm and off-farm labor supply functions to determine the factors that influence labor allocation. Both the shadow wage and the off-farm wage rate are included as regressors in the supply functions. The study reveals that, on average, farm households are inefficient, but when linked to labor markets their productivity and internal efficiency increase. The decision to sell labor is influenced by location, and off-farm employment is difficult to find, particularly for the better educated. Interventions should aim to increase opportunities for off-farm employment for persons with skills or with higher than the basic level of education, and to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labor market; Allocative efficiency; Labor supply; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56926
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Labour allocative efficiency and factors influencing farm households interaction with the labour market AgEcon
Kamau, Mercy W.; Burger, Kees; Giller, Ken E..
Farm households in western Kenya show preference for different labour market participation strategies. This paper examines efficiency in labour allocation between farm and off-farm activities and the factors influencing labour supply. Unlike previous studies where the household decisions are determined by a single wage, this study allowed household decisions to be influenced by both the shadow wage and the off-farm wage. Returns to labour vary within the farm and between household members working off-farm so this heterogeneity was exploited to generate a household specific shadow wage and off-farm wage rate. The results reveal that on average, farm households are not efficient. However participation in the labour markets increases labour use efficiency on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7947
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More Market, Less Poverty, But Also More Sustainable Land Use? AgEcon
Gandonou, Esaie; Burger, Kees.
The main question in this research is to what extent agriculture on fragile slopes would become more sustainable if the farmers were given more possibilities for selling their products and acquiring production resources. An empirical study conducted in northern Benin demonstrates that a more accessible market does not lead to substantial increase in soil erosion control measures. The results indicated clearly that a closer market has positive effects on the yields of grain, and provides farmers with more opportunities to grow other, more commercial, crops or to undertake other profitable activities. Investments in an improved infrastructure can therefore contribute to improved agricultural returns, and these higher returns increase the attractiveness of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Marketing.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7915
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NATURAL HAZARDS AND RISK AVERSION: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICA AgEcon
van den Berg, Marrit; Fort, Ricardo; Burger, Kees.
We use experimental and survey data from two natural-hazard prone countries in Latin America to test the hypothesis that natural hazards affect risk aversion. We use two methods to measure risk aversion: simple questions on the willingness to pay for a hypothetical lottery and more complicated experiments involving real pay-offs. We find that whereas the experiments provide reasonable estimates of risk aversion, the hypothetical questions result in unrealistic distributions of preferences. The experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that experiencing natural shocks makes people more risk averse, not only in the short run but also in the medium and long run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Latin America; Nicaragua; Peru; Risk aversion; Natural hazards; Experiments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51394
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Optimal export taxes – the case of cocoa in Cote d'Ivoire AgEcon
Burger, Kees.
Export taxes can provide additional welfare to large exporters, an argument for interventions in many primary commodity exporting countries. We investigate the benefits of export taxation for Côte d'Ivoire, the dominant exporter of cocoa. Where many applications treat the formula for optimal export taxes incorrectly as a prescription, we take the endogeneity of the exporter’s share into account. We also distinguish between short-term and long-term effects, relevant for a tree crop like cocoa and we allow for a normal commercial margin between export and farm gate prices. Results are calculated via simulations in a model, in which the age-compositions of the tree stocks of major producing countries are distinguished. Simulations over a period of 15 years...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Optimal export tax; Primary commodities; Cocoa; Côte d'Ivoire; Vintage model; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6395
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Responses of EU Feed System to Calamities in Trade and Production AgEcon
Burger, Kees; Jansen, Don.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114274
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Transition to Sustainable Tropical Land Management AgEcon
Burger, Kees.
Following the example of Tiffen et al. on Machakos, Kenya, new macro-based evidence was collected in Machakos, the neighbouring Kitui district and in Benin, Cameroon and the Philippines, to assess the factors à la Boserup, inducing transitions towards sustainable land management, such as terracing, stone bands etc. We find that relative scarcity of land can be seen to induce technical changes, in the sense of Hayami & Ruttan, that correspond to the new relative scarcity, making higher man-land ratios the optimal choice.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Soil and water conservation; Sustainable agriculture; Induced innovation; Boserup; Malthus; Land Economics/Use; Q12; Q21; Q28.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24517
Registros recuperados: 16
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