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Registros recuperados: 38
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A Dynamic Optimisation Model of Weed Control AgEcon
Jones, Randall E.; Cacho, Oscar J..
It is argued in this paper that static approaches to weed management, where the benefits and costs are only considered within a single season, are inappropriate for assessing the economic benefits of weed control technologies. There are carryover effects from weed management as weeds that escape control in one season may reproduce and replenish weed populations in following seasons. Consequently, it is appropriate to view weed control in the context of a resource management problem where the goal is to determine the optimal inter-temporal level of weed control that maximises economic benefits over some pre-determined period of time. A dynamic optimisation model for weed control is presented. Using the tools of comparative static analysis and Pontryagin's...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123685
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A Dynamic Optimisation Model of Weed Control AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Jones, Randall E..
It is argued in this paper that static approaches to weed management, where the benefits and costs are only considered within a single season, are inappropriate for assessing the economic benefits of weed control technologies. There are carryover effects from weed management as weeds that escape control in one season may reproduce and replenish weed populations in following seasons. Consequently, it is appropriate to view weed control in the context of a resource management problem where the goal is to determine the optimal inter-temporal level of weed control that maximises economic benefits over some pre-determined period of time. A dynamic optimisation model for weed control is presented. Using the tools of comparative static analysis and Pontryagin's...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Weed control; Resource economics; Optimal control; Dynamic programming; Wild oats; Farm Management.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12902
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A genetic algorithm approach to farm investment AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Simmons, Phil.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117154
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A Northern Tablelands Whole-Farm Linear Program for Economic Evaluation of New Technologies at the Farm-Level AgEcon
Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J..
The benefits of evaluating a new technology in a whole-farm context using a linear programming framework are well known. Linear programming allows the joint evaluation of concurrent farm activities, while considering the costs and returns of all enterprises and any resource adjustments imposed by adoption of the technology. This Report provides a rationale for and description of a whole-farm linear programming model that can be used for the economic evaluation of new technologies that are applicable to beef/sheep grazing farms typical of the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. In this farming system, the whole-farm focus incorporates various aspects of the pasture base, resource constraints and sheep and cattle interactions. An overview of economic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28010
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A Positivist Approach to Pigouvian Taxes based on an Evolutionary Algorithm AgEcon
Simmons, Phil; Cacho, Oscar J..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pigouvian tax; Pollution tax; Genetic algorithm; Political preferences; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12941
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A time to change? The supply of climate mitigation products from land-use change in northern NSW AgEcon
Moss, Jonathan; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mounter, Stuart W..
With the impending introduction of an Australian Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, farmers and landholders in rural Australia have increased opportunities to participate in the market. This includes the adoption of land-use change to sequester additional carbon in exchange for carbon credits and the production of a renewable energy source (biofuels). However, these land-use changes compete with existing farm enterprises and may contain significant transaction costs. Therefore it is necessary for the institutional arrangements to provide adequate incentives for landholders to adopt these land-use changes. This paper examines the potential supply of these land-use changes for climate mitigation from landholders in a northern NSW catchment. These results...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Border Rivers-Gwydir; Carbon sequestration; Land-use change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59104
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Abatement and Transaction Costs of Carbon-Sink Projects Involving Smallholders AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Lipper, Leslie.
Agroforestry projects have the potential to help mitigate global warming by acting as sinks for greenhouse gasses. However, participation in carbon-sink projects may be constrained by high costs. This problem may be particularly severe for projects involving smallholders in developing countries. Of particular concern are the transaction costs incurred in developing projects, measuring, certifying and selling the carbon-sequestration services generated by such projects. This paper addresses these issues by analysing the implications of transaction and abatement costs in carbon-sequestration projects. A model of project participation is developed, which accounts for the conditions under which both buyers and sellers would be willing to engage in a carbon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroforestry; Climate Policy; Carbon Sequestration Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q23; Q57; O1; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9324
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Agricultural response analysis in a longer term framework AgEcon
Farquharson, Robert J.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Turpin, J.E..
Issues of long term soil fertility decline and sustainability are becoming more important for cropping industries in Australia. Helping to manage the level of soil fertility in this context is an aim of economic response analysis. This paper reviews the theory and methods used by economists to derive the optimal level of an input to be used in a production process. In particular, response functions generated by a crop simulation model are used as a basis for the analysis. The use of such models is becoming widespread in the research and extension community. A variety of methods are presented, in increasing order of complexity, to account for the real world characteristics of the production environment in this context.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123634
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ALLOCATING BIOSECURITY RESOURCES IN SPACE AND TIME AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Hester, Susan M..
Invasive species can cause significant damage to natural environments, agricultural systems, human populations and the economy as a whole. Biological invasions are complex dynamic systems which are inherently uncertain and their control involves allocation of surveillance and treatment resources in space and time. A complicating factor is that there are at least two types of surveillance: active and passive. Active surveillance, undertaken by pest control agencies, has high sensitivity but generally low coverage because of its high cost. Passive surveillance, undertaken by the public, has low sensitivity and may have high coverage depending on human population density. Its effectiveness depends on the extent to which information campaigns succeed in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Search theory; Invasive species; Dispersal; Passive surveillance.; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100535
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An economic analysis of farm forestry as a means of controlling dryland salinity AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Greiner, Romy; Fulloon, Lachlan.
Large areas of agricultural land under conventional crops and pastures are at risk of dryland salinisation in Australia. The salinisation problem can be controlled by strategic and large‐scale planting of trees; however, farm forestry enterprises evaluated with conventional discounting techniques do not generally rank as an attractive alternative to annual crops on productive land. In this article, an optimal control model that explicitly accounts for decline or improvement in land quality over a period of 40 years is presented. The optimal area planted to trees and the optimal groundwater‐table trajectory through time are determined under a variety of scenarios. Implications of the results for policy design are discussed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117391
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AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FARM FORESTRY AS A MEANS OF CONTROLLING SOIL SALINISATION AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Fulloon, Lachlan; Greiner, Romy.
Dryland salinity emergence is an important land degradation problem in Australia. Large areas of agricultural land where conventional crops and pastures are produced are at risk. The salinisation problem can be controlled by planting trees in conjunction with crops, but a disadvantage of growing trees as a farm enterprise is the long lag between planting and harvest. When farm forestry enterprises are evaluated with conventional discounting techniques they do not generally rank as an attractive alternative to annual crops on productive land. In this paper, a dynamic model that explicitly accounts for decline or improvement in land quality over a period of 40 years is presented. The model is solved for a hypothetical farm on the Liverpool Plains of NSW. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Soil salinity; Farm forestry; Dynamic modelling; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12895
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An Optimization Model for the Banana Northern Prawn Fishery AgEcon
Valle de Souza, Simone; Gondro, Cedric; Cacho, Oscar J..
This study presents an optimal control model of the Banana Northern Prawn Fishery, one of the most important fisheries in Australia. The life cycle of this species involves migration between the sea, where the catch takes place, and the estuary, where post-larvae and juveniles develop. The model combines a stage-matrix population dynamics model and an economic model of sustainable catch. The controls involve the amount of effort allowed and the length of the fishing season. Life stages are defined in terms of prawn size, allowing catch revenue to be adjusted to the expected proportion of specific sized classes caught in a particular month of the year, hence providing a more realistic projection of profits when price is influenced by size. The model is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fisheries management; Australia; Optimal control; Profit maximisation; Banana prawns.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59173
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Applying search theory to determine the feasibility of eradicating an invasive population in natural environments AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Hester, Susan M.; Spring, Daniel.
The detectability of invasive organisms influences the feasibility of eradicating an infestation. Search theory offers a framework for defining and measuring detectability, taking account of searcher ability, biological factors and the search environment. In this paper, search theory concepts are incorporated into a population model, and the costs of search and control are calculated as functions of the amount of search effort (the decision variable). Simulations are performed on a set of weed scenarios in a natural environment, involving different combinations of plant longevity, seed longevity and plant fecundity. Results provide preliminary estimates of the cost and duration of eradication programs to assist in prioritising weeds for control. The...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Bioeconomics; Invasive species; Operations research; Population dynamics; Weed control; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118522
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Bioeconomic analysis of fertiliser input costs on pasture resource management under climatic uncertainty AgEcon
Behrendt, Karl; Cacho, Oscar J.; Scott, James M.; Jones, Randall E..
This paper has been withdrawn at the request of the authors.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fertiliser input costs; Dynamic pasture resource model; Pasture persistence; Climatic uncertainty; Risk-efficient frontier; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47628
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Bioeconomic meta-modelling of Indonesian agroforests as carbon sinks AgEcon
Wise, Russell M.; Cacho, Oscar J..
In many areas of developing countries, economic and institutional factors often combine to give farmers incentives to clear forests and repeatedly plant food crops without sufficiently replenishing the soils. These activities lead to large-scale land degradation and contribute to global warming through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. We investigate whether agroforestry systems might alleviate these trends when carbon-credit payments are available under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. A meta-modelling framework is adopted, comprising an econometric-production model of a smallholding in Sumatra. The model is used within a dynamic-programming algorithm to determine optimal combinations of tree/crop area,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bio-economic meta-modelling; Indonesia; Agroforestry; Carbon credits; Dynamic programming; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6772
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Book Reviews AgEcon
Bennett, Jeffrey W.; Harris, Michael; Williams, Dick; Cacho, Oscar J.; Poole, Nigel D.; Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118103
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Carbon markets, transaction costs and bioenergy AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J..
Payment for carbon sequestration by agriculture and forestry can provide incentives for adoption of sustainable agricultural practices. However, a project involving contracts with farmers may face high transaction costs in showing that net emission reductions are real and attributable to the project. This paper presents a model of project participation that includes transaction and abatement costs. A project feasibility frontier (PFF) is derived, which shows the minimum project size that is feasible for any given market price of carbon. The PFF is used to analyse how the design of a climate mitigation program may affect the feasibility of actual projects.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Greenhouse Effect; Carbon Sequestration; Agroforestry; Transaction Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6007
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Carbon-accounting methods and reforestation incentives AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Hean, Robyn L.; Wise, Russell M..
The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, and the consequent potential for climate change are the focus of increasing international concern. Temporary land-use change and forestry projects (LUCF) can be implemented to offset permanent emissions of carbon dioxide from the energy sector. Several approaches to accounting for carbon sequestration in LUCF projects have been proposed. In the present paper, the economic implications of adopting four of these approaches are evaluated in a normative context. The analysis is based on simulation of Australian farm–forestry systems. Results are interpreted from the standpoint of both investors and landholders. The role of baselines and transaction costs are discussed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116186
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DYNAMIC MODELS, EXTERNALITIES AND SUSTAINABILITY IN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J..
The goal of sustainability in the management of natural resources and agricultural systems has received increasing attention during the 1990's. The many dimensions of the problem have been extensively discussed in the literature and a recognition of the interaction between economic, biological and social objectives have led to an acceptance of its multidisciplinary nature. When studying sustainability in agriculture, two aspects which cannot be ignored are (i) any measure must include economic as well as biological criteria and (ii) the dynamic nature of the production system and the environment (both physical and economic) must be accounted for. The goal of sustainable agricultural practices at the microeconomic level is explored in this paper, in an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainability; Dynamic modelling; Bioeconomics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12894
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Economic Issues in the Management of Plants Invading Natural Environments: Scotch Broom in Barrington Tops National Park AgEcon
Odem, Doreen; Sinden, Jack A.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Griffith, Garry R..
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius, L.), is an exotic leguminous shrub, native to Europe, which invades pastoral and woodland ecosystems and adjoining river systems in cool, high rainfall regions of southeastern Australia. Broom has invaded 10,000 hectares of eucalypt woodland at Barrington Tops National Park in New South Wales, and is having a major impact on the natural ecology of the sub-alpine environment. It is extremely competitive with the native flora, retarding their growth and in many areas blanketing the ground and preventing growth of many understorey species in open forest areas. An active program to manage this invasion is being implemented by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. The management issues include whether eradication or...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Scotch broom; Economic issues; Management issues; Natural environments; Bioeconomic model; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58193
Registros recuperados: 38
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