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Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned Proceedings (Volume I / II) AgEcon
Csaki, Csaba; Forgacs, Csaba; Koester, Ulrich; Liefert, William M.; Banse, Martin; Gay, Stephan Hubertus; McDonald, Scott; M'Barek, Robert; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Kim, Hanho; An, Donghwan; Hubbard, Lionel J.; Rieger, Laszlo; Szoke, Gyula; Cristoiu, Adriana; Udovc, Andrej; Kagan, Adam; Sassi, Maria; Takacs, Istvan; Takacs, Emese; Cimpoies, Dragos; Ertsey, Imre; Kovacs, Sandor; Przygodzka, Renata; Dziemianowicz, Ryta Iwona; Magda, Robert; Borodina, Elena; Borodina, Alexandra; Gavrilescu, Dinu; Pecze, Denes; Balogh, Peter; Cechura, Lukas; Sayin, Cengiz; Cengiz, M. Nisa; Osanami, Fumio; Szabo, Gabor G.; Karaman, Suleyman; Szekely, Geza; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Szczegolska, Monika; Serova, Eugenia; Pieniadz, Agata; Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Kondo, Takumi; Becvarova, Vera; Levkovych, Inna; Hockmann, Heinrich; Bezlepkina, Irina V.; Kupavych, Alexander; Konig, Gabor; Halmai, Peter; Vasary, Viktoria; Vincze, Maria-Magdolna; Lerman, Zvi; Kolcsey, Andrea; Bokusheva, Raushan; Turtoi, Crina Sinziana; Toma, Camelia; Gavrilescu, Camelia; Davidova, Sophia; Blaas, Gejza; Antonova, Maria; Zeller, Manfred; Deininger, Klaus W.; Savastano, Sara; Carletto, Calogero; Caceres-Clavero, Francisco; Lucena-Cobos, Blanca; Latruffe, Laure; Takacs-Gyorgy, Katalin; Bandlerova, Anna; Sadowski, Adam; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio; Luca, Lucian; Cristoiu, Adriana; Ciaian, Pavel; Pokrivcak, Jan; Drabik, Dusan; Voneki, Eva; Tonini, Axel; Burger, Anna; Szep, Katalin; Majewski, Edward; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide; Maccarini, Elisa Ricci; Monasterolo, Irene; Vandeplas, Anneleen; Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Novak, Petr; Brasili, Cristina; Meyer, William H.; Kuhne, Bianka; Fanfani, Roberto; Gellynck, Xavier; Molnar, Adrienn; Gagalyuk, Taras; Traikova, Diana; Mollers, Judith; Cochrane, Nancy J.; Kazlauskiene, Natalija; Fekete-Farkas, Maria; Molnar, Jozsef; Szucs, Istvan; Popp, Jozsef; Udovecz, Gabor; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Kasarjyan, Milada; Podruzsik, Szilard; Korff, Rudiger; Wilkin, Jerzy; van Leeuwen, Myrna; Bartova, Lubica; Erjavec, Emil; Katona-Kovacs, Judit; Baranyai, Zsolt; Hubbard, Carmen.
Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990’s. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition" in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central East European countries. The transition to market based agriculture, however, is far from completion in Southern and Eastern Europe and especially in the CIS countries. International Association of Agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Industrial Organization; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92319
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Agriculture in the Face of Changing Markets, Institutions and Policies: Challenges and Strategies AgEcon
Balmann, Alfons; Curtiss, Jarmila; Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Happe, Kathrin; Huang, Jikun; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Rozelle, Scott; Sedik, David J.; Ciaian, Pavel; Vranken, Liesbet; Doitchinova, Julia M.; Kanchev, Ivan; Miteva, Albena; Bachev, Hrabrin Ianouchev; Forgacs, Csaba; Guo, Hongdong; Ferto, Imre; Jolly, Robert W.; Zhu, Jianhua; Falkowski, Jan; Milczarek, Dominika; Peyerl, Hermann; Breuer, Gunter; Danilowska, Alina; Zawojska, Aldona; Ramanovich, Mikhail; Hemme, Torsten; Mirzaei, Farhad; Heidelbach, Olaf; Balkhausen, Oliver; Banse, Martin; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Grings, Michael; Luka, Oksana; Epstein, David B.; Naydenov, Nikolay; Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala; Il'ina, Natalia; Svetlov, Nikolai M.; Weitzel, Enno-Burghard; Bayaner, Ahmet; Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Hockmann, Heinrich; Cechura, Lukas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Glauben, Thomas; Azzarri, Carlo; Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Zezza, Alberto; Nivievskyi, Oleg; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Newton, Claire; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Doucha, Tomas; Travnicek, Zdenek; Fock, Theodor.
Since the late 1980s, agriculture in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) has been under considerable adjustment pressure due to changing political, economic and institutional environments. These changes have been linked to the transition process, as well as the ongoing integration into the European Union and the world market. Reduced subsidies, increased environmental and food quality demands, as well as structural changes in the supply, processing and food retailing sector call for major structural adjustments and the improvement of farmers’ managerial abilities. Though such changes always carry significant threats to farms, they also offer new opportunities for the farms' entrepreneurial engagement. Upcoming changes in the agricultural...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93012
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Being Poor, Feeling Poorer: Combining Objective and Subjective Measures of Welfare in Albania AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Zezza, Alberto.
As shown empirically for many transition economies, even small changes in assumptions on economies of size and adult equivalence scales are likely to produce significant changes in the analysis of poverty and its distribution across households and individuals. Since such exercises are then used to orient and prioritize policy actions (e.g. the targeting of scarce social assistance resources) it is important to refine our understanding of the extent to which poverty measures and the resulting profiles are sensitive to specific assumptions. In this paper we investigate how combining objective and subjective measures of welfare can provide insights that are helpful in addressing these questions, particularly with respect to the presence of economies of scale...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Poverty Measurement; Subjective Poverty; Equivalence Scales; Economies of Scale in Consumption; Albania.; Food Security and Poverty; I31; I32; O52; D60.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23801
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Choosing to Migrate or Migrating to Choose: Migration and Labor Choice in Albania AgEcon
Azzarri, Carlo; Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Zezza, Alberto.
Very little systematic analysis exists of the income generating strategies of Albanian households within the emerging market economy, and how this relates to income dynamics, people's mobility and poverty. Our results show that agricultural, migration and human capital assets have a differential impact across livelihood choices, and that this impact varies by gender and age. Two areas of policy concern derive from this analysis. First, migration is clearly crucial for the economic future of Albania, both in terms of financing economic development, serving as an informal safety net, and in reducing excess labour supply and poverty. The suggestion of a potential disincentive effect on labour effort and participation is however worrying, as it would have...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25538
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Internal Mobility and International Migration in Albania AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Stampini, Marco; Trento, Stefano; Zezza, Alberto.
Using evidence from two recent data sources – the 2002 Albania Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) and the 2001 Population Census of Albania – the paper documents the phenomena of internal and external migration in Albania, a country that in the past decade has experienced dramatic changes as it makes its transition to a more open market economy. Albania is a country on the move, both internally and internationally. This mobility plays a key role in household-level strategies to cope with the economic hardship of transition and it is perhaps the single most important political, social, and economic phenomenon in post-communist Albania. The order of magnitude of the observed flows is astonishing. Almost one half of all Albanian households have had...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Migration; Albania; Migration Networks; Remittances; Coping Strategies.; Labor and Human Capital; F22; N34; O15; P2; R23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23797
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KNOWLEDGE, TOXICITY, AND EXTERNAL SHOCKS: THE DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION AND ABANDONMENT OF NON-TRADITIONAL EXPORT CROPS BY SMALLHOLDERS IN GUATEMALA AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25088
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Land Market Development and Agricultural Production Efficiency in Albania AgEcon
Deininger, Klaus W.; Carletto, Calogero; Savastano, Sara.
We make use of data from the 2005 Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey to investigate the factors affecting household agriculture efficiency and land market development. To assess the functioning of land rental markets and explore efficiency- and equity impacts of land rental, we use a model of producers who differ in endowments and skills and who face imperfect labor markets and transaction costs. The empirical evidence, of a stochastic frontier estimate, shows that productivity is low and most farms are inefficiently utilized. The average level of agriculture efficiency among rural household is very less than 30% but household that rent in land are more efficient. However, results from a probit regression on rental market participation shows that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7817
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Monitoring Poverty without Consumption Data: an Application Using the Albania Panel Survey AgEcon
Azzarri, Carlo; Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Zezza, Alberto.
In developing countries poverty is generally measured with expenditure data. Such data are difficult and costly to obtain and it is generally recommended to collect them every 3-5 years. In between surveys, however, there is a clear need to provide policymakers with information for the monitoring of poverty trends. The paper reviews several such methods and compares the poverty estimates and trends resulting from their application to a panel dataset for Albania. The results are broadly consistent across methods and point to an overall improvement in welfare conditions over time, although the magnitude of the changes differs by locale, with urban areas showing a larger improvement than their rural counterparts. However, given the sensitivity of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Welfare; Asset index; Poverty measurement; Poverty monitoring.; Food Security and Poverty; O12; O18; O47; R11.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23809
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NONTRADITIONAL CROPS AND LAND ACCUMULATION AMONG GUATEMALAN SMALLHOLDERS: IS THE IMPACT SUSTAINABLE? AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero.
Since the late 1970s dramatic economic changes have taken place in the agricultural sector in the highlands of Guatemala. The introduction of new export crops, such as snow peas, broccoli, and miniature vegetables, has led to yet another agro-export boom. Unlike earlier booms, however, this one has included all but the smallest farmers. The high rate of smallholder participation in the boom, and the initial high profitability of nontraditional exports (NTXs), fueled initial optimism that NTX production could increase smallholders’ ability to accumulate land and so decrease the highly skewed distribution of land in Guatemala, a country with one of the most unequal landholding patterns in all of Latin America. The picture that emerges from the analysis in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16449
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Non-Traditional Export Crops and Household Livelihood Strategies: Panel Data Evidence from Guatemala AgEcon
Kilic, Talip; Carletto, Calogero.
This study uses a unique panel dataset that spans a 20-year period (1985-2005), and estimates the effect of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption on changes in livelihood orientation and participation in non-farm employment in Santiago Sacatepéquez municipality of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, it provides differential impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of NTX adoption. Our findings suggest that over time, household reliance on off-farm income and access to non-farm employment, particularly self-employment and blue collar work, increased in the surveyed communities, irrespective of snow pea adoption. However, the extent of change varied...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Non-Traditional Export Crops; Long-Term Livelihood Changes; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52838
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Non-Traditional Export Crops in Guatemala: Short-Term Tool or Long-Term Strategy for Poverty Alleviation? AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Kilic, Talip; Kirk, Angeli.
This study is the first to document the long-term welfare effects of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption. We use a unique panel dataset, which spans the period of 1985-2005, and employ difference-in-differences estimation to investigate the long-term impact of NTX adoption on changes in household consumption status and asset position in Santiago Sacatepéquez municipality of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, we differentiate the impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of NTX adoption. Our results show that while, on average, welfare levels have improved for all households irrespective of adoption status and duration, the extent of improvement...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Non-Traditional Export Crops; Long-Term Welfare Effects; Consumer/Household Economics; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52866
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Non-Traditional Exports, Traditional Constraints: The Adoption and Diffusion of Cash Crops among Smallholders in Guatemala AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Kirk, Angeli; Winters, Paul C.; Davis, Benjamin.
More than two decades after non-traditional export crops (NTXs) were introduced to the central highlands of Guatemala to link farmers to global markets and foster rural development, this study uses duration analysis to explore how time-varying household characteristics and external trends play into both the adoption and diffusion processes of NTX among smallholders. Adoption was widespread and rapid, which led the project to be hailed as a pro-poor success, reaching all but the smallest landholders. Potential benefits of NTXs have proven to be high, but constraints to sustained adoption also numerous, particularly in the second decade of the period considered. Over time, more than two-thirds of adopters eventually dropped out, reverting back to more...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7962
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Rural Household Access to Assets and Agrarian Institutions: A Cross Country Comparison AgEcon
Zezza, Alberto; Winters, Paul C.; Davis, Benjamin; Carletto, Calogero; Covarrubias, Katia; Quinones, Esteban; Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Di Giuseppe, Stefania.
Agriculture is at the core of the livelihoods of a large share of rural households throughout the developing world. Agricultural growth is a major engine for overall economic growth and possibly the single most important pathway out of poverty in the rural space. This paper characterizes household access to assets and agrarian institutions of households engaged in agricultural activities in a sample of developing countries. The evidence presented in the paper draws from 15 nationally representative household surveys from four regions of the developing world. We find that the access of rural households to a range of agricultural-specific assets (including land and livestock) and institutions is in general low, though highly heterogeneous across countries,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non farm; Assets; Agrarian institutions; Household surveys; Consumer/Household Economics; O13; O57; Q12.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7925
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Rural Income Generating Activities: A Cross Country Comparison AgEcon
Davis, Benjamin; Covarrubias, Katia; Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Winters, Paul C.; Carletto, Calogero; Quinones, Esteban; Zezza, Alberto; Di Giuseppe, Stefania.
This paper uses a newly constructed cross country database composed of comparable variables and aggregates from household surveys to examine the full range of income generating activities carried out by rural households in order to determine: 1) the relative importance of the gamut of income generating activities in general and across wealth categories; 2), the relative importance of diversification versus specialization at the household level; and 3) the influence of rural income generating activities on poverty and inequality. Analysis of the RIGA cross country dataset paints a clear picture of multiple activities across rural space and diversification across rural households. This is true across countries in all four continents, though less so in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7913
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The Vanishing Farms? The Impact of International Migration on Albanian Family Farming AgEcon
Miluka, Juna; Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Zezza, Alberto.
Taking advantage of new data on a high migration country, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of migration on resource allocation to, and income from, agricultural production of farm households. The main channels through which these impacts can be expected to materialize are via the allocation of labor and capital resources of the households, as modified by the loss of ‘"resident"’ family workforce to migration and the gain in access to working capital or credit made possible by the inflow of remittances or simply by an improved economic and financial status of the household associated with migration. Our results suggest that migration of one or more household members is being used by rural households in Albania as part of a strategy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9406
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VALIDITY OF RAPID ESTIMATES OF HOUSEHOLD WEALTH AND INCOME FOR HEALTH SURVEYS IN RURAL AFRICA AgEcon
Morris, Saul Sutkover; Carletto, Calogero; Hoddinott, John; Christiaensen, Luc J.M..
Drawing data from four different integrated household surveys in rural areas of Mali, Malawi, and two national surveys in Côte d’Ivoire, this paper tests the validity of proxy measures of household wealth and income that can be readily implemented in health surveys in rural Africa. The assumptions underlying the choice of wealth proxy are described, and correlations with the true value are assessed in two different settings. The expenditure proxy is developed and then tested for replicability in two independent data sets representing the same population. The study found that in both Mali and Malawi, the wealth proxy correlated highly (r $ 0.74) with the more complex monetary value method. For rural areas of Côte d’Ivoire, it was possible to generate a list...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94850
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