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Registros recuperados: 17
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A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions ArchiMer
Taormina, Bastien; Bald, Juan; Want, Andrew; Thouzeau, Gerard; Lejart, Morgane; Desroy, Nicolas; Carlier, Antoine.
Submarine power cables (SPC) have been in use since the mid-19th century, but environmental concerns about them are much more recent. With the development of marine renewable energy technologies, it is vital to understand their potential impacts. The commissioning of SPC may temporarily or permanently impact the marine environment through habitat damage or loss, noise, chemical pollution, heat and electromagnetic field emissions, risk of entanglement, introduction of artificial substrates, and the creation of reserve effects. While growing numbers of scientific publications focus on impacts of the marine energy harnessing devices, data on impacts of associated power connections such as SPC are scarce and knowledge gaps persist. The present study (1)...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Submarine power cables; Marine renewable energy; Environmental impacts; Ecosystem functioning; Benthic habitats.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00454/56542/58330.pdf
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Benthic metabolism in shallow coastal ecosystems of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania ArchiMer
Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent; Amice, Erwan; Lazure, Pascal; Van Der Geest, Matthijs; Labrosse, Pierre; Diagne, Ahmed; Carlier, Antoine; Chauvaud, Sylvain.
Benthic primary production and respiration were investigated at 4 sites representative of the major coastal communities bordering the Sahara Desert in the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, Western Africa. These sites correspond to intertidal Zostera noltii beds (270 km(2)), intertidal bare sediments (88 km(2)), subtidal Cymodocea nodosa beds (374 km(2)), and subtidal bare sediments (311 km(2)). At each site, production-irradiance relationships were established in situ in November 2008 and January 2010, and used to calculate daily carbon fluxes for these communities. In intertidal areas, compared to emersion, the gross maximal photosynthetic rates for Z. noltii bed and bare sediment communities were on average 8-and 7-fold higher during immersion, respectively;...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Seagrass; Carbon metabolism; Intertidal; Subtidal; Respiration; Primary; Production; Western Africa.
Ano: 2014 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00189/29987/28460.pdf
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Biodiversity offsets for offshore wind farm projects: The current situation in Europe ArchiMer
Vaissiere, Anne-charlotte; Levrel, Harold; Pioch, Sylvain; Carlier, Antoine.
The European Union׳s energy policy aims to increase the proportion of energy derived from renewable sources in Europe. Marine renewable energy, offshore wind energy especially, contributes to the renewable energy mix. Offshore wind farms appear to be clean, and are supported by governments and NGOs as a way to reduce the use of conventional energy resources and thus decrease greenhouse gas emissions. However, developing infrastructure in marine areas can impact marine ecosystems. European directives ask offshore wind farm developers to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) including a mitigation hierarchy, i.e. envisaging measures that would avoid, reduce, and if possible offset significant adverse effects on ecosystems and human activities....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mitigation hierarchy; Offshore wind farms; EIA.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00187/29834/28312.pdf
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Deployment of new observing systems within the JERICO-RI ArchiMer
Puillat, Ingrid; Carlier, Antoine; Facq, Jean-valery; Rubio, Anna; Lazure, Pascal; Delauney, Laurent; Petihakis, George; Karlson, Bengt; Artigas, Felipe; Farcy, Patrick.
A key message of the JERICO-RI consortium (2014): “The complexity of the coastal ocean cannot be well understood if interconnection between physics, biogeochemistry and biology is not guaranteed. Such integration requires new technological developments allowing continuous monitoring of a larger set of parameters”. In agreement with this consideration, several new observing systems are developed, tested and deployed in the framework of the JERICO-NEXT H2020 project, amongst which a few of them will be presented as well as some preliminary results after the first deployments. Focus will be given on coastal transports and hydrology and on benthic biodiversity. In the first case, we will present a low cost 2D moored system dedicated to acquire vertical...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: JERICO; JERICO-NEXT; Coastal; Ocean Observing System (OOS); Harmonization.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00437/54866/56359.pdf
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GHYDRO: Methodology guide for assessment of environmental impacts of tidal stream energy technologies at sea ArchiMer
Lejart, Morgane; Auvray, Cedric; Barillier, Agnes; Cadiou, Bernard; Carlier, Antoine; Delpech, Jean-paul; Folegot, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Loaec, Jean-marie; Martinez, Ludivine; Prevot, Jehanne.
The objective of GHYDRO, a France Energies Marines project, is to draw up a methodology guide that provide stakeholders in tidal stream energy projects with decision-making help for the environmental integration of generators and tidal farms. The methodological guide currently represents a summary of the recommendations concerning the diverse physical parameters and biological compartments of the ecosystems that are potentially affected. The physical and biological compartments of the marine ecosystems have been addressed separately in the guide, in order to propose methodologies adapted to each one, in relation to the establishment of the initial state, the characterisation of the potential impacts and the environmental monitoring. To bring together the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Methodology guide; Environmental impact; Tidal stream energy.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00230/34115/32570.pdf
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Heterogeneous energetic pathways and carbon sources on deep eastern Mediterranean cold seep communities ArchiMer
Carlier, Antoine; Ritt, Benedicte; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Sarrazin, Jozee; Olu, Karine; Grall, Jacques; Clavier, Jacques.
Cold seep communities in the Mediterranean Sea have only been discovered two decades ago, and their trophic ecology has been the subject of very few studies. We investigated the benthic food web of two deep chemosynthesis-based ecosystems on the Napoli and Amsterdam mud volcanoes (MVs) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (similar to 2,000 m depth). Seeping methane has been detected at the surface of both MVs during pioneering cruises and has been hypothesised to be assimilated by benthic fauna as observed in other oceans' margins. Given the extreme oligotrophic character of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, we a priori expected that chemosynthetic food sources, especially methane-derived carbon (MDC), played a major trophic role in these deep seep communities...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gulf of Mexico; Anaerobic methane oxidation; Stable isotope analysis; Sea hydrothermal vents; Food web structure; Kazan mud volcano; Florida escarpment; Trophic relationships; Benthic communauties; Lamellibrachia SP.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00016/12684/9633.pdf
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How to better assess potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of marine renewable energies? France Energies Marines, a Technology Platform offering scientific and technological facilities for an industrial development of marine renewable energy (MRE) ArchiMer
Carlier, Antoine.
Harvesting renewable marine energies (RME) will allow coastal regions to deploy a consequent contribution to the effort to reduce carbon emissions worldwide. However, as with any large-scale development in the marine environment, it comes with uncertainty about potential environmental and societal impacts, most of which have not been adequately evaluated yet. Across Europe, offshore wind farms have a total capacity of almost 3 gigawatts (GW), according to the European Wind Energy Association. By 2020, France plans to add up to 6 GW and on July 11th 2011, the French government opened a call for project proposals for 5 zones off the northern and western coasts. The development of less mature technologies (such as tidal turbines or wave energy converters) is...
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Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00067/17802/15328.pdf
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Identification des post-larves de deux Calyptraeidae Calyptraea chinensis et Crepidula fornicata ArchiMer
Jezequel, Youenn; Carlier, Antoine; Grall, Jacques.
This study presents four morphological criteria based on the shell, determined under a stereomicroscope, allowing the identification of the Calyptraeidae’s post larvae in Calyptraea chinensis and Crepidula fornicata from a 0.7mm size. The septum shape in C. chinensis is spiraled while in C. fornicata it is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shell (beginning of the lodge’s formation), which constitutes the most reliable criterion when trying to discriminate between the species. C. chinensis shells coloration appears homogeneous and concentric whereas colored spots are observed on C. fornicata shells. Calyptraea chinensis shell shape is circular while Crepidula fornicata shell shape is oval. Lastly the apex appears centered in C. chinensis and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Calyptraea chinensis; Crepidula fornicata; Post-larve; Critères morphologiques; Calyptraea chinensis; Crepidula fornicata; Post larva; Morphological criteria.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00523/63535/67199.pdf
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Is benthic food web structure related to diversity of marine macrobenthic communities? ArchiMer
Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, Antoine; Gasiunaite, Z.; Gremare, Antoine; Hummel, H.; Lesutiene, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, Paul; Richard, P.; Kedra, M..
Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Abundance and classical species diversity indices (S, H', J) of macrofaunal communities were related to principal attributes of food webs (relative trophic level and food chain length, FCL) that were determined from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. Structure of marine macrobenthos varies substantially at a geographical scale; total abundance ranges from 63 ind. m(-2) to 34,517 ind. m(-2), species richness varies from 3 to 166 and the Shannon-Weaver...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Macrobenthic communities; Biodiversity; Food web structure; Diversity-structure interactions; European waters.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00093/20378/18214.pdf
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La compensation au service de l’acceptabilité sociale : un état de l’art des apports empiriques et du débat scientifique. Réflexions au service du développement de l’énergie éolienne en mer ArchiMer
Kermagoret, Charlene; Levrel, Harold; Carlier, Antoine.
The Energy Transition involves governance issues which need to be overcome to ensure its success. In Europe, the policies that accompany this energy transition have fixed very short term goals such as the diversification and the development of renewable energy sources by 2020. The benefits of developing these technologies for limiting greenhouse gases emissions is widely accepted at European and national level and is frequently invoked by the State for legitimizing the current projects. However, many projects declared of public interest by the State lead to conflicts, at the territorial level, between the objective of economic development, and those of biodiversity conservation and of social interests protection. In this context, the compensation is often...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Principe de compensation; Restauration écologique; Indemnisation financière; Acceptabilité sociale; Énergies renouvelables; Transition énergétique; Compensation principle; Ecological restoration; Financial indemnity; Social acceptability; Renewable energy; Energetic transition.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00313/42431/41774.pdf
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Milieux marins et littoraux : évaluation des écosystèmes et des services rendus ArchiMer
Mongruel, Remi; Kermagoret, Charlene; Carlier, Antoine; Scemama, Pierre; Le Mao, Patrick; Levain, Alix; Balle-beganton, Johanna; Vaschalde, Diane; Bailly, Denis.
Si l’idée que la Nature rend à l’Homme des services indispensables est très ancienne, l’approche par les services écosystémiques a gagné une reconnaissance universelle avec la réalisation du Millenium Ecosystem Assessment au début des années 2000. Dans l’acception contemporaine de cette notion, les évaluations de services écosystémiques doivent avant tout servir à la mise en place de politiques ambitieuses en matière de protection des écosystèmes et de la biodiversité. Ainsi, les objectifs d’Aïchi pour 2020 fixés par la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique prévoient notamment que les valeurs de la biodiversité puissent être intégrées dans les processus de décision. L’Évaluation Française des Écosystèmes et des Services Écosystémiques (EFESE) est un...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00600/71260/69647.pdf
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Stakeholder Perceptions of Offshore Wind Power: A Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping Approach ArchiMer
Kermagoret, Charlene; Levrel, Harold; Carlier, Antoine; Ponsero, Alain.
Using the method of fuzzy cognitive mapping, this study explores stakeholder attitudes toward offshore wind energy. The survey was conducted with local communities of the Bay of Saint-Brieuc, where an offshore wind farm is under development. It was used to record the stakeholder perceptions of social, ecological, and economic impacts and the expression of expected compensation for negative impacts. Distribution and interaction among the data were analyzed through multiple correspondence analysis. Our study illustrates a gap between positive impacts associated with sustainable development perceived at the national level and more negative impacts perceived by local communities. The expression of expected compensation is dependent on the perceived impacts....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bay of Saint-Brieuc; Compensation principle; Fuzzy cognitive mapping; Impact perceptions; Local communities; Multiple correspondence analysis; Offshore wind farm.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00313/42423/41777.pdf
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Subtidal Microphytobenthos: A Secret Garden Stimulated by the Engineer Species Crepidula fornicata ArchiMer
Androuin, Thibault; Polerecky, Lubos; Decottignies, Priscilla; Dubois, Stanislas; Dupuy, Christine; Hubas, Cedric; Jesus, Bruno; Le Gall, Erwan; Marzloff, Martin; Carlier, Antoine.
The slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata is an emblematic invasive species along the northeast Atlantic coast. This gregarious gastropod lives in stacks of several individuals and forms extended beds in shallow subtidal areas. The effects of this engineer species on the colonized habitat can be physical (e.g., presence of hard-shell substrates with uneven topography) or biological (e.g., nutrient enrichment by direct excretion or via biodeposition). We hypothesized that through biological activity, nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface are enhanced, leading to stimulated primary productivity by microphytobenthos (MPB) associated with Crepidula beds. To test this fertilization hypothesis, we conducted a 10-day mesocosm experiment using C. fornicata...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crepidula fornicata; Engineer species; Subtidal microphytobenthos; Fertilization; Hyperspectral imaging.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00472/58338/60893.pdf
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Synthèse des connaissances sur les impacts des câbles électriques sous-marins: Phases de travaux et d'exploitation. Etude du compartiment benthique et des ressources halieutiques ArchiMer
Carlier, Antoine; Vogel, Camille; Alemany, Juliette.
Cette synthèse bibliographique, financée par RTE, traite de l’impact potentiel des câbles électriques sous-marins sur différentes composantes des écosystèmes marins côtiers susceptibles d’accueillir des projets de liaisons électriques en mer. Elle constitue une actualisation d’un précédent état de l’art réalisé sur la même problématique par l’Ifremer en 2011, déjà à la demande de RTE. Ce rapport traite successivement des différents types de perturbations que peut engendrer un projet de câble sous-marin, pendant les phases de travaux (pose, maintenance) et d’exploitation, en distinguant ce qui relève des changements des paramètres physico-chimiques du milieu (ce que l’on désigne ici par effets) de ce qui relève des changements de la biodiversité et des...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Câbles sous-marins; Impacts; Travaux; Exploitation; Écosystèmes côtiers; Habitats benthiques; Ressources halieutiques; Bruit; Température; Champs électromagnétiques; Effet récif; Effet réserve; Impact cumulés..
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00508/61975/66078.pdf
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The dark side of soft tissues: unexpected inorganic carbonate in the invasive slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata and its implications for stable isotope interpretations ArchiMer
Androuin, Thibault; Dubois, Stanislas; Decottignies, Priscilla; Pelleter, Ewan; Carlier, Antoine.
Rationale Stable isotopic analysis is extensively used in trophic ecology. Inorganic carbonates, usually originating from shell fragments, are routinely removed from samples using an acid treatment because they affect δ13C values. However, acid treatment can also change δ15N values. For some taxa such as molluscs, the general assumption is that acid pre‐treatment is not necessary since their shell is easily dissected from soft tissues and represents the only source of inorganic carbonates. However, other sources of non‐dietary carbon (e.g., intracellular inorganic carbon) enriched in 13C thus get overlooked. Methods Soft tissues (foot) of the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata of different size classes were analysed for their δ13C and δ15N values with...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00464/57602/59798.pdf
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The impact and compensation of offshore wind farm development: Analysing the institutional discourse from a french case study ArchiMer
Kermagoret, Charlene; Levrel, Harold; Carlier, Antoine.
In France, the public acceptability of marine renewable energies and their impacts on ecosystem services (ES) involves questions about compensation for stakeholders, who may perceive some of their activities and interests to be modified. This paper seeks to understand how impacts on ES are perceived by institutional stakeholders and what is expected in terms of compensation. It also seeks to identify the communities of practice affected. We focus our study on the planned offshore wind farm in the bay of Saint-Brieuc. Our results show that institutional discourse is heterogeneous, depending on sensitivities, interests, and who or what the stakeholders surveyed represent or defend. Stakeholders' discourse can be interpreted on various gradients of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Communities of practice; Ecosystem services; Compensatory measures; No-net-loss goal; Arine renewable energy; Offshore wind farm.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00204/31494/31871.pdf
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Trophic connectivity between offshore upwelling and the inshore food web of Banc d’Arguin (Mauritania): New insights from isotopic analysis ArchiMer
Carlier, Antoine; Chauvaud, Laurent; Van Der Geest, Matthijs; Le Loc'H, Francois; Le Duff, Michel; Vernet, Marc; Raffray, Jean; Diakhate, Djibril; Labrosse, Pierre; Wague, Abdoulaye; Le Goff, Clement; Gohin, Francis; Chapron, Bertrand; Clavier, Jacques.
Banc d’Arguin (BA), Mauritania, is a nationally protected shallow gulf > 10,000 km2 between the Sahara desert and the upwelling system off the Mauritanian coast. In the southeast, BA consists of a 500 km2 tidal flat, the most important wintering site for shorebirds using the East Atlantic Flyway. The Mauritanian upwelling-driven phytoplankton production supports the most productive fisheries worldwide, but little is known about its trophic role in the functioning of the inshore BA food web. Using stable isotopes as trophic tracers to distinguish between upwelling-driven phytoplankton, open ocean phytoplankton, and benthic primary producers, we assessed the spatial extent to which the inshore BA food web is fuelled by upwelling-driven phytoplankton...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Banc d'Arguin; West Africa; Food web structure; Remote sensing; Stable isotope; Upwelling.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00269/37999/36078.pdf
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