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Registros recuperados: 11
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Adaptive Capacity and Traps Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William A.; University of Wisconsin-Madison; WBrock@ssc.wisc.edu.
Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Allostasis; Model; Poverty trap; Resilience; Rigidity trap; Transformation.
Ano: 2008
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Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin Ecology and Society
Peterson, Garry D; McGill University; garry.peterson@mcgill.ca; Beard Jr., T. Douglas; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources; BEARDT@dnr.state.wi.us; Beisner, Beatrix E; University of Wisconsin-Madison; bebeisner@facstaff.wisc.edu; Bennett, Elena M; University of Wisconsin-Madison; embennett@wisc.edu; Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Cumming, Graeme; University of Florida; cummingg@wec.ufl.edu; Dent, C. Lisa; University of Wisconsin-Madison; ldent@facstaff.wisc.edu,; Havlicek, Tanya D; University of Wisconsin-Madison; TDHAVLIC@students.wisc.edu.
The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Northern Highlands Lake District; Wisconsin; Assessment; Ecosystem services; Freshwater; Futures; Prediction; Scenario planning.
Ano: 2003
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Ecological and Social Dynamics in Simple Models of Ecosystem Management Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William; University of Wisconsin; brock@macc.wisc.edu; Hanson, Paul; University of Wisconsin; pchanson@facstaff.wisc.edu.
Simulation models were developed to explore and illustrate dynamics of socioecological systems. The ecosystem is a lake subject to phosphorus pollution. Phosphorus flows from agriculture to upland soils, to surface waters, where it cycles between water and sediments. The ecosystem is multistable, and moves among domains of attraction depending on the history of pollutant inputs. The alternative states yield different economic benefits. Agents form expectations about ecosystem dynamics, markets, and/or the actions of managers, and choose levels of pollutant inputs accordingly. Agents have heterogeneous beliefs and/or access to information. Their aggregate behavior determines the total rate of pollutant input. As the ecosystem changes, agents update their...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive agent models; Adaptive management; Bounded rationality; Ecological economics; Ecosystem oscillations; Integrated models; Lake eutrophication; Nonpoint pollution; Phosphorus cycles; Simulation models; Social-natural systems..
Ano: 1999
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Keystone Species and Academic-Agency Collaboration Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 1998
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Managing the Resilience of Lakes: A Multi-agent Modeling Approach Ecology and Society
Janssen, Marco A; Indiana University; maajanss@indiana.edu; Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu.
We demonstrate an approach for integrating social and ecological models to study ecosystem management strategies. We focus on the management of lake eutrophication. A model has been developed in which the dynamics of the lake, the learning dynamics of society, and the interactions between ecology and society are included. Analyses with the model show that active learning is important to retain the resilience of lakes. Although very low levels of phosphorus in the water will not be reached, active learning reduce the chance of catastrophic high phosphorus levels.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Active learning; Eutrophication; Integrated modeling; Lake dynamics; Lake management; Multi-agent modeling; Phosphorus; Resilience; Restoration; Simulation.
Ano: 1999
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Resilience and Restoration of Lakes Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Cottingham, Kathryn L; ; cottingh@nceas.ucsb.edu.
Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecological economics; Ecosystem; Eutrophication; Lake; Resilience; Restoration; Watershed..
Ano: 1997
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Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: a Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach Ecology and Society
Walker, Brian; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Abel, Nick; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems; nick.abel@csiro.au; Cumming, Graeme; University of Florida; cummingg@wec.ufl.edu; Janssen, Marco A; Indiana University; maajanss@indiana.edu; Lebel, Louis; Unit for Social and Environmental Research; llebel@loxinfo.co.th; Norberg, Jon; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University; jon.norberg@ecology.su.se; Peterson, Garry D; McGill University; garry.peterson@mcgill.ca; Pritchard, Rusty; Emory University; lpritc2@emory.edu.
Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs) behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 2002
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Scenarios for Ecosystem Services: An Overview Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Bennett, Elena M; University of Wisconsin-Madison; embennett@wisc.edu; Peterson, Garry D; McGill University; garry.peterson@mcgill.ca.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) scenarios address changes in ecosystem services and their implications for human well-being. Ecological changes pose special challenges for long-term thinking, because of the possibility of regime shifts that occur rapidly yet alter the availability of ecosystem services for generations. Moreover, ecological feedbacks can intensify human modification of ecosystems, creating a spiral of poverty and ecosystem degradation. Such complex dynamics were evaluated by a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analyses in the MA scenarios. Collectively, the scenarios explore problems such as the connections of poverty reduction and ecosystem services, and trade-offs among ecosystem services. Several promising approaches are...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Ambiguity; Ecological change; Ecosystem services; Poverty reduction; Regime shift; Resilience; Response diversity; Scenarios uncertainty.
Ano: 2006
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Spatial Complexity, Resilience, and Policy Diversity: Fishing on Lake-rich Landscapes Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William A; University of Wisconsin-Madison; wbrock@ssc.wisc.edu.
The dynamics of and policies governing spatially coupled social-ecological mosaics are considered for the case of fisheries in a lake district. A microeconomic model of households addresses agent decisions at three hierarchic levels: (1) selection of the lake district from among a larger set of alternative places to live or visit, (2) selection of a base location within the lake district, and (3) selection of a portfolio of ecosystem services to use. Ecosystem services are represented by dynamics of fish production subject to multiple stable domains and trophic cascades. Policy calculations show that optimal policies will be highly heterogeneous in space and fluid in time. The diversity of possible outcomes is illustrated by simulations for a hypothetical...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Angler dynamics; Fish habitat; Inclusive value; Lake; Lake management; Landscape ecology; Multiple attractors; Natural resource policy; Resilience; Social-ecological system; Spatial dynamics; Sport fishery; Sport fishery; Sport fishery management.
Ano: 2004
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Uncertainty in Discount Models and Environmental Accounting Ecology and Society
Ludwig, Donald; University of British Columbia; Ludwig@math.ubc.ca; Brock, William A.; University of Wisconsin-Madison; WBrock@ssc.wisc.edu; Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu.
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is controversial for environmental issues, but is nevertheless employed by many governments and private organizations for making environmental decisions. Controversy centers on the practice of economic discounting in CBA for decisions that have substantial long-term consequences, as do most environmental decisions. Customarily, economic discounting has been calculated at a constant exponential rate, a practice that weights the present heavily in comparison with the future. Recent analyses of economic data show that the assumption of constant exponential discounting should be modified to take into account large uncertainties in long-term discount rates. A proper treatment of this uncertainty requires that we consider returns...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Atlantic right whale; Cost-benefit analysis; Discounting; Ecological economics; Ecosystem service; Eutrophication; Renewable resource; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005
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Variance as a Leading Indicator of Regime Shift in Ecosystem Services Ecology and Society
Brock, William A; University of Wisconsin-Madison; WBrock@ssc.wisc.edu; Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu.
Many environmental conflicts involve pollutants such as greenhouse gas emissions that are dispersed through space and cause losses of ecosystem services. As pollutant emissions rise in one place, a spatial cascade of declining ecosystem services can spread across a larger landscape because of the dispersion of the pollutant. This paper considers the problem of anticipating such spatial regime shifts by monitoring time series of the pollutant or associated ecosystem services. Using such data, it is possible to construct indicators that rise sharply in advance of regime shifts. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the variance-covariance matrix of the multivariate time series of pollutants and ecosystem services rises prior to the regime shift. No...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecological economics; Ecosystem service; Indicators; Markets; Pollution; Regime shifts; Thresholds; Variance.
Ano: 2006
Registros recuperados: 11
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

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