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Registros recuperados: 11
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A win-win for legume mixtures Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Crowley, Oliver; Pearce, Helen; Storkey, Jonathan; Brown, Rob; Jones, Hannah.
The inter-relationship between food production and biodiversity is now well established. The ecosystem services provided by the organisms within the environment include, for example, nutrient cycling, pest regulation and pollination, to name but a few. However, perhaps the greatest challenge now facing agricultural production is to find ways of enhancing these ecosystem services, while at the same time increasing food production – particularly in light of food security issues. A range of farm and landscape management options include ‘setting aside’ land for wildlife. However, some proponents argue that such land should be used for food production. While the debate continues, there is no doubt that a large body of scientific evidence from the last three...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21906/1/2011.Doring%20et%20al.Org%20Farm%20108_LegLink.pdf
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Against the grain Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Crowley, Oliver; Wolfe, Martin.
An Organic Research Centre project is examining how diversity-based tools can assist in the on-farm improvement of organic wheat. Successful organic crop production requires varieties that are resistant to diseases, competitive against weeds, and effective at scavenging nutrients. Yet conventional plant breeding has largely neglected organic systems by breeding varieties exclusively for high input conditions. As a consequence, organic producers currently do not have enough choice of plant varieties for organic conditions. One way to expand the choice is to create plant diversity anew and subject it to natural selection on organic farms. After several generations the dominating plants would be better suited to organic systems. This idea is being tested...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19777/1/2011.Doring_et_al.OrgFarm.pdf
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Legume based plant mixtures for delivery of multiple ecosystem services: An overview of benefits Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Baddeley, J. A.; Brown, RJ; Collins, R; Crowley, Oliver; Cuttle, Steve; McCalman, Heather; Pearce, Bruce; Roderick, Stephen; Stobart, Ron; Storkey, Jonathan; Watson, Christine; Wolfe, Martin; Jones, H E.
As costs for mineral fertilizers rise, legume-based leys are recognised as a potential alternative nitrogen source for crops. Here we demonstrate that including species-rich legume-based leys in the rotation helps to maximize synergies between agricultural productivity and other ecosystem services. By using functionally diverse plant species mixtures these services can be optimised and fine-tuned to regional and farm-specific needs. Field experiments run over three years at multiple locations showed that the stability of ley performance was greater in multi-species mixtures than in legume monocultures. In addition, mixing different legume species in the ley helps to suppress both early and late weeds. Further, combining complementary phenologies of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Pasture and forage crops; Nutrient turnover; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20718/1/Doring_et_al_2012_Legume_mixtures_for_ecosystem_service_delivery_%2D_overview.pdf
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Legume Based Plant Mixtures for Delivery of Multiple Ecosystem Services: weed diversity and weed control Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Storkey, Jonathan; Baddeley, J. A.; Crowley, Oliver; Howlett, S. A.; McCalman, Heather; Pearce, Helen; Roderick, Stephen; Jones, H E.
Legume-based leys offer multiple benefits to ecosystem service provision, e.g. protecting soil and supporting pollinators. While weeds can play an antagonistic role during ley establishment, little is known about weed communities in these leys or about the optimal solutions for weed control in the establishment phase. To determine if the choice of ley species affects weed levels, we conducted field trials at six locations in the UK, measuring weed cover and biomass in monoculture plots of 12 legume and 4 grass species, plus an all species mix over two years. In these trials and in additional on-farm trials, weed cover and diversity were lower in the second than in the first year, owing to a decrease of annual weeds over time. The ability of a diverse...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Pasture and forage crops; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20716/1/Doring_et_al_2012_Legume_mixtures_for_ecosystem_service_delivery_%2D_weed_control.pdf
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Legume Pick ‘n’ Mix Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Crowley, Oliver.
In Spring 2009, ORC set up a legume trial on an organic farm, Barrington Park in Gloucestershire, as part of a large research project called Legume LINK. One of its aims is to compare the performance of several legume and grass species for use in fertility building leys. ORC researchers Thomas Döring and Oliver Crowley report that the trial shows the advantage of mixing species grows over time.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19830/1/Doring_and_Crowley_2011_LegLINK_ORC_Bulletin_106.pdf
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REDUCED TILLAGE AND COVER CROPS IN ORGANIC ARABLE SYSTEMS PRESERVES WEED DIVERSITY WITHOUT JEOPARDISING CROP YIELD Organic Eprints
Barberi, Paolo; Aendekerk, Raymond; Antichi, Daniele; Armengot, Laura; Berner, Alfred; Bigongiali, Federica; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Carlesi, Stefano; Celette, Florian; Chamorro, Lourdes; Crowley, Oliver; Döring, Thomas; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Hess, Jürgen; Huiting, Hilfred; José-Maria, Laura; Klaedtke , Stéphanie; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peigne, Joséphine; Sukkel, Wijnand; Surböck, Andreas; Talgre, Liina; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
One of the objectives of the TILMAN-ORG Project is to improve weed management under conservation agriculture (reduced tillage and/or cover crops) in organic arable systems. The shift from ploughing to conservation agriculture should not only maintain crop yield but possibly improve weed community diversity. This paper summarises the results on (1) weed abundance, (2) weed diversity and (3) crop yield obtained in the first year of the project (2012) in 13 trials scattered across Europe.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24158/1/24158_MM.pdf
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Reduced tillage and green manures Organic Eprints
Cooper, Julia; Crowley, Oliver.
Julia Cooper and Oliver Crowley discuss the use of reduced tillage and green manures in organic arable and horticultural rotations.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/23582/1/cooper-2012-reduced-tillage.pdf
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Saving fuel with non-inversion tillage Organic Eprints
Crowley, Oliver; Showering, Jemima; Döring, Thomas.
The mouldboard plough is the traditional and proven method of preparing a seedbed for drilling and controlling arable weeds. However there is a downside; trials have shown deterioration in structural stability, losses of soil organic matter, poor moisture retention and infiltration rates (Riley et al 2008). Farmers have long been aware of these adverse impacts of mouldboard ploughing, but concerns over the greenhouse gas emissions associated with tractor usage have prompted a fresh look at cultivations. ORC researchers, Oliver Crowley, Jemima Showering and Thomas F. Döring consider the case for non-inversion tillage.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Soil tillage; Soil.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19879/1/2010.Crowley_et_al.NIT.Bulletin103.pdf
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Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks: a meta-analysis Organic Eprints
Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Barberi, Paolo; Fliessbach, Andreas; Peigne, Joséphine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; De Vliegher, Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul.
Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the results from both published and unpublished research comparing deep or shallow inversion tillage, with various categories of reduced tillage under organic management. Shallow refers to less than 25 cm. We found that (1) division of reduced tillage practices into different classes with varying degrees of intensity allowed us to assess the trade-offs between reductions in tillage intensity, crop yields, weed incidence, and soil C stocks. (2) Reducing tillage intensity in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/29974/1/Cooper-etal-2016-ASD-36_22.pdf
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Using minimum tillage to improve the efficiency of ecosystem service delivery on organic farms Organic Eprints
Crowley, Oliver; Döring, Thomas F.; Measures, Mark.
Organic farming practices aim to maximise the delivery of ecosystem services in the agricultural landscape. However, in order to maintain optimal crop productivity the mouldboard plough is often used to control weeds and this can have negative effects on a range of soil parameters, thereby jeopardizing delivery of these services. Reduced tillage (RT) can be beneficial to soils and could improve both the efficiency of production and the delivery of ecosystem services on organic farms. However, abandoning the plough on organic farms is challenging due to impaired weed control. Here we report on a two year trial where an RT system with the Ecodyn, with duck feet shares operating at a depth of 7.6 cm in combination with seed drilling, was compared with...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage; Soil; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20721/1/Crowley_et_al_2012_Reduced_tillage_and_ecosystem_service_delivery_on_organic_farms.pdf
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Wirkungen konservierender Bodenbearbeitung auf Regenwürmer unter Kleegras im ökologischen Landbau Organic Eprints
Haby, Jessica; Döring, Thomas F.; Crowley, Oliver; Lazzaro, Mariaterresa; Smith, Jo.
A key challenge in organic agriculture is the reduction of tillage intensity. While previous research has shown earthworms to benefit from reduced tillage (RT), little is known about after-effects of RT during the grass/clover ley phase in organic rotations. In a large-scale replicated on-farm trial in England we studied earthworm populations before and during the ley phase, comparing the Ecodyn cultivator (tilling depth: 7.5 cm) with a mouldboard plough (depth: 15 cm). Spring sampling of earthworms during the ley phase revealed no significant difference in earthworm densities between the two tillage treatments while two years earlier in the arable phase, earthworm densities had been significantly higher under RT. Also, differences in species composition...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage; Soil.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/26932/1/26932_haby.pdf
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