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Registros recuperados: 4
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Does fruit-tree architecture manipulation affect the development of pests and pathogens? A case study in an organic apple orchard Organic Eprints
SIMON, S.; LAURI, P.E.; BRUN, L.; DEFRANCE, H.; SAUPHANOR, B..
Centrifugal training, based on the extinction procedure, is an innovative type of apple tree training recently used in French apple orchards. The thinning cut of fruiting spurs along the trunk and on the proximal and underside parts of the fruiting branches modifies the within-tree leaf density and light environment, which is likely to affect the development of some apple pests and pathogens. In this study, the development of the most serious foliar pests (aphids, mites) and disease (apple scab) was assessed over 3 years in an organic apple orchard with two training systems: the centrifugal training (CT) system, and the original Solaxe (OS) system, using a bent axis with no removal of fruiting spurs, as a control. Infestation levels were significantly...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/8945/1/ABSTRACTpapersimonetal.rtf
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Hedgerows and beneficial phytophagous arthropods Organic Eprints
SIMON, S.; DEFRANCE, H.; RIEUX, R.; SAUPHANOR, B..
Introduction Organic Farming and Integrated Pest Management aim to favour and to rely on natural enemies for pest management. The ability of plant diversity to provide the orchard with natural enemies without any induced damage was studied: (1) in hedgerow lined orchards from different areas in order to assess the effect of hedgerows on the orchard arthropod community and (2) in experimental orchards, in order to test tree assemblages designed for the pear orchard, likely to supply the crop with psyllid (Cacopsylla pyri) antagonists. Materials and methods Arthropods were sampled fortnightly from April to October 1997 in eight (8) commercial pear orchards (Bartlett cultivar) and from main tree species of their lining hedgerows. For each tree species, 30...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/6726/1/HedgerowsS1023.doc
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Manipulating within-orchard and adjacent habitats to provide better pest control in organic orchards. Some elements for modulating “orchard tree-pest-natural enemy” relationships Organic Eprints
SIMON, S.; SAUPHANOR, B.; DEFRANCE, H.; LAURI, P.E..
The control of pests in organic orchards cannot solely rely on the use of direct control methods. The effect of manipulating the habitat of orchard pests and natural enemies through tree architecture and the increase of plant diversity has been investigated in an experimental organic apple orchard and in a pear orchard, in order to provide information about the potential benefits of these cultural practices. Tree training affected the development of the most detrimental pests of apple trees, and the centrifugal training system globally provided better aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea) and mite (Panonychus ulmi) control than the more classical Solaxe system, whereas codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was favoured compared to Solaxe. The study of an experimental...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15451/2/19%2DSimon.pdf
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Pest management and biodiversity in organic fruit production: the case of apple orchards Organic Eprints
SAUPHANOR, B.; SIMON, S.; BOISNEAU, C.; CAPOWIEZ, Y.; RIEUX, R.; BOUVIER, J.C.; DEFRANCE, H.; PICARD, C.; TOUBON, J.-F..
Numerous pesticide applications are required for orchard protection, regardless of the guidelines. Organic fruit production (OFP) mainly relies on the use of mineral fungicides and microbiological or naturally-occurring insecticides. The environmental impact of this type of production does not significantly differ from that of conventional production when assessed in terms of synthetic indicators. However, the abundance of earthworms, as well as the abundance and specific richness of arthropod pests and beneficials in the orchards and surrounding hedges, is greater in OFP than in conventional orchards. Generalist predators are usually less affected by OFP compounds than by the chemical pesticides applied in conventional orchards. OFP also benefits avian...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Biodiversity and ecosystem services Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15486/1/31%2DSauphanor.pdf
Registros recuperados: 4
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