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Registros recuperados: 14
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Applying ant hygiene: can ants protect crops against diseases? Organic Eprints
Offenberg, Joachim; Damgaard, Christian.
1. Ants provide ecosystem services to agriculture by controlling arthropod pests. Plant diseases, however, can be more detrimental to plant production than herbivory. Here, we investigate a new type of potential ant service – namely that ant hygiene may extend beyond the ants themselves to also cover their host plants, potentially resulting in protection against plant diseases. 2. We review the literature for support to the idea that ant hygiene, including ant-derived antibiotics, can protect plants against pathogens, and we provide empirical pilot data from a Danish apple plantation further supporting this idea. 3. In a literature search, we found nine studies showing ants reducing pathogen incidence on host plants. These studies cover nine ant species...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/33267/1/Fungal%20disease%20paper.docx
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Contamination of oilseed rape varieties by pollen and seeds Organic Eprints
Simonsen, Vibeke; Damgaard, Christian; Kjellsson, Gösta.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is a common crop in Denmark and mainly cultivated for its content of oil used for food and feed. The species is often genetically modified (GM), e.g. to herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Spread of the inserted genes is likely to occur not only to the species itself, but also to its close relatives. The study showed a significant difference between phenotypes in the certified seeds and phenotypes in plants and in seeds in the field. The reason for this might be the presence of OSR volunteers from a previous crop surviving in the soil seed bank. This type of contamination is affected by e.g., harvest and post-harvest handling procedures (Fargue et al., 2003) and can consequently be reduced. More studies on...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/4611/1/4611.PDF
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Does organic farming enhance biodiversity? Complex issues and modelling approaches Organic Eprints
Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Marchi, Chiara; Topping, C.J.; Strandberg, Beate; Bruus Pedersen, Marianne; Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Thomas Secher; Olsen, Kent; Dalgaard, Tommy.
Changes in agriculture might drive changes in biodiversity and are expected to have just as serious an effect as climate change. These changes are results of complex changes in land-use as well as land management, intensification of management and structural developments in agriculture. In this review we present results of a recent research project (ICROFS 2013) focusing on organic farming and biodiversity in Denmark and relate the results to international studies that focus on drivers of biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. The project was organized under five major themes, forming the main sections of the present review paper: Impact on i) plant biodiversity ii) insect and food-webs in cereal fields, iii) small mammals, iv) natural genetic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23312/13/23312.pdf
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Effect of Elymus repens on yield of winter wheat, spring barley and faba bean in an organic crop rotation experiment Organic Eprints
Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Sønderskov, Mette; Damgaard, Christian; Kristensen, Kristian.
The impact of crop rotation, nutrient levels and use of catch crops on effect of E. repens on a sandy soil at Jyndevad on yield of winter wheat (2006), spring barley (2007-2008) and faba bean (2006-2008) was studied in an existing organic crop rotation experiment (Olesen et al., 2000; Rasmussen et al., 2006). Some of the objectives were to determine the yield loss at different levels of infestation of the weed, and to determine whether this relationship was influenced by the treatments. For all crops, the treatments had a high impact on the yield. The two treatments that had no manure applied for up to 12 years consistently had the lowest yields. In spring barley, the two treatments with manure and with catch crops consistently had the highest yields. In...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Weed management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/18379/1/18379a.pdf
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Gene flow and population structure of a common agricultural wild species (Microtus agrestis) under different land management regimes Organic Eprints
Marchi, Chiara; Andersen , Liselotte Wesley; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Kent; Jensen, Thomas Secher; Loeschcke, Volker.
The impact of landscape structure and land management on dispersal of populations of wild species inhabiting the agricultural landscape was investigated focusing on the field vole (Microtus agrestis) in three different areas in Denmark using molecular genetic markers. The main hypotheses were the following: (i) organic farms act as genetic sources and diversity reservoirs for species living in agricultural areas and (ii) gene flow and genetic structure in the agricultural landscape are influenced by the degree of landscape complexity and connectivity. A total of 443 individual voles were sampled within 2 consecutive years from two agricultural areas and one relatively undisturbed grassland area. As genetic markers, 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23286/7/23286.pdf
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Gene flow of oilseed rape (Brassica napus)according to isolation distance and buffer zone Organic Eprints
Damgaard, Christian; Kjellsson, Gösta.
The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops in the EU has raised questions concerning gene dispersal and co-existence with non-GM farming. Quantitative estimates of the gene dispersal from fields with GM crops to fields with conspecific non-GM crops (conventional or organic) are therefore needed in order to suggest isolation distances and other management strategies to keep GM-pollination below acceptable threshold values. A meta-analysis of available gene-flow data for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was performed. The probability distribution that seeds of non-GM oilseed rape are fertilised by foreign pollen grains from a neighbouring field of GM oilseed rape is modelled as functions of the width of the recipient (i.e. pollen receiving) field and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Consumer issues.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4849/1/4849.pdf
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Økologisk jordbrug som refugier for biodiversitet (Refugia) Organic Eprints
Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Marchi, Chiara; Strandberg, Beate; Bruus Pedersen, Marianne; Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Thomas Secher; Olsen, Kent; Dalgaard, Tommy; Topping, C.J..
• Økologiske marker har mere ukrudtsbiomasse end konventionelle. • Der er flere blomstrende arter i økologiske hegn end konventionelle forudsat, at der er kontinuitet i den økologiske drift. • Der er flere små pattedyr i små økologiske biotoper end konventionelle. • Fjernmålinger fra fly eller satellit, kaldet remote sensing, kan skelne hvilken afgrødetype der dyrkes, samt forekomsten af småbiotoper. • Uanset driftformen er det vigtigt at inddrage naturhensyn i driften, dvs., at der findes ekstensivt drevne arealer (græsmarker, overdrev, enge) til natur og direkte afsatte arealer til natur.
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/23299/7/23299.pdf
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Organic farming and biodiversity - the impact of organic farming on nature Organic Eprints
Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Marchi, Chiara; Strandberg, Beate; Topping, C.J.; Jensen, Thomas Secher; Olsen, Kent; Bruus Pedersen, Marianne; Damgaard, Christian; Dalgaard, Tommy.
Organic farming is generally acknowledged for its positive effects on biodiversity and other landscape services. However, the intensity of farming has changed significantly through the last decade as ranks of traditional holistic organic farmers have been joined by much more economically-driven new organic farmers. At the same time there have also been steady improvements in farming methodology and crop types resulting in efficiency in organic farming which can often rival its conventional counterparts. Therefore, large variations occur between organic farms.
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/23298/7/23298.pdf
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Pollen dispersal of genetically modified oilseed rape to organic fields: Analysis of available data and the possibilities for co-existence Organic Eprints
Kjellsson, Gösta; Damgaard, Christian.
Results from model estimations based on existing data on gene dispersal in oilseed rape indicate that the GM dispersal by pollen to organic fields primarily can be limited by the use of isolation distances. The results also indicate that because of pollen dilution, large fields are better protected from GM pollen dispersal than smaller fields. For large fields (i.e. field width > 200 m), the risk of dispersal from GM fields by pollen will be limited (approx. 0.1%) at distances above 100 m. For small fields (i.e. width = 50 m), some GM pollen dispersal (up to approx. 0.3%) may be expected even with an isolation distance of 200 m. If the fields are very close, the use of additional protective buffer zones may be required.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/4612/1/4612.PDF
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REFUGIA. Organic farming and biodiversity - the impact of organic farming on nature Organic Eprints
Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Marchi, Chiara; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian; Pedersen Bruus, Marianne; Jensen Secher, Thomas; Olsen, Kent; Dalgaard, Tommy; Bøcher Klit, Peder; Topping, C.J..
Presentation of the results of Refugia to the ICROFS programme commitee in Silkeborg
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19054/4/19054.pdf
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Services and disservices provided by wood ants (Formica polyctena) in an apple plantation Organic Eprints
Offenberg, Joachim; Nielsen, Jesper Stern; Damgaard, Christian.
Ants can due to their high numbers and by being organized as superorganisms provide a number of services for plants including commercial crops. First, ants may prey on or deter arthropod and in some cases even vertebrate pests (Way & Khoo 1992; Goheen & Palmer 2010). Secondly, they may fertilize their host plants by depositing fecal spots on plant tissue. These fecal spots may contain important nutrients that can be taken up directly by plant leaves (Vidkjær et al. 2016; Pinkalski et al. 2018). In addition, ants may enrich the soil around plant roots with increased nutrient levels due to their foraging activities (Folgarait 1998; Frouz et al. 2008; Wagner & Fleur Nicklen 2010). Lastly, ants may also provide plant services by reducing plant...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/33268/1/Service%20disservice%20paper.docx
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The combined effect of various GM-contamination sources in a case study of oilseed rape Organic Eprints
Damgaard, Christian; Kjellsson, Gösta; Haldrup, Christian.
An abstract is being prepared
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; Specific methods; "Organics" in general; Consumer issues.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/1437/1/Dokument.doc
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Time matters: Effects of duration of the organic management on biodiversity in hedgerows Organic Eprints
Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian.
Organic farming has been suggested to counteract declines in farmland biodiversity but comparisons to conventional farming have produced variable outcomes. At the plot and field scales positive effects of organic farming on abundance of birds, predatory insects, and soil organism have been found and for plants positive effects on species richness have been found in hedgerows. Establishment of new species is a slow process especially in nutrient rich habitats such as hedgerows in the farmland. Fluctuating market prices and short-term economic gains have become increasingly important as incentive for conversion from conventional to organic management and transition forth and back between practices has become more frequent. We investigated the effect of...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19071/3/19071.pdf
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Time matters:effect of time since transition to organic farming on hedgerow ground vegetation Organic Eprints
Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian; Dalgaard, Tommy.
Agri-environment schemes such as organic farming has been implemented to counteract declines in farmland biodiversity but comparisons to conventional farming have produced variable outcomes depending on both taxa and landscape factors. However, changes in land-use may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions and diversity. The importance of such a time-lag between transition to organic farming and species responses have received little attention. We investigated the effect of time since transition from conventional to organic practice on the biodiversity of hedgerow ground vegetation in 30 hedgerows within two landscapes of different heterogeneity and land-use intensity. We found that time since transition of the neighbouring...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23272/2/23272.pdf
Registros recuperados: 14
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