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Registros recuperados: 11
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Analisis del sistema argentino de investigacion agropecuaria AgEcon
Parellada, Gabriel H.; Ekboir, Javier M..
El sector agropecuario ha desempeñado siempre un papel fundamental en la economía argentina. En la segunda mitad del siglo XX, los productos de origen pampeano tuvieron un fuerte crecimiento gracias a la adopción masiva de nuevas tecnologías de comercialización y producción. Estas tecnologías fueron desarrolladas por redes de agentes que incluyeron en forma prominente productores innovadores, empresas privadas e investigadores de instituciones públicas. Sin embargo, las instituciones mismas tuvieron una participación limitada, y su mayor impacto se derivó del desarrollo de semillas mejoradas de los principales cultivos pampeanos. En la primera mitad del siglo XX, Argentina construyó un sistema público de investigación fuerte, localizado fundamentalmente en...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7694
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Analisis del sistema Mexicano de investigacion agropecuaria AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Espinosa Garcia, Jose Antonio; Espinoza Arellano, Jose de Jesus; Moctezuma Lopez, Georgel; Naranjo, Alfredo Tapia.
En la década del 90, el sector agropecuario mexicano generó alrededor del 5% del PBI y el 2.5% de las exportaciones. A pesar de su reducida contribución al PBI, el sector agropecuario tiene una gran importancia económica y social como generador de empleos (un 25% del empleo total), por su influencia sobre el costo de vida, la prevalencia de la pobreza rural (más del 75% de la población pobre y más del 50% de los que viven en pobreza extrema habitan en zonas rurales) y porque las exportaciones agropecuarias constituyen una fuente de ingreso importante para varias regiones, especialmente las zonas irrigadas del norte y centro del país. Desde la década del 70, algunos productores agropecuarios mexicanos, especialmente los que se integraron a cadenas...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7684
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Analisis del sistema panameno de investigacion agropecuaria AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; de Herrera, Adys Pereira; Becerra, Franklin.
Panamá tiene una economía dual con unas pocas actividades altamente competitivas y otras que se desarrollaron gracias a políticas de sustitución de importaciones. Estas políticas influyeron sobre el sistema público de investigación. Durante 15 años, los objetivos más importantes de este sistema fueron el apoyo a productores que vendían en el mercado interno y el fomento de las actividades tradicionales de exportación. La competitividad y la comercialización no eran relevantes. Así, las instituciones de investigación desarrollaron programas para los productos tradicionales de los pequeños y medianos productores (granos básicos y ganadería). La estabilidad de las políticas proteccionistas y el deficiente control de la calidad de la investigación...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Panama; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7679
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Analisis del sistema Paraguayo de investigacion agropecuaria AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Parellada, Gabriel H.; Molina, Andres; Duarte, Cesar.
En la década del 90, el Gobierno paraguayo implementó, con poco éxito, varios planes de reforma del Estado. Actualmente conviven en Paraguay un Estado muy centralizado, con poca capacidad de implementar políticas modernas, y una economía muy descentralizada (a veces completamente fuera del control del gobierno y de la policía), que evoluciona gracias a las acciones e interacciones de agentes individuales y a las oportunidades creadas por la integración a los mercados fronterizos, tanto en los rubros comerciales como agropecuarios. Pero por la espontaneidad propia de este proceso de desarrollo, importantes sectores de la sociedad han quedado marginados. A pesar de la importancia del sector agropecuario en la economía paraguaya, han sido pocos los esfuerzos...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48282
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From "best practice" to "best fit" a framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin E.; Pender, John L.; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier M.; Mbabu, Adiel N.; Spielman, David J.; Horna, J. Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc J..
The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are defined in the paper as the entire set of organizations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being… To classify pluralistic agricultural advisory services, the paper distinguishes between organizations from the public, the private and the third sector that can be involved in (a) providing and (b) financing of agricultural advisory services. The framework for analyzing pluralistic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55396
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IMPACT OF NO-TILL TECHNOLOGIES IN GHANA AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Boa, Kofi; Dankyi, A.A..
In the 1990s, no-till with mulch, a sustainable agricultural alternative, was introduced to Ghanaian farmers through a joint program between the Crops Research Institute in Kusami, Ghana, Sasakawa Global 2000, and the Monsanto Company. The package was disseminated to farmers in the Forest, Transition, and Guinea Savannah Zones, and rapidly adopted. In 2000, it was estimated that 100,000 small-scale farmers practiced no-till on 45,000 hectares of land. This study examines the impact of no-till on farmers who adopted the technology in the three zones, and to a lesser extent, the reasons for non-adoption. The impact of no-till among agrochemical dealers was also evaluated. The report found that no-till brought important changes to farmers using the technology...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23721
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INVESTMENT EFFECTS OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS DEPRECIATION: IMPROVED PASTURES IN URUGUAY AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Jarvis, Lovell S.; Rey, Carlos.
The depreciation rate for capital assets may have endogenous and exogenous components. Change in the exogenous component depends on technological change and/or environmental factors, shifts the production function, and independently affects profitability and investment. Change in the endogenous component does not. These hypotheses are tested using data on Uruguayan grass-legume pastures.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20934
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On the Uneven Distribution of Innovative Capabilities and Why That Matters for Research, Extension and Development Policies AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Munoz, Manrrubio; Aguilar, Jorge; Mendel, Roberto Rendon; Muniz, Jose G. Garcia; Cardenas, J. Reyes Altamirano.
Agricultural development policies and programs, including extension and support for innovation, implicitly assume that the whole target population has the ability to innovate. Recent research in neuroscience, education, social sciences and psychology has shown that innovative capabilities are distributed very unevenly. We explored the distribution of innovative capabilities and the ability to integrate a technological package in a sample of commercial lemon producers in Mexico. We have found that the ability to explore new techniques is different from the ability to integrate an efficient production and commercial package. The ability to explore follows an exponential distribution while integration of the package follows a bimodal distribution. The ability...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Exploration; Participatory research; Creativity; Absorptive capabilities; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56126
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Strengthening Agricultural Education and Training in Sub-Saharan Africa from an Innovation Systems Perspective: Case Studies of Ethiopia and Mozambique AgEcon
Davis, Kristin E.; Ekboir, Javier M.; Mekasha, Wendmsyamregne; Ochieng, Cosmas M.O.; Spielman, David J.; Zerfu, Elias.
This paper examines the role of postsecondary agricultural education and training (AET) in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of the region’s agricultural innovation systems. Specifically, the paper looks at how AET in Sub-Saharan Africa can contribute to agricultural development by strengthening innovative capabilities, or the ability to introduce new products and processes that are socially or economically relevant to smallholder farmers and other agents in the agricultural sector. Using AET in Ethiopia and Mozambique as case studies, the paper argues that while AET is conventionally viewed in terms of its role in building human and scientific capital, it also has a vital role to play in building the capacity of organizations and individuals to transmit...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural education and training; Innovation systems; Sub-Saharan Africa; Ethiopia; Mozambique; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42363
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Successful organizational learning in the management of agricultural research and innovation: the Mexican produce foundations AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M.; Dutrenit, Gabriela; Martinez V., Griselda; Vargas, Arturo Torres; Vera-Cruz, Alexandre O..
Since the 1980s, developing countries’ agriculture has become more complex and diversified. In general, the public research and extension institutions in these countries were criticized for not participating in the emergence of the most dynamic agricultural markets. In recent years, many of these institutions have struggled to adapt to the new environment but they could not overcome the hurdles posed by organizational rigidities, strict public regulations, deteriorating human capital, shrinking budgets and a model of science that hampered their integration into dynamic innovation processes. In general, developing countries applied similar agricultural research policies: separation of financing and implementation of research, reductions in direct budgetary...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural Research; Mexico; Finance; Agricultural Innovations; Organizational Learning; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55511
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The CGIAR at a Crossroads: Assessing the role of international agricultural research in poverty alleviation from an innovation systems perspective AgEcon
Ekboir, Javier M..
Globalization, technical change and migration are changing the dynamics of poverty and food production. These factors, combined with a better understanding of the nature of complex processes, are also changing the nature of scientific research, the roles researchers can play in poverty alleviation and the niches in which the CGIAR can operate. While keeping strong breeding and research programs, the CGIAR should devote increasing resources to better characterize the dynamics of poverty, redefine the networks it will use to promote the use of scientific information to foster innovation, link local innovators and researchers with international scientific networks, and help to build innovative capabilities in developing countries. These capabilities should...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CGIAR; Innovation; Agricultural research; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52534
Registros recuperados: 11
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