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Beurteilung des Risikos von Pflanzenschutzmittelanwendungen in der Schweiz an Hand von Indikatoren Organic Eprints
Fließbach, Andreas; Speiser, Bernhard.
Der Einsatz von Pflanzenschutzmitteln (PSM) in der Landwirtschaft ist mit Risiken für die Anwender, die Umwelt und die Konsumenten verbunden. Das Risiko hängt von der Menge, der Toxizität und dem Umweltverhalten der Wirkstoffe in Pflanzenschutzmitteln und ihrer Formulierungen ab. In vielen Ländern werden daher die Pflanzenschutzmittelaufwendungen aufgezeichnet, und mittels mehr oder weniger komplexer Modelle die dadurch bedingten Risken abgeschätzt. In der Europäischen Gemeinschaft soll dieses Vorgehen im Rahmen der gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik harmonisiert werden. In der Schweiz wird der Verkauf und Einsatz von Pflanzenschutzmiteln in der Landwirtschaft seit einigen Jahrzehnten aufgezeichnet. Die Schweizerische Gesellschaft der Chemischen Industrie (SGCI) hat...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/17848/1/Fliessbach-Speiser-2010-Pestizide-CH.pdf
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Bodenüberwachung nach der Umstellung des Guts Rheinau auf biologische Bewirtschaftung - Berichtsperiode 1999-2010 Organic Eprints
Mäder, Paul; Pfiffner, Lukas; Fließbach, Andreas.
Mit der Umstellung des Gutes Rheinau von konventionell integrierter Bewirtschaftung auf bio-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise im Jahre 1998 wurde ein Monitoring der Bodenfruchtbarkeit begonnen, dass die biologische Veränderung im Boden während der Umstellungsphase dokumentieren sollte. Die ersten Bodenproben wurden 1999 auf drei Ackerschlägen und einer permanenten Naturwiese gezogen und dann wurden im Jahr 2002, 2005 und 2010 auf den in 1999 definierten Teilflächen je Schlag weitere Bodenproben entnommen. Neben mikrobiologischen Bodenparametern (mikrobielle Biomasse, Basalatmung, Dehydrogenaseaktivität) wurden die Regenwurmpopulationen und auch chemische Bodenparameter und lösliche und nachlieferbare Fraktionen wichtiger Nährstoffe ermittelt. Ausserdem erfolgte...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21620/1/Schlussbericht_Rheinau-BAFU_Final.pdf
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Contribution of Organic Agriculture to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change Organic Eprints
Fließbach, Andreas.
Content - The Results of the Fossil Fuel Aera - The IPCC Report - Mitigation by Organic Agriculture - Adaptiveness of the Agricultural Sector - Conclusions
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/26500/1/Fliessbach_France_2008.pdf
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Culturable fungi of stored "Golden Delicious" apple fruits: A one-season comparison study of organic and integrated production systems in Switzerland Organic Eprints
Granado, José; Thürig, Barbara; Kieffer, Edith; Petrini, Liliane; Fließbach, Andreas; Tamm, Lucius; Weibel, Franco; Wyss, Gabriela S..
The effects of organic and integrated production systems on the culturable fungal microflora of stored apple fruits from five matched pairs of certified organic and integrated ‘Golden Delicious’ farms were studied at five representative production sites in Switzerland. Isolated fungi were identified morphologically. Colonization frequency (percentage of apples colonized), abundance (colony numbers), and diversity (taxon richness) were assessed for each orchard. The standard quality of the stored fruits was comparable for both organic and integrated apples and complied with national food hygiene standards. Yeasts (six taxa) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were the dominant epiphytes, filamentous fungi (21 taxa) the dominant endophytes. The...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/26423/1/Granado_etal_2008_ME56.pdf
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Effects of conventionally bred and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize varieties on soil microbial biomass and activity Organic Eprints
Fließbach, Andreas; Messmer, Monika; Nietlispach, Bruno; Infante, Valentina; Mäder, Paul.
Genetically modified (GM) maize containing genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was cultivated on 29% of the total maize production area worldwide in 2009. Most studies to date compare Bt- maize varieties with their near isogenic lines; however, there is little information on the variability of conventional maize breeding lines and how the effects of Bt varieties are ranked within. In our study on the potential risks of Bt- maize varieties, we analyzed tissue quality and compared the effects of ten conventional and GM maize varieties on soil microbiological properties in a replicated climate chamber experiment. All maize varieties were cultivated twice in the same soil microcosm. Shoot yields and soluble C in leaf tissue of Bt...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21619/1/Fliessbach_2011_BFS.pdf
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Einfluss von biologischer und konventioneller Bewirtschaftung auf biologische Bodenqualitätsparameter: Entwicklungen im DOK Langzeitversuch nach pH-Regulierung Organic Eprints
Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen.
In the long-term DOK field trial at Therwil, Switzerland, agricultural farming systems are compared since 1978: CONFYM (mineral and organic fertilisers, synthetic pesticides), BIOORG (organic fertilisers, mechanical weeding and biological disease and pest control) and BIODYN (with composted manure and bio-dynamic preparations), all of them at two fertiliser intensities of 0.7 and 1.4 livestock units per ha, respectively. They are compared with CONMIN (conventionally managed, exclusively minerally fertilised) and NOFERT (unfertilised control). CONFYM and CONMIN were limed with 2.7 t CaCO3 ha-1 in 1999, CONMIN with additional 2 t CaCO3 ha-1 in 2005, since pH values had dropped below officially recommended values. In spring of 1998 and 2006 soil...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14512/1/Oberholzer_14512.pdf
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Einfluss von biologischer und konventioneller Bewirtschaftung auf biologische Bodenqualitätsparameter im DOK Langzeitversuch Organic Eprints
Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen.
Im DOK-Feldversuch in Therwil, Schweiz werden seit 1978 folgende landwirtschaftlichen Anbausysteme verglichen: Konventionell (CONFYM, mineralische und organische Düngung, synthetische Pflanzenschutzmittel), biologisch organisch (BIOORG, organische Düngung, mechanische Unkrautbekämpfung und biologische Krankheits- und Schädlingsbekämpfung) sowie biologisch-dynamisch (BIODYN, organische Düngung mit kompostiertem Mist, Pflanzenschutz wie BIOORG,aber ohne Cu, biologisch-dynamische Präparate).
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Composting and manuring; Weed management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26502/1/Oberholzer_Fliessbach_etal_2009_VDLUFA.pdf
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Einfluss von Pseudomonas fluorescens auf Ertrag von Weizen und mikrobielle Biomasse des Bodens Organic Eprints
Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul.
P. fluorescens is used in agriculture and horticulture as a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium. It colonizes root surfaces effectively and excretes compounds that are influencing plant nutrient uptake and plant health. Soils with different initial biological fertility were analysed 18 and 60 days after inoculating the freshly sown wheat plants with a suspension of a rifampicine tolerant strain of P. fluorescens CHA0, in order to evaluate its survival and lasting effect on soil microbial biomass. P. fluorescens had a lasting effect in soils with low initial biomass, but no lasting effects were found in biologically active soils.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14449/1/Fliessbach_14449.pdf
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Einfluss von Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 auf Ertrag von Weizen und mikrobielle Biomasse des Bodens Organic Eprints
Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul.
Pseudomonas fluorescens kommt in den meisten Böden natürlicherweise vor und vermehrt sich stark an der Wurzeloberfläche. Das Bakterium wird in Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau als biocontrol Mittel eingesetzt um das Pflanzenwachstum und die Gesundheit der Pflanze zu verbessern. Wir sind der Frage nachgegangen ob Böden, deren biologische Qualität durch langjährige Bewirtschaftung reduziert ist, von einem bakteriellen Inokulum nachhaltiger profitieren als Böden, deren biologische Aktivität schon hoch ist.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Soil.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26521/1/verein_jt09_abstractband.pdf
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Estimation by PLFA of Microbial Community Structure Associated with the Rhizosphere of Lygeum spartum and Piptatherum miliaceum Growing in Semiarid Mine Tailings Organic Eprints
Carrasco, Lucía; Gattinger, Andreas; Fließbach, Andreas; Roldán, Antonio; Schloter, Michael; Caravaca, Fuensanta.
The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community composition and biomass associated with the rhizosphere of a perennial gramineous species (Lygeum spartum L.) with that of an annual (Piptatherum miliaceum L.), both growing in semiarid mine tailings. We also established their relationship with the contents of potentially toxic metals as well as with indicators of soil quality. The total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) amount was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of the annual species than in the rhizosphere soil of the perennial species. The fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio was significantly greater in the perennial species compared to the annual species. The fatty acid 16:1ω5c, the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/17847/1/Carrasco%2Detal%2D2010%2Dmicrob%2Decol.pdf
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Evaluation of the causes of legume yield depression syndrome using an improved diagnostic tool Organic Eprints
Fuchs, Jacques G.; Thürig, Barbara; Brandhuber, Robert; Bruns, Christian; Finckh, Maria R.; Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schmidt, Harald; Vogt-Kaute, Werner; Wilbois, Klaus-Peter; Lucius, Tamm.
The aim of the study was to establish a diagnostic tool to narrow down the causes for pea yield depressions. A differential two-level diagnostic test system was established under controlled conditions usingpeas (Pisum sativum L.) as test plants. Soils from 22 organically managed sites with unexplained moderate to high pea yield losses were tested in level 1 diagnostics (y-irradiation to eliminate potentiallyharmful organisms, nutrient additions to compensate for potential nutrient deficiencies or activated charcoal amendment to bind and thereby to immobilize potentially phytotoxic compounds). Results showedthat organisms harmful to the test plant were the primary cause of limited germination and growth inmost of the sampled soils, whereas a positive effect...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/25617/1/Fuchs_2014.pdf
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Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils under organic and non-organic management - A global meta-analysis Organic Eprints
Skinner, Colin; Gattinger, Andreas; Müller, Adrian; Mäder, Paul; Fließbach, Andreas; Stolze, Matthias; Ruser, Reiner; Niggli, Urs.
It is anticipated that organic farming systems provide benefits concerning soil conservation and climate protection. A literature search on measured soil-derived greenhouse gas (GHG) (nitrous oxide and methane) fluxes under organic and non-organic management from farming system comparisons was conducted and followed by a meta-analysis. Up to date only 19 studies based on field measurements could be retrieved. Based on 12 studies that cover annual measurements, it appeared with a high significance that area-scaled nitrous oxide emissions from organically managed soils are 492 ± 160 kg CO2 eq. ha− 1 a− 1 lower than from non-organically managed soils. For arable soils the difference amounts to 497 ± 162 kg CO2 eq. ha− 1 a− 1. However, yield-scaled nitrous...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24506/1/Skinner-etal-2014-SciTotalEnviron-468-469-p553-563.pdf
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Grundlagen zur Bodenfruchtbarkeit - Die Beziehung zum Boden gestalten Organic Eprints
Berner, Alfred; Böhm, Herwart; Brandhuber, Robert; Braun, Josef; Brede, Uwe; Colling-von Roesgen, Jean-Louis; Demmel, Markus; Dierauer, Hansueli; Doppler, Georg; Ewald, Bernd; Fisel, Thomas; Fließbach, Andreas; Fuchs, Jacques; Gattinger, Andreas; Häberli, Hansueli; Heß, Jürgen; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen; Köchli, Martin; Kolbe, Hartmut; Koller, Martin; Mäder, Paul; Müller, Adrian; Neessen, Peter; Patzel, Nikola; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schmidt, Harald; Weller, Stefan; Wild, Melanie.
Die Broschüre beleuchtet die Bodenfruchtbarkeit aus verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen und bäuerlichen Blickwinkeln. Die Informationen wollen praktische Beobachtungen der Landwirte ergänzen und dazu anregen, die Beziehung zum Boden zu überdenken und eine wirklich nachhaltige Bodenkultur zu praktizieren.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21814/1/berner-etal-2012-mb-1576-bodenfruchtbarkeit.pdf
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Gut fürs Klima? Ökologische und konventionelle Landwirtschaft im Vergleich Organic Eprints
Niggli, Urs; Fließbach, Andreas.
Der Öko-Landbau verfolgt mehrere Ziele gleichzeitig: Bäuerliches Einkommen verbessern, Erträge erhöhen, Umweltschäden vermeiden, Biodiversität fördern, attraktive Landschaften pflegen, Tiere artgerecht halten und gute Lebensmittel erzeugen. Im Sport wird ein Zehnkämpfer immer von einem Sprinter im Rennen geschlagen.Es wäre deshalb falsch,den Wert des Öko-Landbaus nur aufgrund einzelner Leistungen zu beurteilen.Multifunktionalität ist eine wichtige Qualität jeder zukünftigen Landwirtschaft,und hier schneidet der biologische Landbau sehr gut ab.Aber auch in Sachen Klimaschutz braucht er den Vergleich nicht zu scheuen, wie der folgende Beitrag auf der Basis zahlreicher Untersuchungen nachweisen kann. Ökologische Landwirtschaft erweist sich gegenüber anderen...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/16492/1/Niggli-Fliessbach-2009-Agrarbericht2009-klima.pdf
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How effective are ‘Effective microorganisms® (EM)’? Results from a field study in temperate climate Organic Eprints
Mayer, Jochen; Scheid, Susanne; Widmer, Franco; Fließbach, Andreas; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf.
Effective microorganisms® (EM) is a microbial inoculant promoted to stimulate plant growth and soil fertility in agriculture. In our study we investigated the effects of EM on crop yields and soil microbial parameters in a 4-year field experiment under organic management (2003–2006) in Zurich, Switzerland. Treatments of the EM preparations (i) the spraying agent EMA, (ii) EMA with the EM enriched organic substrate Bokashi and (iii) EMA with Bokashi and farmyard manure were applied in each year. As controls to treatments (i)–(iii) the same treatments were included with sterilised EM preparations and a control without EM application. Crop yields in each year and the soil microbiological parameters soil respiration, microbial biomass (SIR, CFE), dehydrogenase...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/17863/1/Mayer%2Detal%2D2010see%2Dfront%2Dmatter.pdf
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Impact of long-term agricultural management practices on therhizosphere microbiome and plant health Organic Eprints
Babin, Doreen; Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Sandmann, Martin; Sommermann, Loreen; Nelkner, Johanna; Windisch, Saskia; Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schlüter, Andreas; Neumann, Günter; Geistlinger, Jörg; Rothballer, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita.
Increasing food and energy demands have resulted in a considerable intensification of farming practices, whichbrought about severe consequences for agricultural soils during last decades. In order to maintain soil quality andhealth for the future, the development of more extensive and sustainable farming strategies is urgently needed.The soil and rhizosphere microbiome play an integral role in virtually all soil processes and are intimately linkedto plant performance. Various studies indicated that agricultural management practices affect soil microbiomes.We therefore hypothesized that this external impact is conveyed by the microbial communities to the currentcrops at the time of their establishment. We used twelve differently...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34923/1/babin-etal-2018-EGU2018-Vol20-13918.pdf
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Impact of reduced tillage on soil organic carbon and nutrient budgets under organic farming Organic Eprints
Gadermaier, Florian; Berner, Alfred; Fließbach, Andreas; Friedel, Jürgen Kurt; Mäder, Paul.
No-tillage (NT) and reduced tillage (RT) systems are well-known management tools for reducing soil erosion and improving soil fertility. NT and RT may improve the environmental and economic performance of organic farming, but they are still not common practice among organic farmers. This paper presents the effects of tillage [RT versus conventional tillage (CT)], fertilization (slurry versus manure compost) and biodynamic preparations (with versus without) on soil fertility indicators such as soil organic carbon (Corg), microbial biomass and microbial activity, soil nutrients and nutrient budgets in an organic farming system during the first six-year crop rotation period of a long-term experiment on a clayey soil in a temperate climate. RT caused...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18921/1/Gadermaier-etal-2011-RAFS_27_1_p68-80.pdf
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Klimaneutraler Acker- und Gemüsebau - Auswirkungen von reduzierter Bodenbearbeitung und Gründüngungen auf Bodenfruchtbarkeit, Klima und Ökonomie – bisherige Erkenntnisse und aktuelle Versuche Organic Eprints
Mäder, Paul; Berner, Alfred; Fließbach, Andreas; Messmer, Monika; Koller, Martin; Weibel, Franco; Stolze, Matthias; Schader, Christian; Sanders, Jürn; Dierauer, Hansueli; Clerc, Maurice.
Die Landwirtschaft trägt weltweit mit 12–32 Prozent zum Klimawandel bei. Hauptquellen sind der Methanausstoss der Wiederkäuer, der CO2-Verbrauch für die Herstellung von Düngern und Pestiziden, die Abholzung von Wäldern für den Ackerbau und Weideflächen sowie die Bodenerosion. Auch der Einsatz des Pflugs verbraucht viel Energie, verstärkt den Abbau von Humus und belastet somit das Klima. Gemäss bisherigen Untersuchungen benötigt die biologische Landwirtschaft schon heute mit den gängigen Methoden weniger Energie als die konventionelle Bewirtschaftung. Im DOK-Versuch zum Beispiel verbrauchen die Bioverfahren 20 Prozent weniger Energie pro Ertragseinheit. Dies macht den Biolandbau zwar klimafreundlicher, aber noch nicht klimaneutral. Durch die Anwendung...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/19279/1/6a_Flyer_Projektbeschrieb_Kilmaneutraler_Ackerbau_2009.pdf
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Kohlenstoffspeicherung und Treibhausgasflüsse in Böden unter biologischer und konventioneller Bewirtschaftung – Ergebnisse aus zwei globalen Meta-Analysen Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Skinner, Colin; Müller, Adrian; Fließbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Häni, Matthias; Buchmann, Nina; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs.
Explorative literature searches followed by meta-analyses were conducted to identify differences in soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil-derived greenhouse gas emissions between organic and non-organic farming systems. Within a total of 74 studies we found significantly higher SOC concentrations, SOC stocks and C sequestration rates in organically managed soils compared to those under non-organic management. Meta-analysis of soil-derived GHG flux data from 19 studies revealed lower N2O emissions and higher CH4 uptake rates in soils under organic management when related to acreage. Due to lower yields in organic farming systems higher GHG emissions from these systems were obtained when the data was related to unit crop yield. The poor availability of farming...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21581/1/21581_gattinger.pdf
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Long-term effects of organic farming on fungal and bacterial residues in relation to microbial energy metabolism Organic Eprints
Joergensen, Rainer Georg; Mäder, Paul; Fließbach, Andreas.
Samples from the bio-dynamic, bio-organic, and conventional trial, Therwil, Switzerland, were analyzed with the aim of determining the effects of organic land use management on the energy metabolism of the soil microbial biomass and on the fraction of microbial residues. The contents of adenylates, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glucosamine, muramic acid, and galactosamine were significantly largest in the biodynamic organic farming (BYODIN) treatment and significantly lowest in the conventional farming treatment with inorganic fertilization (CONMIN). In contrast, the ergosterol-to-ATP ratio and fungal C-to-bacterial C ratios were significantly lowest in the BYODIN treatment and significantly largest in the CONMIN treatment. No clear treatment effects were...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/17860/1/Joergensen%2Detal%2D2010%2Dbiol%2Dfertil%2Dsoils.pdf
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