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Land Inequality and Economic Growth: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach AgEcon
Fort, Ricardo; Ruben, Ruerd.
The growing body of literature devoted to study the impact of inequality on economic growth have centred its attention in the income distribution effect, even though the theoretical relationships are more related to assets distributions than to income distribution. While some recent studies have tried to overcome this limitation by introducing indicators of this type, they found a new constraint when dealing only with time-invariant measurements for this explanatory variable. This article provides a theoretical discussion and some novel empirical tests to better understand the relationships between assets distribution and economic growth. We assembled a new panel database that includes observations for more than 30 countries over the last three decades....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land inequality; Economic growth; Investments; System GMM estimation; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Q15; C23; I3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25582
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NATURAL HAZARDS AND RISK AVERSION: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICA AgEcon
van den Berg, Marrit; Fort, Ricardo; Burger, Kees.
We use experimental and survey data from two natural-hazard prone countries in Latin America to test the hypothesis that natural hazards affect risk aversion. We use two methods to measure risk aversion: simple questions on the willingness to pay for a hypothetical lottery and more complicated experiments involving real pay-offs. We find that whereas the experiments provide reasonable estimates of risk aversion, the hypothetical questions result in unrealistic distributions of preferences. The experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that experiencing natural shocks makes people more risk averse, not only in the short run but also in the medium and long run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Latin America; Nicaragua; Peru; Risk aversion; Natural hazards; Experiments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51394
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The Impact of Certification on Smallholder Coffee Farmers in Kenya: The case of ‘UTZ’ certification program AgEcon
Kamau, Mercy W.; Mose, Lawrence Obae; Fort, Ricardo; Ruben, Ruerd.
Increased awareness among coffee consumers of the impact of their consumption habits on the people and environment in coffee producing countries has resulted to implementation of certification programs in the coffee sector as an assurance of good practices in production and marketing of coffee. The UTZ certificate was the first to be introduced in the Kenyan coffee industry and this study provides the first quantitative assessment of its impact on smallholder farmers. The propensity score matching technique was used because it solves the ‘selection bias’ problem in assessment of the impact of development programs. The impact of the certification program differed between the two regions where it is being implemented probably due to the differences in...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96651
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The impact of Fair Trade on banana producers in northern Peru AgEcon
Fort, Ricardo; Ruben, Ruerd.
This study provides one of the first detailed analyses of the impact of Fair Trade (FT) banana certification at the household level. With a careful selection of treatment and control farmers (through their associations) and the use of a propensity score matching technique, we were able to construct an appropriate counterfactual for the situation of FT farmers prior to their involvement in this supply chain. Due to the fact that all sales of banana FT in the Chira Valley also have an organic certification, and to be able to distinguish the effects of FT involvement from the effects of participating in the organic market, we compared the outcomes of organic farmers which belong to a FT association with the outcomes of two different types of farmers: (a)...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fair trade; Impact evaluation; Peru; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50964
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