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A decision network for inspections in organic farms in Italy Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Zanoli, Raffaele; Solfanelli, Francesco.
Inspections in organic farming systems are the key tool to assure reliability of the organic business and detection of non-compliant operators. Supporting control bodies in the inspection procedure can increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. Here we propose a decision support system for inspections based on Bayesian networks. Our model is based on statistical information taken from the archives of main Italian control body, and considers decision strategies according to the maximization of expected utility based on risk minimization. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27765/7/27765.pdf
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A DSS to improve inspection procedures in organic certification. Evidence from an Italian case study Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
Inspections in organic farming systems are the key tool to assure reliability of the organic business and detection of non-compliant operators. Supporting control bodies in the inspection procedure can increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. Here we propose a decision support system for inspections based on Bayesian networks. Our model is based on statistical information taken from the archives of main Italian control body, and considers decision strategies according to the maximization of expected utility based on risk minimization.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Values; Standards and certification Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27762/7/27762.pdf
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AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISK OF NON-COMPLIANCES IN TURKEY Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Bruschi, Viola.
In this paper we analyse the data from inspections of two European control bodies in Turkish farms to analyse risk pattern of non-compliance with the EU organic regulation. A logit model is used to identify the types of crops the are more likely related to non-compliant operators.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23793/1/23793%20IFOAM%202014_TK_rtevised%2010_02_14_MM.pdf
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Analysis of non-compliances in the organic certification system in Turkey Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Bruschi, Viola.
Organic farming in Turkey is experiencing a strong growth in recent years, with a particular attention to export towards Europe. International and domestic trade opportunities require an efficient control system for organic products. In this paper we analyse the data from inspections of two European control bodies in Turkish farms to analyse risk patterns of non-compliance with the organic regulation. A proportion test is performed to identify the types of crops that are more likely related to non-compliant operators.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/27761/7/27761.pdf
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Assessing Risk Factors in the Organic Control System: Evidence from Inspection Data in Italy Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco.
Certification is an essential feature in organic farming, and it is based on inspections to verify compliance with respect to European Council Regulation—EC Reg. No 834/2007. A risk based approach to noncompliance that alerts the control bodies to activate planning inspections would contribute to a more efficient and cost-effective certification system. An analysis of factors that can affect the probability of noncompliance in organic farming has thus been developed. This article examines the application of zero-inflated count data models to farmlevel panel data from inspection results and sanctions obtained from the Ethical and Environmental Certification Institute, one of the main control bodies in Italy. We tested many a priori hypotheses related to the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27760/1/Risk%20Analysis%20EV%202014.pdf
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Assessing the risk of non-compliance in UK organic agriculture: An econometric analysis Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Padel, Susanne.
The purpose is to provide an analysis of the risk factors influencing non-compliance in UK organic farming. The paper uses a formal econometric model of risk analysis to provide empirical evidence on the determinants of non-compliance in organic farming. A panel of data from the archives of the largest control body in the UK for 2007-2009 is used, and specific analyses are performed for two types of non-compliances. A zero inflated count data model is used for the estimation, taking into account the fact that the occurrences of non-compliance are very sparse. Results show the existence of strong co-dependence of non-compliant behaviours (i.e. the occurrence of major and critical non-compliance increases the probability of occurrence of the minor one;...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Markets and trade Values; Standards and certification Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/26880/13/Zanoli%20et%20al%202014_preprint.pdf
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Can the inspection procedures in organic certification be improved? Evidence from a case study in Italy Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
The aim of this paper is to analyze if the effectiveness of the inspection procedures in the organic certification is conditioned by measurable structural and managerial factors under control of organic control bodies (CBs), and if there is scope for possible improvements. The analysis is based on data from the archives of the largest Italian organic CB, containing information on operators’ characteristics, including a qualitative discrete risk score defined by the CB, inspectors’ characteristics, type of inspection and the outcome of the inspection, in terms of noncompliance detected and sanctions imposed. The aim is to analyze factors that could make an inspection more effective. Our measure of effectiveness is the number of detected noncompliance per...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Values; Standards and certification Regulation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/27768/1/Paper_Chania_30_05_13_DG_FS.pdf
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Come sopravvivere nel biologico: uno studio delle aziende agro-biologiche marchigiane mediante analisi di sopravvivenza. Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco.
The organic sector in Italy has grown rapidly in the years after the EC Regulation 2092/91; on the other hand, especially during the recent years, a consistent number of certified organic farmers have decided to leave from the sector, reverting to conventional system or leaving agriculture altogether. The paper reports an econometric study of organic farmers in the Marches by means of a semi-parametric survival model with data from 1993 to 2006 and investigates the factors inducing farmers to abandon the organic sector.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Farm economics; Farming Systems.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/24129/1/REA-ARTICOLO.pdf
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Distribution of the added value of the organic food chain Organic Eprints
Sanders, Jürn; Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Padel, Susanne; Orsini, Stefano; Stolze, Matthias; Lernoud, Julia; Willer, Helga.
Over the last decade the organic market in the EU has grown faster than the organic agricultural area, which raises the question to what extent organic supply chains function effectively. Therefore, this study investigated the creation and distribution of added value in a number of organic supply chains in different EU countries. The results of the case studies suggest that higher added value is created in organic compared to conventional supply chains. However, no evidence was found that the relative share of organic farmers in the total added value differs substantially from that of conventional farmers. Also in organic food supply chains farmers capture a relative small proportion of added value. This can partly be explained by similarities of organic...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy environments and social economy; Produce chain management.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31990/3/sanders-etal-2016-Distribution-of-the-added-value-EUCommission-FinalReport.pdf
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Effectiveness of organic certification: a study on an italian organic certificator's data. Organic Eprints
Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco.
The aim of this paper is to implemnt risk-based models for the inspection procedures in the organic certification. particularly, the aim is to analyse the the relationship between the type of sanction a farm receives, and the farm's structure and productions, aiming at the definition of potential risk factors.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm economics; Regulation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24128/1/1303117_Gambelli.pdf
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Exploiting Qualitative Information for Decision Support in Scenario Analysis Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Vairo, Daniela; Zanoli, Raffaele.
The development of scenario analysis (SA) to assist decision makers and stakeholders has been growing over the last few years through mainly exploiting qualitative information provided by experts. In this study, we present SA based on the use of qualitative data for strategy planning. We discuss the potential of SA as a decision-support tool, and provide a structured approach for the interpretation of SA data, and an empirical validation of expert evaluations that can help to measure the consistency of the analysis. An application to a specific case study is provided, with reference to the European organic farming business.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Specific methods.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19379/1/SAforDSSfinal_corretto.pdf
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Measuring the risk of non-compliance in Italian organic farms with parametric and non parametric models Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
Certification is an essential feature for organic products, and is based on controls/inspections to verify compliance with EU Reg. CE 834/07. Implementing a risk based inspection system can contribute to an effective and efficient organic control system, hence improving organic farming relative competitiveness. This study is part of the CERCOST EU project, and analyses data from inspections on a sample of Italian organic farms, aiming at the identification of management and structural risk factors contributing to the occurrence of non-compliances. Risk analysis is based on the estimation of both parametric and non-parametric models using negative binomial panel estimators and Bayesian network modelling.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Italy; Regulation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/27759/1/GAMBELLI%2035-38.pdf
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Modelling risk-based inspections in EU organic certification: data requirements and analysis tools Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zorn, Alexander; Lippert, Christian; Dabbert, Stephan; Zanoli, Raffaele.
A Risk Based Inspection (RBI) scheme is a planning tool used to develop the optimum plan for the execution of inspection activities. Organic certification system could benefit from the implementation of RBIs in terms of higher effectiveness, i.e. trustability, and lower transaction costs for organic operators. Data from certification bodies provide basic information about non-compliances and structural aspects of organic operators. Here we propose a methodological approach to risk analysis modelling, based on discrete choice models and Bayesian networks, both aiming at the identification of key risk factor in the organic certification process in the European Union.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Values; Standards and certification Regulation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20107/1/modelling_risk_based_inspections_in_organic_certification.pdf
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Non compliance in organic certification: determinants for Italy Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
Organic certification is based on controls on operators, and verify if they are compliant with respect to organic regulations. Control procedures are a transaction cost that affect organic farming relative competiveness. Here we propose an analysis aiming at increasing the efficiency in the individuation of key risk factors in the organic certification process. The study refers to Italian organic farmers and represents an attempt to implement a risk based inspection scheme based on a statistical approach.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20111/1/IT_NON_COMPLIANCE_ANALYSIS.pdf
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Non-compliance in organic farming: A cross-country comparison of Italy and Germany Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele; Zorn, Alexander; Lippert, Christian; Dabbert, Stephan.
This paper describes the Italian and German organic certification systems, including the institutions involved and the definitions of non-compliance and sanctions. Although they are both implementations of the same EU regulatory framework, these systems differ in many respects. Case study data from control bodies on non-compliance and sanctions are presented and analysed using binary choice models. This analysis shows that the occurrence of slight non-compliance and greater farm acreage are significant risk factors that explain severe non-compliance in both countries. However, to implement an efficient risk-based inspection system in the future, the data collection process must be improved and extended to examine personal attributes of farmers and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27758/13/27758.pdf
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Non-compliance in organic farming: A cross-country comparison of Italy and Germany Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele; Zorn, Alexander; Lippert, Christian; Dabbert, Stephan.
This paper describes the Italian and German organic certification systems, including the institutions involved and the definitions of non-compliance and sanctions. Although they are both implementations of the same EU regulatory framework, these systems differ in many respects. Case study data from control bodies on non-compliance and sanctions are presented and analysed using binary choice models. This analysis shows that the occurrence of slight non-compliance and greater farm acreage are significant risk factors that explain severe non-compliance in both countries. However, to implement an efficient risk-based inspection system in the future, the data collection process must be improved and extended to examine personal attributes of farmers and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27763/1/27763.pdf
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Organic farming and measures for European agricultural policy Organic Eprints
Häring, Anna; Dabbert, Stephan; Aurbacher, Joachim; Bichler, Barbara; Eichert, Christian; Gambelli, Danilo; Lampkin, Nicolas; Offermann, Frank; Olmos, Santiago; Tuson, Jon; Zanoli, Raffaele.
This book analyses the impact of the Agenda 2000 reform on the Common Agricultural Policy on organic farming - as one of the most established examples of environmentally freindly farming systems. The authors provide comparative assessments of the impact of first and second pillar measures on conventional and organic farms, analysing the impacts of direct payments, price support measures (agri-environmental measures, investment support, processing and marketing measures, training measures and Less Favoured Area support) for a range of countries and farm types. Finally, an outlook of possible effects of the CAP Reform 2003 on organic farming systems and recommendations on how to maximise the positive effects of agricultural policy on organic farming are...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy environments and social economy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/3092/1/Organic_Farming_in_Europe_Volume11_Organic_farming_and_measures_of_European_agricultural_policy.pdf
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RISK ASSESSMENT IN EU ORGANIC CERTIFICATION SYSTEM: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
This paper gives an overview of the recent studies on risk-based inspection in EU organic certification systems with the aim to evaluate the most relevant risk factors or farm types that are more likely associated with non-compliances. We have conducted a systematic revision of the literature regarding risk based certification in EU organic farming. Our analysis provide a new systematic approach yielding a structured qualitative summary of the results of the publications.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23827/1/23827_MM.pdf
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Un sistema di certificazione risk-based per i controlli in agricoltura biologica: un’applicazione tramite Bayesian networks. Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco; Zanoli, Raffaele.
The existing method of certification in organic agriculture system, which requires a periodical inspection for all the operators, is inefficient due to the high cost of these controls. A risk based decision support system, that could assist the inspection body during the planning of the annual inspection visits, is advocated to be more cost-effective and efficient. The risk based decision support system is constructed as a Bayesian network; the models incorporate the factors that influence risk of irregularity and analyse their effects by determining probability of non-compliance. Empirical findings using a sample of Italian data on inspection of organic farms, support the idea that the current risk categories used by control bodies in Italy are...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Regulation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/24130/1/EAA_SIEA.pdf
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Un sistema di certificazione risk-based per i controlli in agricoltura biologica: un’applicazione tramite Bayesian networks Organic Eprints
Gambelli, Danilo; SOLFANELLI, FRANCESCO; Zanoli, Raffaele.
Risk-based inspection system for the organic certification: a bayesian networks approach. The existing method of certification in organic agriculture system, which requires a periodical inspection for all the operators, is inefficient due to the high cost of these controls. A risk based decision support system, that could assist the inspection body during the planning of the annual inspection visits, is advocated to be more cost-effective and efficient. The risk based decision support system is constructed as a Bayesian network; the models incorporate the factors that influence risk of irregularity and analyse their effects by determining probability of non-compliance. Empirical findings using a sample of Italian data on inspection of organic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Values; Standards and certification Regulation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20099/1/REAA_PREPRINT.pdf
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