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Agroforestry systems can mitigate the severity of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease Organic Eprints
Andres, Christian; Blaser, Wilma J.; Dzahini-Obiatey, Henry K.; Ameyaw, George A.; Domfeh, Owusu K.; Awiagah, Moses A.; Gattinger, Andreas; Schneider, Monika; Offei, Samuel K.; Six, Johan.
Currently, the only effective treatment for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) infected with the cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) is to cut and replant infected trees. Hence, the development of preventive control measures and strategies to mitigate the severity of the disease are of utmost importance. While past research has mainly focused on resistance breeding, mild strain cross protection and vector control, diversification measures such as agroforestry have received relatively less attention, despite their potential to mitigate CSSVD severity. Therefore, we studied the effects of shade on CSSVD symptom severity, capsid damage and cocoa yield along a gradient of increasing shade tree abundance in smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana. Furthermore, we...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Africa.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32272/1/andres_etal_2018_AgriEcosysEnviron_Vol252_p83-92.pdf
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Anpassung an den Klimawandel Organic Eprints
Müller, Adrian; Gattinger, Andreas.
Globale Klimapolitik – ein Ärgernis. Sprechen wir lieber gleich von Anpassungsmassnahmen an den Klimawandel. Solche sind unumgänglich, egal was die Politik macht, vor allem in der Landwirtschaft.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20168/1/mueller_gattinger_2011_AnpassungKlimawandel_SchweizerBauer_5_10.pdf
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Auswirkungen des langfristigen ökologischen Landbaus auf bodenbürtige Treibhausgasemissionen Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Skinner, Colin; Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul.
Despite the increase in organic cropland, knowledge on the impact of organic farming on soil-derived nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions is rather limited. To improve the knowledge base, N2O and CH4 fluxes were investigated in a 571 day lasting cropping sequence in the “DOK” field trial. Two organic and two non-organic farming systems and an unfertilized control were chosen. For the whole monitoring, the two organic systems combined emitted 40% less N2O than the two non-organic ones cumulated on area-scale. Yield-scaled cumulated N2O emissions were nearly 10% lower for the organic systems combined, despite the yield gap of 27%. We found that besides N input, management induced soil quality properties drive differences in N2O emissions between...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36205/1/Beitrag_278_final_a.pdf
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Beiträge des Ökolandbaus zum Klimaschutz Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Weckenbrock, Philipp; Müller, Adrian.
Die Landwirtschaft spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Erzeugung von Lebensmitteln sowie in der Bereitstellung und dem Erhalt von gesellschaftlichen Gemeingütern. Neben der Artenvielfalt, siehe Volksbegehren in Bayern, wird hierbei der Beitrag der Landwirtschaft zum Klimaschutz besonders stark und kontrovers diskutiert. Insbesondere die Frage, ob der Ökolandbau klimafreundlich oder „schlecht für das Klima“ ist, erregt viele Gemüter. Als Beitrag zu einer Versachlichung der Diskussion wird im Folgenden auf die Hauptpunkte der Kontroverse eingegangen und der Stand der Wissenschaft zusammengefasst.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/35591/1/gattinger-etal-2019-BioTopp-Vol1-S57-59_Klimaschutz.pdf
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Bioboden - gut fürs Klima Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Menzler, Minou.
Wie klimawirksam ist welche Art der Bodenbewirtschaftung? Und wie viel Humus entsteht dabei? Wissenschaftler beschäftigen sich immer wieder mit diesem Thema. Minou Menzler befragte hierzu den Bodenexperten Andreas Gattinger.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29343/1/gattinger-2015-interview-OEL176-p22.pdf
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Biochar affects community composition of nitrous oxide reducers in a field experiment Organic Eprints
Krause, Hans-Martin; Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Harter, Johannes; Kappler, Andreas; Hartmann, Martin; Behrens, Sebastian; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas.
N2O is a major greenhouse gas and the majority of anthropogenic N2O emissions originate from agriculturally managed soils. Therefore, developing N2O mitigation strategies is a key challenge for the agricultural sector and biochar soil treatment is one reported option. Biochar's capacity to increase soil pH and to foster activity of specialized N2O reducers has been proposed as possible mechanisms for N2O mitigation. An experiment was undertaken to investigate whether changes in the community composition of N2O reducers was observed under field conditions after biochar application. The study objective was to assess the abundance and taxonomic composition of the functional marker genes nosZ and nosZ –II across a vegetation period of Zea mays L. after biochar...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32767/1/krause-etal-2018-SoilBiolBiochem-vol119-p143-151.pdf
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Biochar decomposition in agricultural soils of temperate climate Organic Eprints
Scheifele, Michael; Buegger, Franz; Fliessbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schulin, Rainer; Gattinger, Andreas.
Results › Carbon mineralization rates were highest in maize straw and lowest in pyrochar amended soil. › Pyrochar showed even lower CO2 fluxes than non-amended soil. › Initial mineralization rates of maize straw and hydrochar were higher in soil M, whereas in Soil D the pyrochar was decomposed slightly faster. › Hydrochar derived carbon was readily incorporated in the microbial biomass of both soils, pyrochar resisted nearly completely. › Comparison of carbon pools CO2 , Cmic and Corg at day 12 and day 205 shows that a stabilsation of maize feedstock of more than a double could be achieved with HTC and far beyond that scale with pyrolysis.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Soil.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/25774/1/Scheifele_et_al_Biochar_degratdation_2013_def.pdf
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Biodegradability screening of soil amendments through coupling of wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy to multiple dynamic chambers Organic Eprints
Bai, Mo; Köstler, Martin; Kunstmann, Jürgen; Wilske, Burkhard; Gattinger, Andreas; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz.
A system was developed for the automatic measurements of 13CO2 efflux to determine biodegradation of extra carbon amendments to soils. The system combines wavelength-scanned cavity ring down laser spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) with the open-dynamic chamber (ODC) method. The WS-CRDS instrument and a batch of 24 ODC are coupled via microprocessor-controlled valves. Determination of the biodegradation requires a known d13C value and the applied mass of the carbon compounds, and the biodegradation is calculated based on the 13CO2 mixing ratio (ppm) sampled from the headspace of the chambers. The WS-CRDS system provided accurate detection based on parallel samples of three standard gases (13CO2 of 2, 11 and 22 ppm) that were measured simultaneously by isotope ratio...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Soil.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21771/1/Bai-etal-2011-RapidCommunMassSpectrom-25-p3683-3689.pdf
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Bodenumsatz von Getreidestroh und Gärresten unterschiedlicher Qualität aus der Strohvergärung Organic Eprints
Knebl, Lucas; Blumenstein, Benjamin; Möller, Detlev; Wufka, André; Brock, Christopher; Gattinger, Andreas.
In einem Feldversuch auf zwei Standorten (Lehm, Sand) wurde in zwei Serien der Einfluss der Stroh-Aufbereitung auf dessen Umsatz im Boden untersucht. Die untersuchten Düngervarianten umfassten: Stroh (STR) sowie Stroh mit zusätzlicher Stickstoffgabe in Form von Hühnertrockenkot (STR+N), Rottemist (RM) und flüssigem, wie trockenem Gärrest (GRflüssig, GRtrocken) aus der Strohvergärung mit Hühnertrockenkot. Das Stroh der Varianten STR und STR+N wurde nach Ernte der Vorfrucht (Sommergetreide) eingearbeitet. Die restlichen Varianten wurden im Frühjahr appliziert. Um den Umsatz der Düngervarianten zu erfassen wurde die Produktion von CO2, N2O und CH4 in regelmäßigen Abständen an beiden Standorten gemessen. Zusätzlich erfolgte die Erhebung von Kohlenstoff- und...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36243/1/Beitrag_319_final_a.pdf
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Changing Agriculture in a Changing Climate Organic Eprints
Müller, Adrian; Gattinger, Andreas; Niggli, Urs.
Changes in weather patterns are going to affect agriculture with impacts differing according to region. The developing countries can reckon with the first effects. The authors look at the role that organic agriculture can play in adaptation. They assess the potential that organic agriculture could have but also look at the contribution that agriculture itself is making to climate change and examine how organic agriculture fares in this respect.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21829/1/mueller-etal-2012-rural21-03-p14-17.pdf
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Climate Change Adaptation Through Science-Farmer-Policy Dialogue in Mali Organic Eprints
Bautze, Lin; Nicolay, Gian L.; Meier, Matthias; Gattinger, Andreas; Müller, Adrian.
Climate change increases the number of risks for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions, especially in Western Africa. Smallholder farmers are particularly vulnerable to climate change risks. These risks affect their socioeconomic situation, as well as the local food sector value chain in general. Therefore, their food security is threatened if smallholder farming structures do not adapt to them. Thus, effective climate change adaptation measures for smallholders are essential and should be implemented without delay. However, success hinges on the acceptance of the promoted measures among various stakeholders. Thus, their acceptance needs to be assessed before promoting. The project “The potential of sustainable land-use systems to promote...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Policy environments and social economy; Africa.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34706/1/Bautze-etal-2018_ReferenceWorkEntry_ClimateChangeAdaptationThrough-Chapter-p1-15.pdf
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Combatting Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease: What do we know? Organic Eprints
Andres, Christian; Gattinger, Andreas; Dzahini-Obiatey, Henry K.; Blaser, Wilma J.; Offei, Samuel K.; Six, Johan.
Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major factors limiting cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) productivity in West Africa. The only cure for CSSVD is to cut out visibly infected trees and the official eradication campaign in Ghana has cut out more than 200 million trees since 1946. 80 years of research on preventive control measures have mainly focused on resistance breeding, mild strain cross-protection (inoculation of cocoa seedlings with a mild strain of the virus to protect against the severe strain) and control of mealybug vectors. Meanwhile, diversification measures such as agroforestry (for shading) or barrier (strip) cropping have received less attention. Despite promising results, CSSVD is more prevalent in the field than ever before....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Africa.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31347/1/andres-etal-2017-CropProtection-Vol98-p76-84.pdf
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Comment les fermes bio protègent le climat Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Oehen, Bernadette.
Les producteurs et productrices bio contribuent depuis longtemps à la protection du climat. De nombreuses directives de Bio Suisse vont dans cette direction: Interdiction des transports aériens, limitation des concentrés, interdiction des engrais de synthèse etc. Cette fiche technique montre les interactions entre le changement climatique et l'agriculture et présente des mesures supplémentaires pour diminuer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre dues aux entreprises agricoles biologiques.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/25263/1/1579-climat.pdf
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Conceptual and Practical Aspects of Climate Change Mitigation Through Agriculture: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Indreasing Soil Carbon Sequestration Organic Eprints
Müller, Adrian; Gattinger, Andreas.
Mitigation in agriculture needs to be based on two pillars: - Technically, nitrogen inputs should be reduced, organic fertilizers should replace synthetic fertilizers and storage losses should be minimized. Integrated systems with closed, efficient nutrient cycles should be the order of the day in the future. - socially, food wastage should be minimized an meat consumption reduced.
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23347/1/mueller-gattinger-2013-UNCTAD-Report-2013-p13-15.pdf
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Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming Organic Eprints
García-Palacios, Pablo; Gattinger, Andreas; Bracht-Jørgensen, Helene; Brussaard, Lijbert; Carvalho, Filipe; Castro, Helena; Clément, Jean-Christophe; De Deyn, Gerlinde; D’Hertefeldt, Tina; Foulquier, Arnaud; Hedlund, Katarina; Lavorel, Sandra; Legay, Nicolas; Lori, Martina; Mäder, Paul; Martínez-García, Laura B.; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Müller, Adrian; Nascimento, Eduardo; Reis, Filipa; Symanczik, Sarah; Paulo Sousa, José; Milla, Rubén.
1. Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role. 2. To assess whether crop residue (leaf and root) traits determined SOC sequestration responses to OF, we coupled a global meta-analysis with field measurements across a European-wide network of sites. In the meta-analysis, we related crop species averages of leaf N, leaf-dry matter content, fine-root C and N, with SOC stocks and sequestration...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32747/1/Garcia-Palacios-etal-2018-JApplEcol-online-p1-10.pdf
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Direct and indirect effects of tree diversity drive soil microbial diversity in temperate deciduous forest Organic Eprints
Thoms, Carolin; Gattinger, Andreas; Jacob, Mascha; Thomas, Frank M.; Gleixner, Gerd.
We investigated the link between aboveground and belowground diversity in temperate deciduous forest ecosystems. To this end, we determined the effects of the tree species composition on the biomass and composition of the soil microbial community using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles in the Hainich National Park, a deciduous mixed forest on loess over limestone in Central-Germany. We investigated the effects of the leaf litter composition on the microbial community, hypothesizing that distinctive leaf litter compositions increase signature PLFAs. In addition, we studied the impact of clay content, pH and nutrient status of the soil on the microbial community in different surface soil layers. Consequently, soil was sampled from depths of 0–5 cm,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/26368/1/Thoms_etal_2010_SBB42.pdf
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Distinct Nitrogen Provisioning From Organic Amendments in Soil as Influenced by Farming System and Water Regime Organic Eprints
Lori, Martina; Symanczik, Sarah; Mäder, Paul; Efosa, Norah; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Buegger, Franz; Tresch, Simon; Goesmann, Alexander; Gattinger, Andreas.
The majority of soil organic nitrogen (N) is bound in protein-like compounds and therefore its proteolysis in peptides and amino acids is considered the initial and rate limiting step of N mineralization. Proteolysis of N bound in organic fertilizer and subsequent provisioning for crops is a central element in agro-ecological intensification. Long-term farming system effects on N provisioning from organic fertilizer to crops and its underlying functional microbial communities were analyzed in experiments conducted in soils from the “DOK” system comparison trial (bio-Dynamic, bio-Organic, and “Konventionell”) subjected to optimal and future projected drought scenarios. A plant nutrition experiment using 15N labeled lupine as a fertilizer (green manure)...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/33347/1/lori-etal-2018-forntEnvSci_online_doi103389fenvs201800040.pdf
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Does certified organic farming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production? Comment on the McGee study Organic Eprints
Müller, Adrian; Aguilera, Eduardo; Skinner, Colin; Gattinger, Andreas.
A recent study by McGee (Agriculture and Human Values, 32, 255–263, 2015) from the University of Oregon has led to discussions in international media and on the web. This study addresses an interesting question and applies advanced statistics for its analysis. However, we identify several methodological flaws that invalidate the results. First, McGee tests a hypothesis that does not correspond to his main question and which does not allow McGee to derive the conclusions that are drawn in his paper and reported in the media coverage. Second, the data used are not adequate for the analysis because: i) the dependent variable does not reflect the greenhouse gas emissions characteristics of organic agriculture (e.g. different emission factors in organic and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Air and water emissions; Policy environments and social economy.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30373/1/Muller-etal-AgHumVal-2016.pdf
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Emission und Aufnahme von Lachgas und Methan durch Ackerböden in der Fruchtfolgesequenz Kunstwiese – Silomais unter konventioneller und biologischer Bewirtschaftung Organic Eprints
Skinner, Colin; Krauss, Maike; Conen, Franz; Hansen, Sissel; Mayer, Jochen; Neftel, Albrecht; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas.
Organic farming systems provide multiple environmental benefits. Concerning climate change they have a substantial mitigation potential. Skinner et al. (2014) evaluated with Meta-Analysis the global dataset on comparative field measurements of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes under organic and non-organic agricultural management that have been published by the end of 2012. They showed that for arable land-use under organic management compared to non-organic 1) the cumulated area-scaled N2O emissions are about 15 % lower, 2) yield-scaled N2O emissions are slightly higher and 3) CH4 uptake is higher. However, this database is thin and further field measurements covering whole crop rotations are needed to close knowledge gaps. Therefore soil GHG fluxes are...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/26920/2/26920_skinner.pdf
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Enhanced top soil carbon stocks under organic farming Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Müller, Adrian; Haeni, Matthias; Skinner, Collin; Fliessbach, Andreas; Buchmann, Nina; Mäder, Paul; Stolze, Matthias; Smith, Pete; El-Hage Scialabba, Nadia; Niggli, Urs.
It has been suggested that conversion to organic farming contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but until now a comprehensive quantitative assessment has been lacking. Therefore, datasets from 74 studies from pairwise comparisons of organic vs. nonorganic farming systems were subjected to metaanalysis to identify differences in soil organic carbon (SOC). We found significant differences and higher values for organically farmed soils of 0.18±0.06% points (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for SOC concentrations, 3.50 ± 1.08 Mg C ha−1 for stocks, and 0.45 ± 0.21 Mg C ha−1 y−1 for sequestration rates compared with nonorganic management. Metaregression did not deliver clear results on drivers, but differences in external C inputs and crop rotations seemed...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21735/1/Gattinger-etal-2012-PNAS-vol109-44.pdf
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