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Arbuskuläre Mykorrhizapilze als Bioindikatoren in Schweizer Landwirtschaftsböden Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Jansa, Jan; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; van der Heijden, Marcel.
Die meisten Nutz- und Wildpflanzen bilden eine Symbiose mit einer speziellen Gruppe von Bodenpilzen, den Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilzen (AM-Pilze). AM-Pilze übernehmen in allen von Pflanzen besiedelten Ökosystemen wichtige Funktionen. Sie bilden ein engmaschiges Pilzfadengeflecht im Boden und geben lebensnotwendige Nährstoffe aus dem Boden an die Pflanzen weiter und schützen diese gegen Stress und Trockenheit. Sie reduzieren Nährstoffverluste aus dem Boden und können durch Lebendverbauung Erosion vermindern und somit die Stabilität on Ökosystemen erhöhen. AM-Pilze scheinen als Bioindikatoren besonders geeignet zu sein, da diese Pilzgruppe mit bisher bekannten 230 Arten überschaubar klein ist und sowohl häufige als auch seltene Arten enthält. In der Schweiz...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Indicators and other value-laden measures; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21813/1/oehl-etal-2011-agrarforschungSchweiz-2-0708-p304-311.pdf
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Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils are not necessarily low in diversity Organic Eprints
Hijri, Isabelle; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Oehl, Fritz; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Wiemken, Andres; Redecker, Dirk.
Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in five agricultural field sites of different management intensities were studied. Variable regions of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to detect and identify AMF directly within colonized roots. Roots from a continuous maize monoculture showed low AMF diversity, in agreement with previous reports on molecular diversity of AMF in agricultural soils. In contrast, a substantially higher diversity of AMF was found throughout the long term `DOK' field experiment, where organic and conventional agricultural practices have been compared side by side since 1978. In this experiment, a 7-year crop rotation is performed under lower levels of inorganic fertilizer input and chemical pest control. These results are in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13462/1/hijri%2Detal%2D2006%2Dmolecular_ecology%2Dvol15%2D2277%2D89.pdf
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Distinct sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities from different agroecosystems in long-term microcosms Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas.
The aim of this study was to investigate sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from agroecosystems differing in land use intensity in long-term experimental microcosms. These were set up with characteristic grassland plants (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, Plantago lanceolata), and inoculated with soils from several grasslands and arable lands subjected to crop rotation or continuous monocropping. The microcosms were maintained under ambient light and temperature conditions over 3 years. A novel, localized sampling scheme was applied for attaining exclusively the newly formed spores at bimonthly intervals. Overall, 39 AMF species were detected by morphological spore identification. Some species were recovered from all...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26382/1/Oehl_etal_2009_AEE134.pdf
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Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of central Europe Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres.
The impact of land use intensity on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at eight sites in the “three-country corner” of France, Germany, and Switzerland. Three sites were low-input, species-rich grasslands. Two sites represented low- to moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation, and three sites represented high-input continuous maize monocropping. Representative soil samples were taken, and the AMF spores present were morphologically identified and counted. The same soil samples also served as inocula for “AMF trap cultures” with Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium perenne. These trap cultures were established in pots in a greenhouse, and AMF root colonization and spore formation were monitored over...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/26750/1/Oehl_et_al_2003_AEM.pdf
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