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Registros recuperados: 21
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A New Institutional Economics Perspective on the Relationship Among Societal Values, Governance Structure and Access to Rural Health Care Services AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
According to New Institutional Economics, transactional activities, governance structures, institutions and beliefs and values are related hierarchally. Williamson (2000) formalizes this framework to show that each governing level must be aligned with the adjacent level for transaction costs to be minimized. This framework is applied to the question of balancing costs and access in health care. Transaction costs in providing health care services can be minimized if all hierarchal functions are aligned. Examining the highest level associated with beliefs and values reveals that the beliefs of people might not be fully consistent with the institutions and governance structures expected or advocated in the area of health care, particularly in the context of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rural health care; Cost; Access; Efficiency; New institutional economics; Rights; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7362
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Are Farmers of the Middle Distinctively “Good Stewards?” Evidence from the Missouri Farm Poll, 2006 AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Hendrickson, Mary K..
In this paper we consider the question of whether middle-scale farmers, which we define as producers generating between $100,000 and $250,000 in sales annually, are better agricultural stewards than small and large-scale producers. Our study is motivated by the argument of some commentators that farmers of this class ought to be protected in part because of the unique attitudes and values they possess regarding what constitutes a “good farmer”. We present results of a survey of Missouri farmers designed to assess farmer attitudes and values regarding a variety of indicators of farmer stewardship, such as the most important issues in agriculture, environment and treatment of farm animals, perspectives on the past and future of agriculture, and ethical...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farmers of the middle; Good farmer; Agrarianism; Farmer attitudes and values; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92623
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ARE HAPPY PEOPLE ETHICAL PEOPLE? EVIDENCE FROM NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Chymis, Athanasios G..
We examine empirically the relationship between happiness and the ethical decisions of individuals. We use data from the 1995-97 wave of the World Values Survey (WVS) to test the hypothesis that the relationship between happiness and ethics is bicausal in the sense that personal ethics affects one's happiness while happiness also affects ethical preferences and proclivities. We find that happiness increases in ethical proclivities and that greater happiness results in improved ethical judgments, after correcting for bicausality and controlling for income and other factors.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26034
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ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION IN CATTLE AUCTIONS: THE PROBLEM OF REVACCINATIONS AgEcon
Chymis, Athanasios G.; James, Harvey S., Jr.; Konduru, Srinivasa; Pierce, Vern L..
The paper analyzes the problem of asymmetric information between buyers and sellers in cattle auctions. An illustration is made regarding the vaccinations that the animals receive. Buyers do not know and cannot verify if sellers have vaccinated their animals forcing them to consider revaccination. Revaccination is only a part of the broader problem of information asymmetry that includes other quality issues and costs that can be saved, thereby increasing the welfare of both buyers and sellers. Structural characteristics of ranching, traditions and consumers' preferences are taken into account and a wider approach is attempted to explain the persistence of the problem in light of potential institutional solutions. We argue for a comprehensive empirical...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26039
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Does the World Need U.S. Farmers Even if Americans Don’t? AgEcon
Hendrickson, Mary K.; James, Harvey S., Jr.; Heffernan, William D..
We consider the implications of trends in the number of U.S. farmers and food imports on the question of what role U.S. farmers have in an increasingly global agrifood system. Our discussion stems from the argument some scholars have made that American consumers can import their food more cheaply from other countries than it can produce it. We consider the distinction between U.S. farmers and agriculture and the effect of the U.S. food footprint on developing nations to argue there might be an important role for U.S. farmers, even if it appears Americans don’t need them. For instance, we may need to protect U.S. farmland and, by implication, U.S. farmers, for future food security needs both domestic and international. We also explore the role of U.S....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92642
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Economic Pressures and the Ethical Attitudes of Farmers AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Hendrickson, Mary K..
We consider the effect of economic pressures on the ethical attitudes of farmers. We present a model to derive the hypothesis that an increase in the economic pressures a farmer faces will result in that farmer being more willing to justify or rationalize unethical conduct or to express attitudes more accommodating of unethical conduct than farmers not experiencing economic pressures. We use data from a survey of 3,000 Missouri farmers with farm sales in excess of $10,000 in 2005. In the survey farmers were asked how acceptable they considered various unethical farming practices. The survey also contained questions designed to measure economic pressures. We find small but statistically significant evidence that economic pressures result in a greater...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9942
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FARMER TRUST IN AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES: EVIDENCE FROM MISSOURI CORN AND SOYBEAN PRODUCERS AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Sykuta, Michael E..
We examine whether cooperatives are characterized by greater trust than investor-owned firms. We survey 2000 Missouri corn and soybean farmers and find that trust and farmer perceptions of trustworthiness and competence are higher in cooperatives than in investor-owned firms and that trust is a significant factor explaining the choice of farmers to market to cooperatives rather than investor-owned firms. Interestingly, we find that trust is more significant in producers’' decisions for marketing soybeans than for corn.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19974
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FARMING FOR ETHICS: AN EXAMINATION OF THE ETHICAL CHALLENGES OF MISSOURI CORN AND SOYBEAN PRODUCERS AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
Interviews with Missouri corn and soybean farmers reveal what farmers feel are the most important ethical challenges in agriculture. In contrast to the literature, which characterizes ethical challenges in term of philosophical debates about soil conservation, the use of pesticides and genetically modified seeds, or the treatment of animals, for instance, this research finds that farmers perceive ethical challenges in behavioral terms. The reason is rooted in the industrialization of agricultural production, which creates tensions for farmers between doing what they believe to be right and doing what they feel they must in order to survive.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26036
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FINDING SOLUTIONS TO ETHICAL PROBLEMS IN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
This paper distinguishes between two types of ethical Problems. A Type I ethical problem is one in which there is no consensus as to what is ethical. A Type II ethical problem is one in which there is a consensus as to what is ethical, but incentives exist for individuals to behave unethically. This paper shows that Type I ethical problems can only be resolved by making, challenging and reasoning through moral arguments, and Type II ethical problems can only be resolved by changing the institutional environment so that people do not have incentives to behave Unethically. Applications to and examples from agricultural and environmental problems are provided.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26046
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For a Sustainable Agriculture, We Need More Adam Smith, Not Less AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
There are two competing approaches sustainability in agriculture. One stresses a strict economic approach in which market forces should be allowed to guide the activities of agricultural producers. The other advocates the need to balance economic with environmental and social objectives, even to the point of reducing profitability. This paper shows how the writings of the 18th century moral philosopher Adam Smith could bridge the debate. First, he is recognized by those advocating the economic approach as an architect of modern economics. Second, his writings are consistent with many aspects of sustainable agriculture. Smith argues that people ought to exercise restraint in their pursuit of self-interest. He also recognizes the need to balance economic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26047
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Markets, Contracts, or Integration? The Adoption, Diffusion, and Evolution of Organizational Form AgEcon
Sykuta, Michael E.; Klein, Peter G.; James, Harvey S., Jr..
The rise of contract farming and vertical integration is one of the most important changes in modern agriculture. Yet the adoption and diffusion of these new forms of organization has varied widely across regions, commodities, or farm types, however. Transaction cost theories and the like are not fully effective at explaining the variation of adoption rates of different organizational forms, in part because of their inherent static nature. In order to explain the adoption, diffusion and evolution of organizational form, a more dynamic framework is required. This paper lays out such a framework for understanding the evolution of organizational practices in U.S. agriculture by drawing on existing theories of economic organization, the diffusion of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contracting; Vertical integration; Organizational innovation; Diffusion; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; L14; L22; Q13; O33.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19390
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On the Uniqueness of Hybrids, Market Exchanges, and Vertical Integration: Evidence from Physician-Hospital Marketing Relationships AgEcon
Barnes, James N.; Fannin, James Matthew; James, Harvey S., Jr.; Klein, Peter G..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Physician arrangements; Vertical integration; Hybrid contracts; Cannonical discriminant analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; I11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56539
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Perceived Economic Pressures and Farmer Ethics AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Henrickson, Mary K..
We consider the effect of perceived economic pressures on the ethical attitudes of farmers. We hypothesize that an increase in the economic pressures a farmer faces could result in that farmer being more tolerant of unethical conduct than farmers not experiencing economic pressures. To test this hypothesis, we use data from a survey of 3,000 Missouri farmers with farm sales in excess of $10,000 in 2005 in which farmers were asked how acceptable they considered various unethical or questionable farming practices. The survey also contained questions designed to measure perceived economic pressures. We find evidence that economic pressures result in a greater willingness of farmers to tolerate unethical conduct, particularly in the case of actions that have...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7361
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The Coase Theorem, or the Coasian Lens? An Application to GMO Regulation AgEcon
Barnes, James N.; James, Harvey S., Jr.; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G..
We develop a property rights-transaction costs framework called the Coasian Lens (CL). We argue the CL captures Coase's seminal ideas (1937; 1960) more closely than the Coase Theorem. We use the CL to examine how regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may affect contract structures in the global agri-food chain.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34640
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THE EFFECT OF TRUST ON PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY: EVIDENCE FROM THE U.S. BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY, 1997-1998 AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which trust directly affects public support for biotechnology, particularly in applications to food production and genetic modification of crop plants. Unlike previous research in which trust is assumed to be exogenous, this paper posits that trust is endogenously determined. An econometric model is developed that controls for the endogeneity of trust using instrumental variable and selection correction techniques. Using data from the U.S. Biotechnology Study, this study finds that the effect of trust on public support is substantially stronger than previous estimates.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26041
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THE EFFECT OF TRUST ON PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY: EVIDENCE FROM THE U.S. BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY, 1997-1998 AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which trust directly affects public support for biotechnology, particularly in applications to food production and genetic modification of crop plants. Unlike previous research in which trust is assumed to be exogenous, this paper posits that trust is endogenously determined. An econometric model is developed that controls for the endogeneity of trust using instrumental variable and selection correction techniques. Using data from the U.S. Biotechnology Study, this study finds that the effect of trust on public support is substantially stronger than previous estimates.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19651
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THE ETHICS OF CONSTRAINED CHOICE: HOW THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE IMPACTS FARMING AND FARMER BEHAVIOR AgEcon
Hendrickson, Mary K.; James, Harvey S., Jr..
The industrialization of agriculture not only alters the ways in which agricultural production occurs, but also impacts the decisions farmers make in important ways. First, constraints created by the economic environment of farming limit what options a farmer has available to him. Second, because of the industrialization of agriculture and the resulting economic pressures it creates for farmers, the fact that decision are constrained creates new ethical challenges for farmers. Having fewer options when faced with severe economic pressures is a very different situation for farmers than having many options available. We discuss the implications of constrained choice and show that it increases the likelihood that farmers will consider unethical behavior.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26040
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Trust in Biotechnology Risk Managers: Insights from the United Kingdom, 1996-2002 AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Marks, Leonie A..
During the late 1990s a series of negative events occurred in the United Kingdom (UK) related to biotechnology. These events signaled potential risks associated with biotech foods and crops and were highly reported. According to the trust asymmetry hypothesis, such events ought to cause public trust in risk managers of biotechnology to decline rapidly and rebound more slowly. We find, based on data taken from the Eurobarometer surveys conducted in 1996, 1999 and 2002, that public trust in risk managers did decline from 1996 to 1999. However, the level of trust rebounded sharply between 1999 and 2002. Canonical discriminant analysis of public trust is used to reveal possible explanatory factors in this response. We find that whether people trust or distrust...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92644
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Trust in Biotechnology Risk Managers: Insights from the United Kingdom, 1996-2002 AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr.; Marks, Leonie A..
The mid to late 1990s saw a series of negative media events in the United Kingdom (UK) related to biotechnology. According to the trust asymmetry hypothesis, such events ought to cause public trust in risk managers of biotechnology to fall quickly but rise slowly. We present evidence from the Eurobarometer surveys that from 1996 to 1999 public trust in the UK declined, but it increased sharply between 1999 and 2002. We seek to explain this apparent contradiction to the asymmetry hypothesis. We use canonical discriminant analysis of public trust to show that whether people trust or distrust risk managers of biotechnology depends significantly on the amount of knowledge people have about science. We speculate that knowledge of science moderates the trust...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21153
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Trust in Scientists and Food Manufacturers: Implications for the Public Support of Biotechnology AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
An analysis of data from the U.S. Biotechnology Study, 1997S1998 reveals that few variables affect public trust in scientists, while variables representing perceived benefits, risks, trustworthiness, and competence affect trust in food manufacturers on matters of biotechnology. Both trust in scientists and trust in food manufacturers have a large and important effect on public support for biotechnology, although trust in scientists is found to be more important than trust in food manufacturers. Findings of this analysis suggest that trust in scientists is relatively generalized, while trust in food manufacturers is particularized.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetic modification; Public support of biotechnology; Public trust; Trust; Agribusiness; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62273
Registros recuperados: 21
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