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Registros recuperados: 8
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Barriers to Eastern Oyster Aquaculture Expansion in Virginia ArchiMer
Beckensteiner, Jennifer; Kaplan, David; Scheld, Andrew M..
The eastern oyster once provided major societal and ecosystem benefits, but these benefits have been threatened in recent decades by large declines in oyster harvests. In many areas, recovery of oyster aquaculture faces significant societal opposition and spatial constraints limiting its ability to meet expectations regarding future food needs and provision of ecosystem services. In Virginia, oyster aquaculture has begun to expand, concurrent with an increase in subaqueous leased areas (over 130,000 acres of grounds are currently leased). Though private leases must in theory be used for oyster production, in practice, they can be held for other reasons, such as speculation or intentional exclusion of others. These factors have led to large variation over...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea virginica; Oyster aquaculture; Chesapeake Bay; Spatial management; User conflicts.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00611/72337/71162.pdf
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Detecting outliers in species distribution data: Some caveats and clarifications on a virtual species study ArchiMer
Meynard, Christine N.; Kaplan, David; Leroy, Boris.
Liu et al. (2018) used a virtual species approach to test the effects of outliers on species distribution models. In their simulations, they applied a threshold value over the simulated suitabilities to generate the species distributions, suggesting that using a probabilistic simulation approach would have been more complex and yield the same results. Here, we argue that using a probabilistic approach is not necessarily more complex and may significantly change results. Although the threshold approach may be justified under limited circumstances, the probabilistic approach has multiple advantages. First, it is in line with ecological theory, which largely assumes non‐threshold responses. Second, it is more general, as it includes the threshold as a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: ENM; Observation errors; Outliers; Prevalence; Probabilistic approach; Sample bias; Simulations; Species distribution models; Virtual ecology; Virtual species.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00501/61309/64868.pdf
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Eating up the world's food web and the human trophic level ArchiMer
Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-elise.
Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species' diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1-5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Human ecology; Nutrition transition; Trophic ecology.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00171/28190/26609.pdf
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Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean ArchiMer
Currie, J. C.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, Jerome; Kaplan, David; Aumont, Olivier; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Maury, Olivier.
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing....
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00166/27749/25945.pdf
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Statistics of the French Purse Seine Fishing Fleet Targeting Tropical Tunas in the Indian Ocean (1981-2018) ArchiMer
Floch, Laurent; Depetris, Mathieu; Dewals, Patrice; Duparc, Antoine; Kaplan, David; Lebranchu, Julien; Marsac, Francis; Pernak, Marianne; Bach, Pascal.
In 2018, a total of 14 French vessels operated in the eastern Indian Ocean including 12 purse seiners and 2 supplies. The total capacity weighted by the months of activity for each vessel is 11686t. The total nominal effort in 2018 was of 2885 fishing days and 2723 sets with 2463 sets on floating objects and 260 on free schools. In 2018, the percentage of sets on FOB was 90% and the catches reached 91%. The total catch of the French component of the EU purse seine fleet of the Indian Ocean was 84,729 t, being composed of 36%, 58%, and 6% of yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, and bigeye tuna respectively. Thus, the most noticeable change in 2018 is the shift of catches from the free school sets, dominated by yellowfin, to the associated school sets, dominated...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tropical tuna fisheries; French purse seining; Free swimming school; Fish aggregating devices; Katsuwonus pelamis; Thunnus albacares; Thunnus obesus.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00590/70259/68318.pdf
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Testing methods in species distribution modelling using virtual species: what have we learnt and what are we missing? ArchiMer
Meynard, Christine N.; Leroy, Boris; Kaplan, David.
Species distribution models (SDMs) have become one of the major predictive tools in ecology. However, multiple methodological choices are required during the modelling process, some of which may have a large impact on forecasting results. In this context, virtual species, i.e., the use of simulations involving a fictitious species for which we have perfect knowledge of its occurrence‐environment relationships and other relevant characteristics, have become increasingly popular to test SDMs. This approach provides for a simple virtual ecologist framework under which to test model properties, as well as the effects of the different methodological choices, and allows teasing out the effects of targeted factors with great certainty. This simplification is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Artificial species; Environmental niche models; Niche; Simulations; Species distribution modelling; Virtual ecologist.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00501/61308/64864.pdf
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The True Challenge of Giant Marine Reserves ArchiMer
Kaplan, David; Bach, Pascal; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Chassot, Emmanuel; Chavance, Pierre; Dagorn, Laurent; Davies, Tim; Dueri, Sibylle; Fletcher, Rick; Fonteneau, Alain; Fromentin, Jean-marc; Gaertner, Daniel; Hampton, John; Hilborn, Ray; Hobday, Alistair; Kearney, Robert; Kleiber, Pierre; Lehodey, Patrick; Marsac, Francis; Maury, Olivier; Mees, Chris; Menard, Frederic; Pearce, John; Sibert, John.
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00139/25068/23186.pdf
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Wind-induced variability in larval retention in a coral reef system: a biophysical modelling study in the South-West Lagoon of New Caledonia ArchiMer
Cuif, Marion; Kaplan, David; Lefevre, Jerome; Faure, Vincent Martin; Caillaud, Matthieu; Verley, Philippe; Vigliola, Laurent; Lett, Christophe.
In the present work, a biophysical dispersal model is used to understand the role of the physical environment in determining reef fish larval dispersal patterns in the South-West Lagoon of New Caledonia. We focus on a reef fish species, the humbug damselfish Dascyllus aruanus, to investigate seasonal variability of simulated larval retention at the scale of a reef patch and at the scale of the lagoon, and to explore links between larval retention and wind variability. The model shows that retention exhibits considerable temporal variability and periodically reaches values much larger than anticipated. Non-zero larval settlement occurs over a large part of the lagoon. Nevertheless, settlement values decrease quickly away from the natal reef and mean...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00170/28115/26326.pdf
Registros recuperados: 8
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