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Registros recuperados: 82
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A Club No More - The WTO after Doha AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Since its inception the GATT, and subsequently the WTO, has been able to operate in a fashion that is more consistent with a club than an inclusive organization that encouraged the active participation of all its members. The WTO Ministerial Meeting in Doha in November 2001 appears to have been a watershed in how the organization functions, and the club model may no longer be appropriate. While it is not yet clear what will replace the previous model, it is apparent that decision making will be much more diffused and the interests of a much broader spectrum of member countries taken into account. The central question is whether or not the transformed organization can still serve the interests of those who were previously able to dominate the club–the major...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Club; Developing countries; Doha; International trade; Multilateral organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23909
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A New World Chaos? International Institutions in the Information Age AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The technological revolutions that underlie the new information age will tax considerably the abilities of existing international institutions to bring order to international relations. Rapid rates of change may lead to chaos if international institutions cannot evolve to accommodate those changes. In some cases, new organisations will be required. The role given international organisations in establishing order in the latter half of the 20th century is reviewed. The new challenges presented by the information age are outlined. Whether the existing international organisations will be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes brought by the information age is assessed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Change; Globalisation; International institutions; Law; Trade policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23831
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A Qualitative Assessment of the Benefits and Costs of On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans in the Beef Sector AgEcon
Kerr, William A.; Wasylyniuk, Chad R.; Hobbs, Jill E.; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Richard S..
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-food sector. For this reason, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) commissioned this series of reports to develop a conceptual framework to strengthen our understanding of the potential benefit and cost implications of On-farm Food Safety (OFFS) and Environmental Farm Plans (EFP) that were key components of the APF. The reports were prepared by a group of academics with extensive knowledge of the agriculture...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55299
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A Qualitative Assessment of the Benefits and Costs of On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans in the Dairy Sector AgEcon
Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Larue, Bruno; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A.; Gray, Richard S..
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-food sector. For this reason, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) commissioned this series of reports to develop a conceptual framework to strengthen our understanding of the potential benefit and cost implications of On-farm Food Safety (OFFS) and Environmental Farm Plans (EFP) that were key components of the APF. The reports were prepared by a group of academics with extensive knowledge of the agriculture...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55301
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A Qualitative Assessment of the Benefits and Costs of On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans in the Grain Sector AgEcon
Gray, Richard S.; Ferguson, Mark; Martin, Bill; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A.; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe.
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-food sector. For this reason, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) commissioned this series of reports to develop a conceptual framework to strengthen our understanding of the potential benefit and cost implications of On-farm Food Safety (OFFS) and Environmental Farm Plans (EFP) that were key components of the APF. The reports were prepared by a group of academics with extensive knowledge of the agriculture...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55300
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A Qualitative Assessment of the Benefits and Costs of On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans in the Pork Sector AgEcon
Hobbs, Jill E.; Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Richard S.; Kerr, William A.; Larue, Bruno.
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-food sector. For this reason, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) commissioned this series of reports to develop a conceptual framework to strengthen our understanding of the potential benefit and cost implications of On-farm Food Safety (OFFS) and Environmental Farm Plans (EFP) that were key components of the APF. The reports were prepared by a group of academics with extensive knowledge of the agriculture...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55298
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A Trade Regime for Sub-National Exports Under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures AgEcon
Loppacher, Laura J.; Kerr, William A.; Barichello, Richard R..
Regulations relating to disease management have traditionally been an important component of the overall environment in which international trade in agriculture products occurs. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) allows members to restrict or prohibit imports from a country when imported products present a risk to human, animal or plant health or life. As the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, also commonly called Mad Cow disease in the media) outbreak in Canada showed, the disease status of a country is a major competitive advantage and losing disease-free status can impose significant costs on an industry. The risks associated with SPS-based border closures were not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24166
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A Trade Regime for Sub-National Exports Under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures AgEcon
Loppacher, Laura J.; Kerr, William A.; Barichello, Richard R..
Regulations relating to disease management have traditionally been an important component of the overall environment in which international trade in agriculture products occurs. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) allows members to restrict or prohibit imports from a country when imported products present a risk to human, animal or plant health or life. As the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, also commonly called Mad Cow disease in the media) outbreak in Canada showed, the disease status of a country is a major competitive advantage and losing disease-free status can impose significant costs on an industry. The risks associated with SPS-based border closures were not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24152
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AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: WILL IT BE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERRED THROUGH THE MARKET OR PIRACY? AgEcon
Tarvydas, Robert; Gaisford, James D.; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26027
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CAN THE WTO/GATT AGREEMENTS ON SANITARY AND PHYTO-SANITARY MEASURES AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE BE RENEGOTIATED TO ACCOMMODATE AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY? AgEcon
Perdikis, Nicholas; Kerr, William A.; Hobbs, Jill E..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25999
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CATTLE/BEEF SUBSECTOR'S STRUCTURE AND COMPETITION UNDER FREE TRADE AgEcon
Anderson, David P.; Kerr, William A.; Sanchez, Guillermo; Ochoa, Rene F..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16879
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Challenging US Country of Origin Labelling at the World Trade Organization: The Law, The Issues and The Evidence AgEcon
Sawka, Alison L.; Kerr, William A..
Canada and Mexico are formally challenging US country of origin (COOL) legislation at the World Trade Organization. The industries most affected by COOL are beef and pork. The effect of COOL on North American cross border supply chains is outlined. The areas of international trade law upon which a challenge could be mounted are explained and the key issues that a disputes panel would have to determine indicated. The nature of the evidence that may be required to bolster Canada’s case is outlined.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Country of origin; Marks of origin; Protectionism; Technical Barriers to Trade; Supply chains; WTO; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95806
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Challenging US Country of Origin Labelling at the WTO: The Law, the Issues and the Evidence AgEcon
Sawka, Alison L.; Kerr, William A..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: COOL; WTO; Labelling; Despite; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102306
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CHINA'S REGULATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY - DOES IT CONFORM TO THE WTO? AgEcon
Loppacher, Laura J.; Kerr, William A..
The People's Republic of China has been working for over two decades to develop a domestic biotechnology industry. Even though China is a developing country, it is set to become a significant international player in the field of biotechnology. China's accession to the World Trade Organization in December of 2001 means that China's trade and regulatory regime should now reflect its WTO commitments. This paper outlines the development of the Chinese biotechnology industry and how it may evolve in the future. It assesses China's current approach to trade and regulation of biotechnology in relation to GATT rules on trade in goods and the TRIPS commitments pertaining to the protection of intellectual property. The conclusion is that China's trade and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; China; Intellectual property; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23938
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Do Labour Standards have a Role in International Trade?: Private Standards, Preferential Trade Agreements or the WTO AgEcon
Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A..
It is now common for producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) to urge for the inclusion of labour standards in international trade agreements. In spite of this, there has been little empirical work to determine whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This paper provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have attempted to have labour standards included in WTO disciplines. In the absence of success at the WTO, the relationship between labour standards and international trade has, however, been evolving in the areas of private standards and preferential trade agreements. Given the role...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumers; Food processing; Labour standards; Preferential trade agreements; Trade distortion; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90883
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Dumping - One of Those Economic Myths AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Dumping is one of the most poorly understood and contentious issues in trade policy. The primary reason is that the agreed definitions of dumping are not based on a solid economic foundation. This allows antidumping measures to be used for protectionist ends and to harass trade partners. While putting antidumping measures on a sounder economic foundation in international law may be difficult given their popularity with politicians, no progress can be made until economists provide a theoretically sustainable definition of dumping and devise a set of transparent criteria for determining if dumping is occurring. This paper explains the difficulties with the current definitions of dumping and outlines an agenda for future progress.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dumping; International predation; Price discrimination; Protectionist; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23876
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Enjoying a Good Port with a Clear Conscience: Geographic Indicators, Rent Seeking and Development AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The European Union is attempting to have the protection of geographic indicators strengthened in the WTO. There may be sufficient rents and other benefits available to justify this strategy in the negotiations. To achieve its rent-seeking goals, however, the European Union needs allies at the negotiations. It has been courting developing countries by touting the benefits of geographic indicators for their products. For most products originating in developing countries, the opportunities for rents will first have to be created, a resource-intensive and problematic activity. Further, even if rents can be created in the short run, the forces of competition are likely to erode them. Scarce resources might be better utilized on other development strategies that...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Developing countries; Geographic indicators; Incentives; Rent seeking; Sustainable development; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23827
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ENTER THE DRAGON: CHINA'S ACCESSION TO THE WTO AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12891
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Environmental Tariffs: Will They Be Captured by Protectionists? AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Environmental tariffs appear to be a politically necessary part of the climate change policies that are emerging in many countries. The appeal of level playing field arguments is seductive and difficult to dispute. Environmental policy makers, however, may be naïve, because they fail to account for the potential of trade policy mechanisms and institutions to be captured by traditional vested interests seeking economic protection. The exact structures and institutional frameworks for environmental tariffs are often left vague by environmental policy makers, making them easy targets for protectionists. Environmental tariffs appear to be particularly vulnerable to capture given the complexity of production and the embryonic stage of the science of measuring...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Capture; Environmental tariffs; Level playing field; Protectionism; WTO; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91789
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Everything is on the Table: Agriculture in the Canada-EU Trade Agreement AgEcon
Viju, Crina; Kerr, William A.; Mekkaoui, Cherine.
Most observers agree that the major areas where gains can be made in CETA are in the services sector and selected areas of manufacturing. It seems unlikely that CETA will be as all encompassing as the NAFTA with only a few agricultural products excluded from full tariff elimination. Still, it sends a bad signal if some trade liberalization is not achieved in agriculture and with a long implementation period no reason not to make progress. The major gains in agriculture are likely to be in niche markets which taken individually are small but in aggregate could provide a boost to Canadian agriculture. Most importantly, a trade agreement with the potential to open a rich market with 500 million consumers to the wide range of products and services exported by...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Canada; EU trade; Agreement; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95800
Registros recuperados: 82
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