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A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks ArchiMer
Bird, Christopher S.; Verissimo, Ana; Magozzi, Sarah; Abrantes, Katya G.; Aguilar, Alex; Al-reasi, Hassan; Barnett, Adam; Bethea, Dana M.; Biais, Gerard; Borrell, Asuncion; Bouchoucha, Marc; Boyle, Mariah; Brooks, Edward J.; Brunnschweiler, Juerg; Bustamante, Paco; Carlisle, Aaron; Catarino, Diana; Caut, Stephane; Cherel, Yves; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Churchill, Diana; Ciancio, Javier; Claes, Julien; Colaco, Ana; Courtney, Dean L.; Cresson, Pierre; Daly, Ryan; De Necker, Leigh; Endo, Tetsuya; Figueiredo, Ivone; Frisch, Ashley J.; Hansen, Joan Holst; Heithaus, Michael; Hussey, Nigel E.; Iitembu, Johannes; Juanes, Francis; Kinney, Michael J.; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Klarian, Sebastian A.; Kopp, Dorothee; Leaf, Robert; Li, Yunkai; Lorrain, Anne; Madigan, Daniel J.; Maljkovic, Aleksandra; Malpica-cruz, Luis; Matich, Philip; Meekan, Mark G.; Menard, Frederic; Menezes, Gui M.; Munroe, Samantha E. M.; Newman, Michael C.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Plumlee, Jeffrey D.; Polo-silva, Carlos; Quaeck-davies, Katie; Raoult, Vincent; Reum, Jonathan; Torres-rojas, Yassir Eden; Shiffman, David S.; Shipley, Oliver N.; Speed, Conrad W.; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Teffer, Amy K.; Tilley, Alexander; Valls, Maria; Vaudo, Jeremy J.; Wai, Tak-cheung; Wells, R. J. David; Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Yool, Andrew; Trueman, Clive N..
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats. We show that populations of shelf-dwelling sharks derive a substantial proportion of their carbon from regional pelagic sources, but contain individuals that forage within additional...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00420/53141/54249.pdf
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Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the increasing occurrence of shark-human interactions around a fast-developing Indian Ocean island ArchiMer
Lagabrielle, Erwann; Allibert, Agathe; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Kilfoil, James P.; Lemahieu, Anne.
Understanding the environmental drivers of interactions between predators and humans is critical for public safety and management purposes. In the marine environment, this issue is exemplified by shark-human interactions. The annual shark bite incidence rate (SBIR) in La Réunion (Indian Ocean) is among the highest in the world (up to 1 event per 24,000 hours of surfing) and has experienced a 23-fold increase over the 2005–2016 period. Since 1988, 86% of shark bite events on ocean-users involved surfers off the leeward coast, where 96% of surfing activities took place. We modeled the SBIR as a function of environmental variables, including benthic substrate, sea temperature and period of day. The SBIR peaked in winter, during the afternoon and dramatically...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00429/54011/55227.pdf
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Environmental DNA illuminates the dark diversity of sharks ArchiMer
Boussarie, Germain; Bakker, Judith; Wangensteen, Owen S.; Mariani, Stefano; Bonnin, Lucas; Juhel, Jean-baptiste; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Kulbicki, Michel; Manel, Stephanie; Robbins, William D.; Vigliola, Laurent; Mouillot, David.
In the era of "Anthropocene defaunation," large species are often no longer detected in habitats where they formerly occurred. However, it is unclear whether this apparent missing, or "dark," diversity of megafauna results from local species extirpations or from failure to detect elusive remaining individuals. We find that despite two orders of magnitude less sampling effort, environmental DNA (eDNA) detects 44% more shark species than traditional underwater visual censuses and baited videos across the New Caledonian archipelago (south-western Pacific). Furthermore, eDNA analysis reveals the presence of previously unobserved shark species in human-impacted areas. Overall, our results highlight a greater prevalence of sharks than described by traditional...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00442/55321/56837.pdf
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