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Registros recuperados: 13
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AN OPTION PERSPECTIVE ON GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years, in part to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13779
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CONSERVING GENETIC RESOURCES FOR AGRICULTURE: COUNTING THE COST AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16485
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Costing the Ex Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources: Maize and Wheat at CIMMYT AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D.; Van Dusen, M. Eric; Skovmand, Bent; Taba, Suketoshi.
Worldwide, the number of genebanks and the amount of seed stored in them has increased substantially over the past few decades. Most attention is focused on the likely benefits from conservation, but conserving germplasm involves costs whose nature and magnitude are largely unknown. Because more resources spent on conserving germplasm often means less spent on characterizing the collection or using the saved seeds in crop-improvement research, knowledge of the costs of germplasm conservation has important, possibly long run, R&D management, policy, and food-security consequences. Moreover, these costs place a lower bound on the benefits deemed likely to justify the expense of saving this seed. In this paper we compile and use a set of cost data for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Germplasm conservation; Gene banks; Plant; Maize -- Breeding; Wheat -- Breeding; Rate of return; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97509
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CREATING, PROTECTING, AND USING CROP BIOTECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE IN AN ERA OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Koo, Bonwoo; Nottenburg, Carol.
Proponents tout the positive incentive-to-innovate effects of intellectual property rights (IPRs), while others maintain that the expanding subject matter and geographical extent of IPRs are stifling crop research, especially research and development (R&D) dealing with developing-country crop concerns. Much of this debate relies on anecdotes and misleading or incomplete evidence on the extent and nature of the IPRs pertaining to crop technologies, including the jurisdictional extent of the property rights and their practice. In this paper we review the evidence on the scope of agricultural R&D worldwide, provide new data on the structure of crop-related IPRs, and summarize trends on the uptake of proprietary bioengineered crops.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Plant patents; Utility patents; Plant breeders' rights; Crop varieties; Public and private agricultural R&D; Biotechnology; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13600
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DYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS OF PATENTING FOR CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D..
"October 1999". Includes bibliographical references (p. 33-34).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Plant breeding -- Technological innovations; Plant genetic engineering -- Economic aspects; Intellectual property; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97507
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ECONOMICS OF PATENTING A RESEARCH TOOL AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D..
When a new technology consists of sequences of innovations that culminate in a final consumer product, the balance between successive innovators is one of the main concerns in the design of the patent system. While intertemporal aspects of incentive are critical in this environment of sequential innovations, time plays a minor role in existing literature on dynamic models. By focusing on the incentives of follow-on innovators who commercialize an initial invention, this study examines the dynamic implications of the patent instrument (e.g., patent life) via a positive analysis. It shows that a long patent life may encourage innovation incentives and increase social welfare, contrary to existing arguments that argue that long patent life always discourages...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Patent life; Research tool; Licensing; Rent dissipation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16095
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INTRODUCTION: A TAXONOMY OF GENEBANK VALUE AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Koo, Bonwoo.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16482
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Security Analysis for Agroterrorism: Applying the Threat, Vulnerability, Consequence Framework to Developing Countries AgEcon
Linacre, Nicholas A.; Koo, Bonwoo; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Msangi, Siwa; Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Gaskell, Joanne; Komen, John; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina.
In some developing countries the potential exists for agroterrorism to cause widespread disruption through loss of sustenance, income and production. Defense of agriculture may also be problematic because of the lack stability and basic biosecurity infrastructure for the detection and prevention of diseases or invasive species. Currently new methodological approaches for terrorism risk assessments are being actively explored for resource prioritization. One such methodology for risk based allocation of resources is Threat, Vulnerability, and Consequence (TVC) Analysis. A qualitative application of the TVC framework is used to analyze the risk of agroterrorism in developing countries relative to industrialized countries. The analysis suggests that evidence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroterrorism; Terrorism risk analysis; Biosecurity; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59238
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STRATEGIES FOR TIMELY EVALUATION OF GENEBANK ACCESSIONS AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16479
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Imprime registro no formato completo
THE ECONOMICS OF GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and institutional...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Crop Improvement; Option Value; Seed Markets; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16052
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Imprime registro no formato completo
The Economics of Generating and Maintaining Plant Variety Rights in China AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China’s present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and institutional...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q16; Q18; O32; O34.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57908
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The Evolving Landscape of IP Rights for Plant Varieties in the United States, 1930-2008 AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Koo, Bonwoo; Drew, Jennifer; Nottenburg, Carol.
The United States was the first country in the world to explicitly offer intellectual property protection for plant varieties. Beginning in 1930, asexually reproduced plants were afforded plant patent protection, in 1970 sexually propagated plants could be awarded plant variety protection certificates, and beginning in 1985, courts confirmed that varieties of all types of plants were eligible for utility patents. From 1930 to 2008, a total of 34,340 varietal rights applications were lodged. The number of rights being sought continues to grow, with 42 percent of all the varietal rights claimed since 2000. Contrary to popular perception, most of these rights are for horticultural crops (69 percent), with ornamentals accounting for the lion’s share of the...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Plant patents; Plant variety protection; Utility patents; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q16; Q18; O32; O34.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119346
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The timing of evaluation of genebank accessions and the effects of biotechnology AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D..
The lack of ex-ante evaluation of germplasm in genebanks has been the single most prevalent and long-standing complaint of plant breeders about the management of genebanks. Advances in biotechnology offer the possibility of faster, cheaper, and more efficient evaluation methodologies. Will these new technologies favor ex-post evaluation, as some expect, or will it lead to more ex-ante evaluation? Will it also lead to earlier development of varieties with disease resistance traits in anticipation of actual infestations? Will the prospect of further advances in biotechnology favor delay of evaluation and development? This paper addresses these questions in the case of evaluation of germplasm for resistance to a disease.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gene banks; Plant; Biotechnology; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97514
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