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Registros recuperados: 35
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A long-term field experiment demonstrates the influence of tillage on the bacterial potential to produce soil structure-stabilizing agents such as exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides Organic Eprints
Cania, Barbara; Vestergaard, Gisle; Krauss, Maike; Fliessbach, Andreas; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie.
Background: Stable soil aggregates are essential for optimal crop growth and preventing soil erosion. However, tillage is often used in agriculture to loosen the soil, which disrupts the integrity of these aggregates. Soil aggregation can be enhanced by bacteria through their ability to produce exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. These compounds stabilize soil aggregates by “gluing” soil particles together. However, it has yet to be shown how tillage influences the bacterial potential to produce aggregate-stabilizing agents. Therefore, we sampled conventional and reduced tillage treatments at 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–50 cm from a long-term field trial in Frick, Switzerland. We compared the stable aggregate fraction of the soil and the bacterial...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/35214/1/Cania_EnvMic_2019.pdf
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Auswirkungen des langfristigen ökologischen Landbaus auf bodenbürtige Treibhausgasemissionen Organic Eprints
Gattinger, Andreas; Skinner, Colin; Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul.
Despite the increase in organic cropland, knowledge on the impact of organic farming on soil-derived nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions is rather limited. To improve the knowledge base, N2O and CH4 fluxes were investigated in a 571 day lasting cropping sequence in the “DOK” field trial. Two organic and two non-organic farming systems and an unfertilized control were chosen. For the whole monitoring, the two organic systems combined emitted 40% less N2O than the two non-organic ones cumulated on area-scale. Yield-scaled cumulated N2O emissions were nearly 10% lower for the organic systems combined, despite the yield gap of 27%. We found that besides N input, management induced soil quality properties drive differences in N2O emissions between...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36205/1/Beitrag_278_final_a.pdf
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Beikrautsamenvorrat im Vergleich reduzierter und konventioneller Bodenbearbeitung unter Biobedingungen Organic Eprints
Geißler, M.; Armengot, Laura; Mäder, Paul; Krauss, Maike.
Armengot L, Berner A, Blanco-Moreno J, Mäder P & Sans FX (2014) Long-term feasibility of reduced tillage in organic farming. Agron Sustain Dev 35(1): 339-346. Cooper J et al. (2016) Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks: a meta-analysis. Agron Sustain Dev 36: 1-20. Gruber S & Claupein W (2009) Effect of tillage intensity on weed infestation in organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research 105(1): 104-111. Montgomery DR (2007) Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations. University of California Press, California. Moonen AC & Barberi P (2004) Size and composition of the weed seedbank after 7 years of different cover-crop-maize management systems. Weed Research 44(3): 163-177.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31576/1/Beikrautsamenvorrat%20im%20Vergleich%20reduzierter%20und.pdf
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Bodenfruchtbarkeit verbessern Organic Eprints
Mäder, Paul; Krauss, Maike.
Der Erhalt und die Mehrung des Humusgehaltes sind im Fokus der Bewirtschaftung biologisch-dynamischer Höfe. Langzeitversuche am FiBL haben gezeigt, dass die Anwendung von kompostiertem Mist und die reduzierte Bodenbearbeitung einen substanziellen Beitrag zur Humusmehrung leisten und das Bodenleben fördern.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32115/1/maeder-krauss-2017-bodenfruchtbarkeit-verbessern-LebendigeErde_04_p38-41.pdf
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Bodenorganismen mögen es ruhig Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Berner, Alfred; Fliessbach, Andreas; Pfiffner, Lukas; Mäder, Paul.
Im Ackerbau sitzt man in Sachen Bodenbearbeitung zwischen zwei Stühlen. Zum einen bringt eine intensive Bodenbearbeitung zumindest kurzfristig oft agronomische Vorteile, zum anderen birgt sie ein hohes Erosionsrisiko und beeinträchtigt das Bodenleben stark. Es gilt, einen Mittelweg zu finden, der eine nachhaltige und bodenschonende Bewirtschaftung ermöglicht, ohne die momentane landwirtschaftliche Produktivität zu reduzieren.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29309/1/krauss-etal-2015-hotspot-32-Biodiversitaet-p10-11.pdf
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Coltivare senza aratro - giova al suolo e al clima Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike.
Un’agricoltrice che rinuncia all’aratro può generare un arricchimento di humus e più protezione del clima. Perché il metodo funzioni è però necessario un vasto sapere nell’ambito.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32228/1/Bioattualit%C3%A0_6_2017_M.Krauss.pdf
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Combination of Spatial and Temporal Diversification in European Cropping Systems Organic Eprints
Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Sukkel, Wijnand; Schmaedeke, Frank; Arlotti, Donatienne; Toque, Clotilde; Vandevalle, Aline; Jensen, Erik; van Apeldoorn, Dirk; Krauss, Maike; Campanelli, Gabriele; Lefèvre, Amélie; Dauber, Jens; Tebbe, Christoph; Cuperus, Fogelina; Canali, Stefano.
There is a lack of results on the advantages and limitations of combining different crop diversification strategies both in time and space, which makes it difficult for famers and advisers to find relevant information for the transition towards more diversified cropping systems. A network of ten field experiments (diverIMPACTS project) was built across seven European countries, covering a range of pedo-climatic conditions and different farming systems: arable and vegetable systems under both conventional and organic management. Each field experiment tests one or several diversified cropping systems, which combine three diversification strategies with low input practices. These diversified cropping systems are compared to reference systems, which are less...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34565/1/corre-hellou-etal-2018-ESA2018_FinalAbstractBook_p145-146.pdf
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Conservation tillage in organic farming Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul; Peigne, Joséphine; Cooper, Julia.
Conservation tillage in organic farming combines the principles of organic farming with the benefits of soil erosion control achieved by the conversion from ploughing to either reduced tillage or no-tillage/direct-seeding. This chapter reviews more than two decades of on-station and on-farm research. The chapter outlines the main benefits of conservation tillage before considering its main challenges. The chapter also contains a number of specific case studies from the field. Finally, the chapter looks ahead to future research trends in this area and offers detailed guidance on where to find further information about this subject.
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34333/1/Book-%20Improving%20organic%20crop%20cultivation.pdf
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Cultiver sans labourer: Bon pour le sol, bon pour le climat Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike.
Quand un agriculteur bio renonce au labour, cela permet de former davantage d’humus et de protéger le climat. Il faut cependant bien connaître son affaire pour que ça fonctionne dans la pratique.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32225/1/Bioactualit%C3%A9s_6_2017_M.Krauss.pdf
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Emission und Aufnahme von Lachgas und Methan durch Ackerböden in der Fruchtfolgesequenz Kunstwiese – Silomais unter konventioneller und biologischer Bewirtschaftung Organic Eprints
Skinner, Colin; Krauss, Maike; Conen, Franz; Hansen, Sissel; Mayer, Jochen; Neftel, Albrecht; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas.
Organic farming systems provide multiple environmental benefits. Concerning climate change they have a substantial mitigation potential. Skinner et al. (2014) evaluated with Meta-Analysis the global dataset on comparative field measurements of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes under organic and non-organic agricultural management that have been published by the end of 2012. They showed that for arable land-use under organic management compared to non-organic 1) the cumulated area-scaled N2O emissions are about 15 % lower, 2) yield-scaled N2O emissions are slightly higher and 3) CH4 uptake is higher. However, this database is thin and further field measurements covering whole crop rotations are needed to close knowledge gaps. Therefore soil GHG fluxes are...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/26920/2/26920_skinner.pdf
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Entwicklung von Alternativen zum Pflug. Zwischenbericht 2018 Organic Eprints
Böhler, Daniel; Dierauer, Hansueli; Krauss, Maike; Schmid, Nathaniel; Clerc, Maurice; Locher, Michael.
Die wendende Bodenbearbeitung mit dem Pflug ist im biologischen und im konventionellen Ackerbau nach wie vor stark verbreitet. Im Biolandbau gilt der Pflug oft als Ersatz für die fehlenden Herbizide. Durch die wendende Bodenbearbeitung werden Ernterückstände und Samen in die Pflugtiefe von ca. 20 cm vergraben. Das hindert die Samen an der Keimung. Gepflügte Böden trocknen schneller ab. Das Zeitfenster für die Aussaat wird dadurch grösser. Auch der Start der Kulturen ist durch die schnell einsetzende Mineralisierung am besten. Der Pflug hat neben seinen vielen Vorteilen aber auch gewichtige Nachteile, die oft vergessen gehen. Er fördert den Humusabbau, die Regenwürmer mit ihren Röhrensystemen werden zerstört, die Erosionsgefahr steigt, Verdichtungen im...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage; Weed management; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34896/1/boehler-etal-2018-Zwischenbericht_Sur-la-Croix2018_Boden_def.pdf
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FE 8: Complex arable-ley rotation in organic farming Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Perrochet, Frédéric; Rindisbacher, Stefan; Mäder, Paul.
Mid-term trial in Fislisbach, Switzerland, Start: 2018
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34868/1/Poster_Krauss_Maike_DiverIMPACTS_2018_web.pdf
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Gut für den Boden, gut fürs Klima Organic Eprints
Berner, Alfred; Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul.
Erste Ergebnisse eines Versuchs des Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL) zeigen, dass durch reduzierte Bodenbearbeitung im ökologischen Landbau mehr Kohlenstoff gespeichert und die Ertragssicherheit gesteigert werden kann. Voraussetzung dafür ist jedoch eine Optimierung des pfluglosen Systems.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/17896/1/7b_D_Berner_2009_Oekologie_Landbau.pdf
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Impact of reduced tillage on greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon stocks in an organic grass-clover ley - winter wheat cropping sequence Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Müller, Tortsen; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas.
Organic reduced tillage aims to combine the environmental benefits of organic farming and conservation tillage to increase sustainability and soil quality. In temperate climates, there is currently no knowledge about its impact on greenhouse gas emissions and only little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in these management systems. We therefore monitored nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes besides SOC stocks for two years in a grass-clover ley – winter wheat – cover crop sequence. The monitoring was undertaken in an organically managed long-term tillage trial on a clay rich soil in Switzerland. Reduced tillage (RT) was compared with ploughing (conventional tillage, CT) in interaction with two fertilisation systems, cattle slurry...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31286/1/Krauss-etal-2017-AEE-Vol239-p324-333.pdf
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Ist der Biolandbau klimafreundlicher? Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Gattinger, Andreas; Skinner, Colin; Krause, Hans-Martin.
Eine kürzlich am Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL) in Frick abgeschlossene Literaturstudie zeigt, dass biologisch bewirtschaftete Flächen aufgrund des geringeren Stickstoffeintrags flächenbezogen weniger Lachgas produzieren und tendenziell mehr Methan aus der Atmosphäre aufnehmen.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/27095/1/krauss-etal-2013-BZ-Klima.pdf
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Ist der Biolandbau klimafreundlicher? Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Gattinger, Andreas; Skinner, Colin; Krause, Hans-Martin.
Die Schweizer Landwirtschaft verursacht 11,2 Prozent* der gesamten Treibhausgasemissionen, wobei Methan (CH4) aus der Fermentation in Wiederkäuermägen 45 Prozent und Lachgas (N20) aus den Böden 38 Prozent der landwirtschaftlichen Emissionen ausmachen. Die Lachgasemissionen aus gedüngten Böden sind daher von Bedeutung und eine Reduktion durch ein angepasstes Management absolut notwendig.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/27098/1/krauss-etal-2013-ZB-Klima.pdf
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Low-cost Drohnen Einsatz zur Erkennung von Wurzelunkräutern Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Hofstetter, Christoph; Dierauer, Hansueli; Liebisch, Frank.
Wurzelunkräuter breiten sich heterogen aus und sind schwer im Feld zu kartieren. Ist eine Erkennung aus der Luft auch mit einfacher Ausstattung zur Erfolgskontrolle von Bekämpfungsmassnahmen möglich?
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/35290/1/Poster_Low-cost_Drohnen_Krauss_2019_Eprints.pdf
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Mitigating the impact of agriculture on air quality and climate change: Solutions for improved Nitrogen management Organic Eprints
Steinemann, Beatrice; Gattinger, Andreas; Krauss, Maike; Berner, Alfred; Leiber, Florian; Maurer, Veronika; Meier, Matthias; Oehen, Bernadette; Bautze, Lin; Niggli, Urs.
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth, and are now higher than ever. This has led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide that are unprecedented in at least the last 800 000 years. Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Farming Systems Air and water emissions Values; Standards and certification Biodiversity and ecosystem services Landscape and recreation Knowledge management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/29863/1/ifoam_ifoameu_policy_air_quality_climate_dossier_2014.pdf
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N use efficiencies and N2O emissions in two contrasting, biochar amended soils under winter wheat-cover crop-sorghum rotation Organic Eprints
Hüppi, Roman; Neftel, Albrecht; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Krauss, Maike; Six, Johan; Leifeld, Jens.
Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues, is evaluated as an option to tackle major problems of the global food system. Applied to soil, biochar can sequester carbon and have beneficial effects on nitrogen (N) cycling, thereby enhancing crop yields and reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. There is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms, but many experiments indicated increased yields and manifold changes in N transformation, suggesting an increase in N use efficiency. Biochar's effects can be positive in extensively managed tropical agriculture, however less is known about its use in temperate soils with intensive fertilisation. We tested the effect of slow pyrolysis wood chip biochar on N use efficiency, crop...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/34685/1/hueppi_etal-2016_EnvironResLett-Vol11-p084013.pdf
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Organic Knowledge Network Arable - D.3.1 State-of-the-art research results and best practices Organic Eprints
Niggli, Urs; Schmidt, Jennifer; Watson, Christine; Kriipsalu, Mait; Shanskiy, Merrit; Barberi, Paolo; Kowalska, Jolanta; Schmitt, Annegret; Daniel, Claudia; Wenthe, Ulla; Conder, Malgorzarta; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Schild, Marion; Dierauer, Hansueli; Krauss, Maike; Moeskops, Bram; Padel, Susanne; Micheloni, Cristina; Constanzo, Ambrogio; Thonar, Cécile; Wilbois, Klaus-Peter.
In this deliverable of the Project OK-Net Arable project, the findings from peer-review research on the productivity of organic arable crops are reported. Then the conclusions and recommendations for five most important levers which can be used by the farmers are presented. Finally, the most important recommendations of the EIP-AGRI Focus Group on Organic Farming - Optimizing Arable Yields are summarized in order to put innovation on organic farms in its social context.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30506/1/OK_Net_WP3_D31_final.pdf
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