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Registros recuperados: 33
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Age, Health, and the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions: A Contingent Valuation Survey in Japan AgEcon
Itaoka, Kenshi; Krupnick, Alan J.; Akai, Makoto; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B..
A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Sizuoka, Japan, to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for reductions in the risk of dying and calculate the value of statistical life (VSL) for use in environmental policy in Japan. Special attention was devoted to the effects of age and health characteristics on WTP. We find that the VSLs are somewhat lower (103 to 344 million yen) than those found in the virtually identical survey applied in some developed countries. These values were subject to a variety of validity tests, which they generally passed. We find that the WTP for those over age 70 is lower than that for younger adults, but that this effect is eliminated in multiple regression. Rather, when accounting for other covariates, we find that WTP...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Value of statistical life; Mortality risk; Contingent valuation; Age; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10829
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Age, Health, and the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions: A Contingent Valuation Survey of Ontario Residents AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B.; O'Brien, Bernie; Goeree, Ron; Heintzelman, Martin.
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. This research aims to fill gaps in the literature that estimates the value of a statistical life (VSL) by designing and implementing a contingent valuation study for persons 40 to 75 years of age, and eliciting WTP for reductions in current and future risks of death. Targeting this age range also allows us to examine the impact of age on WTP and, by asking respondents to complete a detailed health questionnaire, to examine the impact of health status on WTP. This survey was self-administered by computer to 930 persons in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1999. The survey uses audio and visual aids to communicate baseline risks of death and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mortality risk valuation; Canada; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Risk and Uncertainty; I1; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10888
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Air Pollution Control Policy Options for Metro Manila AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Fischer, Carolyn; Rolfe, Kevin; Logarta, Jose; Rufo, Bing.
The Asian Development Bank has sponsored research on market-based instruments for managing pollution in Metro Manila, Philippines, where air quality is seriously degraded. This report offers three policy options for reducing particulate emissions and their precursors. For stationary sources, we recommend an emissions fee that creates efficient financial incentives to reduce emissions while raising revenues for monitoring and enforcement activities. For mobile sources, we propose a pilot diesel retrofit program using a low-cost technology that is effective at existing 2,000 ppm sulfur content. Second, we recommend a charge on the sulfur content of diesel fuel to encourage meeting and surpassing the 500 ppm standard to allow for more advanced particulate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions tax; Philippines; Particulates; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q01.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10612
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Controlling Ozone and Fine Particulates: Cost Benefit Analysis with Meteorological Variability AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bergin, Michelle S.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Russell, Armistead G..
In this paper, we develop an integrated cost-benefit analysis framework for ozone and fine particulate control, accounting for variability and uncertainty. The framework includes air quality simulation, sensitivity analysis, stochastic multi-objective air quality management, and stochastic cost-benefit analysis. This paper has two major contributions. The first is the development of stochastic source-receptor (S-R) coefficient matrices for ozone and fine particulate matter using an advanced air quality simulation model (URM-1ATM) and an efficient sensitivity algorithm (DDM-3D). The second is a demonstration of this framework for alternative ozone and PM2.5 reduction policies. Alternative objectives of the stochastic air quality management model include...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ambient air; Ozone; Particulate matter; Risk management; Public policy; Cost-benefit analysis; Variability and uncertainty; Stochastic simulation; Stochastic multi-objective programming; Decision-making; National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Environmental Economics and Policy; C6; Q2; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10735
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Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform: An Assessment of the Science and the Art AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Toman, Michael.
The continuing efforts in the 104th Congress to legislate requirements for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the revised Office of Management and Budget guidelines for the conduct of such assessments during a regulatory rulemaking process highlight the need for a comprehensive examination of the role that CBA can play in agency decision-making. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge regarding CBA and offers suggestions for improvement in its use, especially in the context of environmental regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Risk management; Regulatory reform; Demand and Price Analysis; D6; L5.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10851
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Cost-Effective NOx Control in the Eastern United States AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; McConnell, Virginia D.; Cannon, Matthew; Stoessell, Terrell; Batz, Michael B..
Reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in the eastern United States has become the focus of efforts to meet ozone air quality goals and will be useful for reducing particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the future. This paper addresses many aspects of the debate over the appropriate approach for obtaining reductions in NOx emissions from point sources beyond those called for in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data on NOx control technologies and their associated costs, spatial models linking NOx emissions and air quality, and benefit estimates of the health effects of changes in ozone and PM concentrations are combined to allow an analysis of alternative policies in thirteen states in the eastern United States. The first part of the study...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10483
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Does the Value of a Statistical Life Vary with Age and Health Status? Evidence from the United States and Canada AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Simon, Nathalie B..
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. Yet the literature providing estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reductions measures the value that healthy, prime-aged adults place on reducing their risk of dying, whereas the majority of statistical lives saved by environmental programs, according to epidemiological studies, appear to be the lives of older people and people with chronically impaired health. This paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects of age and baseline health on WTP for mortality risk reductions by reporting the results of two contingent valuation surveys designed to test the above hypotheses. One survey was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Mortality; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Health Economics and Policy; D61; D62; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10769
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Economic Uncertainties in Valuing Reductions in Children's Environmental Health Risks AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Adamowicz, Wiktor L..
The recognition that environmental hazards can affect children differently and more severely than adults has provoked growing concern in industrialized nations about the impact of environmental pollution on children's health. In this paper, commissioned by the OECD, we are charged with examining "economic uncertainties" associated with valuing the benefits of environmental policies that reduce risk to children's health. We examine two sources of uncertainty in benefits estimation: forecasting uncertainty and modeling uncertainty. We explore how these sources of uncertainty affect the use of standard economic and non-economic approaches to the valuation of health benefits. These include willingness-to-pay measures, cost-of-illness and human-capital...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; QALY; Children; Social welfare function; Health valuation; Environmental health; Household behavior; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q51; I18; I1; J17; D13; D6; D63; D64.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10722
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Economics of Pollution Trading for SO2 and NOx AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Evans, David A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Toth, Russell.
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major U.S. programs for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We evaluate these programs along measures of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Emission trading; Power plants; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q25; Q28; D78.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10488
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Efficiency and Political Economy of Pollution Control with Ancillary Benefits: An Application to NOx Control in the Chesapeake Bay Airshed AgEcon
Austin, David H.; Krupnick, Alan J.; McConnell, Virginia D..
This paper examines implications for cost-effective allocation of pollution controls when preferences of coalitions organized along regional lines, or according to preferences for air vs. water quality improvements, are accounted for. Results are compared to a base case in which NOx emissions reductions must satisfy only a water quality standard, and total costs are minimized over emissions sources. Relative to base-case result that marginal control costs must be equal across sources, stronger relative preferences for air imply shifting of control toward sources that produce greater ancillary benefits to air quality. Regional differences may require side payments to induce cooperation where benefits are low, but this will not affect how controls themselves...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10553
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Eliciting Information on Uncertainty from Heterogeneous Expert Panels: Attributing U.S. Foodborne Pathogen Illness to Food Consumption AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Krupnick, Alan J.; McWilliams, Michael.
Decision analysts are frequently called on to help inform decision-makers in situations where there is considerable uncertainty. In such situations, expert elicitation of parameter values is frequently used to supplement more conventional research. This paper develops a formal protocol for expert elicitation with large, heterogeneous expert panels. We use formal survey methods to take advantage of variation in individual expert uncertainty and heterogeneity among experts as a means of quantifying and comparing sources of uncertainty about parameters of interest. We illustrate use of this protocol with an expert elicitation on the distribution of U.S. foodborne illness from each of 11 major foodborne pathogens to the consumption of one of 11 categories of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food safety; Expert elicitation; Risk analysis; Food attribution; Foodborne pathogen; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10444
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Emissions Trading to Improve Air Quality in an Industrial City in the People's Republic of China AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Abeygunawardena, Piya; Anderson, Robert; Bell, Ruth Greenspan; Krupnick, Alan J.; Schreifels, Jeremy; Dong, Cao; Jinan, Wang; Jitian, Wang; Larsen, Steiner.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10782
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IDENTIFYING THE MOST SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL FOODBORNE RISKS TO PUBLIC HEALTH: A NEW RISK-RANKING MODEL AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Taylor, Michael R.; Morris, Joe; Krupnick, Alan J.; Batz, Michael B..
This paper presents a decision-analytic model for ranking the social burden of foodborne illness. The availability a consistent, transparent model allowing use of alternative ranking criteria and data assumptions will facilitate discussions between agencies committed to different criteria. By use of multiple criteria, the model highlights overlooked food safety problems.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20291
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Intel's XL Permit: A Framework for Evaluation AgEcon
Boyd, James; Krupnick, Alan J.; Mazurek, Janice V..
The paper develops a framework to evaluate permits granted to firms under the Environmental Protection Agency's Project XL -- with emphasis on the novel air permit granted to the Intel Corporation. We describe the permit, the process that created it, and the types of costs and benefits likely to arise from this type of "facility-specific" regulatory arrangement. Among other things, the paper describes the permit's impact on environmental quality, production costs, transaction costs, and Intel's strategic market position. The paper also considers how an estimate of the costs and benefits -- both to Intel and society -- might be estimated. While facility-specific regulation typically conjures images of production cost savings as processes are re-engineered...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Project XL; Tailored regulation; Environmental regulation; Cost-benefit analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L51; Q28; L63; K32.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10666
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Learning from Experiments: An Evaluation Plan for CMAQ Projects AgEcon
Farrell, Deirdre; Harrington, Winston; Krupnick, Alan J..
The Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality Program (CMAQ), established in 1991 by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) to provide about $1 billion per year to fund transportation projects that improve air quality, is intended both to support traditional transportation control measures and to encourage innovation in developing new strategies and technologies for controlling emissions from transportation sources. While the program has indeed encouraged some innovative approaches to local transportation and air quality problems, critics see it as a diversion of funds that could more usefully be devoted to conventional highway improvement projects. The current debate in Congress over the reauthorization of ISTEA and, specifically, the CMAQ...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Project evaluation; Transportation and environment; Public Economics; R410; Q250.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10744
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Location Efficient Mortgages: Is the Rationale Sound? AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Krupnick, Alan J..
Location efficient mortgages (LEM) programs are an increasingly popular approach to combating urban sprawl. LEMs allow families who want to live in densely-populated, transit-rich communities to obtain larger mortgages with smaller downpayments than traditional underwriting guidelines allow. LEMs are premised on the proposition that homeowners in such "location efficient" areas can safely be allowed to breach underwriting guidelines designed to prevent mortgage default because they have lower than average automobile-related transportation expenses and more income available for mortgage payments. This paper employs records of over 8,000 FHA-insured mortgages matched with data on various measures of location efficiency to test this proposition. Our results...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Urban sprawl; Location efficiency; Mortgage; Default; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10658
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Measuring the Value of Health Improvements from Great Lakes Cleanup AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J..
Exposure to pollutants in the Great Lakes Region can have significant effects on human health. Some forms of pollution affect humans directly, through the air we breathe and water we drink. Other forms of pollution affect humans indirectly, for example through consumption of contaminated fish. In this paper we describe methods to measure health benefits in monetary and nonmonetary terms in the context of reductions in pollutants as part of a program to improve the environment in the Great Lakes. The paper is meant to be an introduction to this topic for a general audience interested in the Great Lakes.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Great Lakes; Health; Benefit-cost analysis; Health Economics and Policy; I12; Q25.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10861
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Mortality Risk Valuation for Environmental Policy AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B.; Itaoka, Kenshi; Akai, Makoto.
Most benefit-cost analyses of reductions in air pollutants and other pollutants carrying mortality risks rely on estimates of the value of reductions in such risks produced by compensating wage studies, or contingent valuation studies that value risk reductions in the context of transport or job-related accidents. As we argue below, these estimates are inappropriate when valuing risk changes produced by environmental programs. The objectives of this paper are to explain why these estimates are inappropriate and to describe an improved approach to valuing reductions in risk of death from environmental programs, especially programs to reduce air pollution. We have implemented this approach in a pilot study in Tokyo, Japan. The paper provides estimates of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mortality risk valuation; Contingent valuation; Japan; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10882
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Overcoming Public Aversion to Congestion Pricing AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna.
Transportation authorities have consistently failed to employ economic incentives on major roadways--i.e. time-of-day pricing or "congestion fees"--to internalize the costs of congestion. In principle at least, such tolls can easily be shown to increase social welfare by making motorists pay something closer to the full social costs of their driving decisions. In addition, recent advances in electronics make it possible to implement such fees fairly cheaply and non-intrusively. While these same authorities generally understand and acknowledge the case for using congestion fees, they also claim that their use is politically infeasible because too many motorists would suffer large increases in commuting costs. This is the puzzle: If congestion tolls truly do...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Congestion; HOT lanes; Freeways; Time-of-day pricing; Public Economics; R41.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10730
Registros recuperados: 33
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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