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Adaptation des enzymes digestives à l'alimentation chez la crevette Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea Decapoda) ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles.
L'adaptation des enzymes digestives chez la crevette P. vannamei a été étudiée en fonction des cycles biologiques en relation avec les constituants de l'alimentation principalement les glucides (amidon) et les protéines. La trypsins, la chymotrypsine et 1'amylase, 3 enzymes majeures, chez P. vannamei ont été purifiées et caractérisées. La trypsine est formée de 3 isoenzymes dont le poids moléculaire apparent est compris entre 31 et 3 2 kDa. La nature glycosylée de la trypsine est révélée. La chymotrypsine est formée de 2 isoenzymes de poids moléculaire similaire (24 kDa). L'amylase purifiée est constituée de 2 isoenzymes dont le poids moléculaire apparent est de 31 kDa. Les propriétés biochimiques sont étudiées. L'étude immunologique a permis de mesurer...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Penaeus vannamei; Hécatopancréas; Biochimie; Immunologie; Enzymes digestives; Trypsine; Chymotrypsine; Amylase; Larves; Adultes; Intermue; Protéines alimentaires; Amidon; Nutrition; Adaptation.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00029/14012/11198.pdf
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Adaptation du métabolisme respiratoire de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles.
Summer mortality of the oyster result from the interaction of many factors. A respiratory assumption proposes a link between the supposed causes of the energy state, the cultivation methods and the medium. This work is focused towards the search for specific metabolic markers of environmental stresses. The cDNA of genes coding for PK and PEPCK were cloned and sequenced in order to detect their regulation level. The sediment nearness affects the state of energy reserves, the metabolic pathways of energy production implying a regulation of the PK. Face to the dissolved oxygen decline, oysters were oxyregulator but with a low regulation ability. In hypoxia, glycolysis was slowed down. PK activity was inhibited resulting from an increase in alanine sensitivity...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Régulation; Enzyme; Expression génique; Anoxie; Bivalve.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/these-4315.pdf
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Adaptation of digestive enzymes to dietary protein, carbohydrate and fibre levels and influence of protein and carbohydrate quality in Penaeus vannamei larvae (Crustacea, Decapoda) ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Van Wormhoudt, A; Aquacop, Aquacop.
Activity of digestive enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase) was studied in relation with food in Penaeus vannamei larvae first stages. Microparticles containing casein involved the decrease of soluble protein content and enzyme activities. Specific trypsin activity but not chymotrypsin was correlated (p<1%) to casein level between 10 and 60% in microparticles. Cellulose fibres in food seemed to have little effect on digestive enzymes. Starch, between 1 and 20% in microparticles, had no influence on specific amylase activity. The effect of different feeding conditions were also tested on growth. No clear relationship between growth and enzyme is established since only trypsin is concerned in the case of a casein dose effect in the food. The protein...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Amylase; Chymotrypsin; Trypsin; Digestive enzymes; Food; Larvae; Penaeus vannamei; Amylase; Chymotrypsine; Trypsine; Enzymes digestives; Alimentation; Larve; Penaeus vannamei.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-4431.pdf
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Biofouling development and its effect on growth and reproduction of the farmed pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Lacoste, Elise; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gueguen, Yannick; Gaertner-mazouni, Nabila.
In bivalve aquaculture, dominant fouling organisms are filter feeders which can compete for food with reared bivalves, sometimes causing mortality or reducing their growth rate. This study investigated the effect of biofouling on the farmed pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera in two lagoons of French Polynesia. Survival, growth and reproduction of 2 year-old pearl oysters were monitored with regular sampling schedules, from the initial stage of colonization up to 20 months of biofouling accumulation. Control groups of pearl oysters were kept free of biofouling as is the current practice in pearl farms. After more than a year of monitoring, no significant difference was recorded in shell growth rate between pearl oysters reared with epibionts and the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl oyster culture; Pinctada margaritifera; Biofouling; Growth; Reproduction.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00201/31188/29587.pdf
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Calcein staining of calcified structures in pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera and the effect of food resource level on shell growth ArchiMer
Linard, Clementine; Gueguen, Yannick; Moriceau, Jacques; Soyez, Claude; Hui, Belinda; Raoux, Aurore; Cuif, Jean Pierre; Cochard, Jean-claude; Le Pennec, Marcel; Le Moullac, Gilles.
Marine mollusc shell growth has been widely measured using fluorochrome marking. In order to test the efficiency and reliability of calcein staining on P. margaritifera shells and pearls, the present study examined two administration methods, different concentrations and several immersion times.Immersion in a 150 mg.L-1 calcein solution for 12 h to 24 h appeared to be the best method for marking P. margaritifera shells. For pearl marking, injection of a 200 mg.L-1 calcein solution into the pearl pouch was the optimal method. Calcein marking was then used to measure the influence of food resource levels on the shell growth. Groups of 23-month-old P. margaritifera were fed at three trophic levels for two months. The two highest food levels tested (6 000...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalvia; Pearl; Shell; Growth; Scanning electron microscope.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00028/13907/11195.pdf
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Caractérisation des facteurs de risques associés au mortalités estivales - Synthèse du thème 3 - Risque associé au stress environnemental - 2002-2005 ArchiMer
Burgeot, Thierry; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Renault, Tristan; Haure, Joel; Moraga, D.; David, E.; Boutet, L.; Sauriau, P.g.; Malet, Nathalie; Bouchet, V.; Lapegue, Sylvie; Bouilly, Karine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Arzul, Genevieve; Knoery, Joel; Quiniou, Francoise; Bacher, Cedric; Soletchnik, Patrick.
Les mortalités d'huîtres observées sur les côtes françaises apparaissent principalement à proximité du sédiment et pendant la gamétogenèse. Les interactions de facteurs environnementaux sur les écosystèmes conchylicoles comme la température, les apports des bassins versants et le compartiment sédimentaire illustrent un risque de mortalité lié à différentes sources de stress (Thème 1). Les variations de la qualité de la ressource trophique pendant l'effort de gamétogenèse favorise une baisse de l'énergie disponible (Thème 2) et contraint l'organisme fragilisé à fournir un effort d'adaptation (Fent 2004). L'apparition d'un stress pendant cette période sensible des huîtres pourrait constituer un facteur aggravant de mortalité. L'objectif de cette étude est...
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Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00304/41538/40746.pdf
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Caracterization de las trypsinas y amilasas de Penaeus vannamei (crustacea decapoda) : adaptacion a la composicion deln regimen alimenticio ArchiMer
Van Wormhoudt, Alain; Le Moullac, Gilles; Klein, Birgit; Sellos, Daniel.
Las tripsinas, entre las proteasas, y las amilasas, entre las carbohidrasas, son las enzimas más activas en Penaeus vannamei, un camarón de interés comercial, especialmente en Latinoamérica. Estas enzimas y sus cDNAS fueron caracterizados. En lo que respecta a las tripsinas, se reconocieron cinco isoformas y se analizaron sus cDNAs correspondientes, los cuales codifican una preproenzima de 225 aminoácidos conteniendo un supuesto precursor peptídico de 14 residuos y una secuencia señal altamente hidrofobica de 14 aminoácidos. Dentro de la secuencia del zimogeno, se detectaron algunos sitios autocatalíticos (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 1996, 28, 551-563). Con respecto a las amilasas, dos isoformas fueron purificadas y caracterizadas; se hizo una selección en...
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Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00176/28726/27183.pdf
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Changes in fatty acid and sterol composition during oogenesis in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Vahirua Lechat, I; Laure, F; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Bianchini, J; Bellais, M; Le Moullac, Gilles.
The fatty acid and sterol composition of the oyster Pinctada margaritifera during oogenesis and in eggs was analysed. No major differences were observed during oogenesis, but the egg composition was significantly different from that of gonads. The amount of saturated fatty acids was the highest in eggs and the C16:0 predominant (P < 5%); by contrast, the amount of 22:6(n-3) was significantly lower (P < 5%) than in gonads. No major differences were observed for the polar lipid (PL) composition during oogenesis. The main free sterols in gonads and eggs were cholesterol and brassicasterol. Among free sterols, the proportion of cholesterol diminished continuously from the beginning to the end of gonad maturation, and this decrease persisted in eggs after...
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Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-5902.pdf
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Characterization of molecular processes involved in the pearl formation in Pinctada margaritifera for a sustainable development of pearl farming industry in French Polynesia ArchiMer
Gueguen, Yannick; Montagnani, Caroline; Joubert, Caroline; Marie, Benjamin; Belliard, Corinne; Tayale, Alexandre; Fievet, Julie; Levy, Peva; Piquemal, David; Marin, Frederic; Le Moullac, Gilles; Ky, Chin-long; Garen, Pierre; Lo, Cedrick; Saulnier, Denis.
Tahiti’s pearl farming industry plays a major socio-economic role in French Polynesia. In an increasingly competitive market where the production of high quality pearls becomes essential, research can help secure and ensure sustainable production. In that context, Ifremer, in close collaboration with the “direction des resources marines” (French Polynesian government agency) has developed research projects on the “sustainable development of pearl farming”. This program is organized along 3 axes: (1) understanding the animal physiology and initiating a genetically selective breeding program of donor oysters; (2) understanding pearl oyster larvae dispersal and recruitment; (3) understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biomineralization processes...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl oyster; Biomineralization; Pinctada margaritifera.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00167/27840/26049.pdf
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Colour or no colour in the juvenile shell of the black lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera? ArchiMer
Trinkler, Nolwenn; Le Moullac, Gilles; Cuif, Jean-pierre; Cochennec-laureau, Nathalie; Dauphin, Yannicke.
Pinctada margaritifera mollusc is cultivated in French Polynesia for the production of black pearls. For this study, the colour of juvenile samples (48 days old) was investigated in the visible range spectra (430-700 nm) using spectrophotometry. A first measurement was done with the soft parts still inside the shell (entire animal). Then, the soft parts were removed in order to do a second measurement on the growing edge of the shell. Comparison of the two measurements shows that the estimation of the living animal colour with unaided eye is strongly influenced by the colour of the soft parts. The use of the International Commission on Illumination (ISI) chromaticity diagram shows that at this growth stage, the shells are "white"; i.e. present no...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Juvenile shell; Colour-scoring; Mollusc; Pearl oyster; Pinctada margaritifera.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00078/18883/16449.pdf
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Compte-rendu d'expérimentation : comparaison entre l'Acal et le Frippak utilisés en nurserie de Penaeus vannamei ArchiMer
Bador, Régis; Boisson, Gilles; Delafosse, Jean-charles; Le Moullac, Gilles; AQUACOP.
Deux séries d'expérimentation ont été menées pour tester les performances en nurserie des deux microparticules mises au point dans le groupe IFREMER/FA/SANOFI : l'ACAL et le FRIPPAK FLAKES. Alors qu'en survie et en croissance en taille (longueur totale) aucune différence n'est mise en évidence, l'ACAL permet de produire des prégrossies de poids sec supérieur et nettement plus résistantes aux chocs de salinité que le FRIPPAK.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crevette peneide; Nutrition; Post-larve; Nurserie; Microparticule; Survie; Croissance; Résistance; Salinité; Qualité.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00161/27209/25408.pdf
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Conditionnement de l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera en laboratoire : première approche descriptive de la croissance en bassins contrôlés ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Goraguer, Herle; Maihota, Mayalen; Teissier, Hinano; Tiapari, Jerome; Bennett, Auguste; Soyez, Claude.
Dans le cadre du programme Reproduction de l’huître perlière Pinctada margaritifera, dont l’objectif est la maîtrise des croisements, le conditionnement en laboratoire des reproducteurs est une étape nécessaire pour espérer contrôler et synchroniser la maturation de ces reproducteurs. Les facteurs présumés qui permettront de contrôler la maturation sont d’ordre environnemental : l’alimentation et la température. Cependant avant d’espérer établir la relation entre la fonction physiologique et les facteurs qui contrôlent cette fonction, il est indispensable de mettre en œuvre une zootechnie adaptée aux besoins vitaux de façon à assurer la survie et une bonne croissance. Cette étude a pour objectif de tester la survie et la croissance des huîtres perlières...
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Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00182/29288/27729.pdf
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Could a diet enriched with n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids be considered a promising way to enhance the immune defences and the resistance of Penaeid prawns to environmental stress? ArchiMer
Chim, Liet; Lemaire, Pierrette; Delaporte, Maryse; Le Moullac, Gilles; Galois, Robert; Martin, Jean-louis.
The prawn Penaeus stylirostris (Stimpson), when fed for 28 days with n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-enriched feed pellets, demonstrated an enhanced resistance to variations in environmental parameters (a decrease in temperature and salinity over a 4-day period from 28 degreesC to 17 degreesC and from 35 parts per thousand to 10 parts per thousand respectively) and an improvement in their immune defence potential, i.e. increased agglutination titre of plasma and increased respiratory burst of haemocytes.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Immunostimulation; Osmoregulation; Environment; Stress; Essential fatty acids; Crustaceans.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/publication-606.pdf
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Défi MOREST - Mortalités estivales de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas. Caractérisation des facteurs de risques associés aux mortalités estivales - Synthèse du thème 6 - Le risque température. (La Rochelle 14- 15 mars 2006) ArchiMer
Lambert, C.; Moal, J.; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Samain, Jean-francois.
Les mortalités apparaissent toujours très rapidement après le passage de la température de l'eau à 19°C. II a bien été montré que ce n'était pas la valeur absolue de la température qui était associée à la mortalité, puisque des années très chaudes comme 2003, peu de mortalités étaient enregistrées. II s'agit plutôt d'un seuil à partir duquel le risque devient réel. La température affecte tous les processus de la physiologie et c'est un facteur clef de la distribution géographique des espèces. Les espèces se maintiennent dans les conditions environnementales qui ont permis leur adaptation. Les mortalités traduisent donc une rupture de l'adaptation ou une modification brutale de l'environnement qui peut affecter les équilibres qui se sont installés entre...
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Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00304/41537/40745.pdf
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Determination of gender in the pearl oyster pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Chavez-villalba, Jorge; Soyez, Claude; Huvet, Arnaud; Gueguen, Yannick; Lo, Cedrik; Le Moullac, Gilles.
The pearl industry in French Polynesia is based on exploitation of natural stocks of the black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera); it generates an annual turnover of 90 million euros. Improvements in pearl quality need genetic studies to improve the populations. This pearl oyster is a protandric species, where the sex-ratio normally is biased towards males. There is an increasing interest in gender control to find the mechanisms to augment female proportions for management purposes. This review summarizes information on exogenous and endogenous factors regulating gender in this and other bivalves and concludes that P. margaritifera is a protandric hermaphrodite, developing as a male during the first two years and without evidence of an effect from...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl oyster; Pinctada; Hermaphrodite; Temperature; Food; Stress; Sex genes; Sex steroids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00040/15100/12543.pdf
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Ecophysiological and metabolic adaptations to sulphide exposure of the oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Cheize, Marie; Gastineau, Olivier; Daniel, Jean-yves; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Huvet, Arnaud; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Van Wormhoudt, A; Samain, Jean-francois.
The purpose of this study is to examine the response of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to sulphide at different biological scales. A first experiment was designed to measure for 20 h the clearance (CR) and oxygen consumption (OC) rates of oysters exposed at different concentrations of sulphide (0, 3, 6, 12, 20, and 40 mu M). The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the metabolic adaptations to chronic sulphide exposure for 10 days by measuring PK and PEPCK enzyme activities, succinate and alanine content, the adenylate energy charge (AEC), and the activity of the electron transport system (ETS)in whole oysters at above 20 mu M. PK and PEPCK mRNAs and enzyme activities have been measured in adductor muscle. When exposed to sulphide above 20 mu M, CR...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: ATP; AEC; Electron transport system; Succcinate; Alanine; Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; Pyruvate kinase; Oxygen consumption; Clearance rate; Crassostrea gigas; Sulphide; Oyster.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-3924.pdf
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Effect of food conditioning on gonadic activity in the oyster Pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Hui, Belinda; Vonau, Vincent; Levy, Peva; Cochard, Jean-claude.
Preliminary experiments allowed defining basic requirements of Pinctada margaritifera for somatic and gonadic growth in controlled conditions. This study was continued by observation of the gametogenesis at a cellular level. In April/May 2008, 125 oysters were conditioned for 30 days in 25 tubular tanks (30 L). Water was renewed 4 times/hour. A mixed (v:v) diet of Isochrysis galbana (T-Iso) and Chaetoceros gracilis was supplied continuously. A control batch of 125 oysters was maintained in trays in the lagoon. An initial sample of 30 individuals was made. Gonadic changes were first characterized using a gonadal development index (GDI) based on the ratio of the gonad area to the total visceral mass area on a sagittal section of the body. Histological...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl oyster; Reproduction; Gametogenesis; Broodstock.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00029/14010/11196.pdf
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Effect of sediment nearness on the metabolic enzyme activity and energy state of the oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Fleury, Pierre-gildas; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
This study was designed to assess in situ the effects of sediment nearness on Crassostrea gigas metabolism. One year-old oysters were reared for 5 months (April-August) in plastic bags on metallic frames at 10 and 60 cm off the sediment at the beginning of April. The management of the energetic resources (storage, consumption) was estimated with respect to biochemical changes of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the effect of the sediment nearness at cellular level, the metabolic rate was evaluated by assessing pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme activities and electron transport system (ETS) activity. The metabolic pathways were assessed by measuring ATP and intermediary metabolites such as...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Aspartate; Succinate; Alanine; ETS; PEPCK; PK; Carbohydrate; Lipids; Proteins; Sediment; Oyster; Aspartate; Succinate; Alanine; ETS; PEPCK; PK; Glucides; Lipides; Proteines; Sédiment; Huître.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2803.pdf
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Effect of temperature, food availability, and estradiol injection on gametogenesis and gender in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Lepretre, Maxime; Levy, Peva; Vanaa, Vincent; Parrad, Sophie; Gaertner-mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick; Huvet, Arnaud; Le Moullac, Gilles.
The black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a protandrous hermaphrodite species. Its economic value has led to the development of controlled hatchery reproduction techniques, although many aspects remain to be optimized. In order to understand reproductive mechanisms and their controlling factors, two independent experiments were designed to test hypotheses of gametogenesis and sex ratio control by environmental and hormonal factors. In one, pearl oysters were exposed under controlled conditions at different combinations of temperature (24 and 28°C) and food level (10,000 and 40,000 cells mL−1); whereas in the other, pearl oysters were conditioned under natural conditions into the lagoon and subjected to successive 17β-estradiol injections (100 μg...
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Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00285/39638/38184.pdf
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Etude du remplacement des proies vivantes en élevage larvaire de Penaeus vannamei par les aliments de la gamme Frippak ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Dufour, Robert; Aquacop.
Le CAR (Crustacean Algae Replacement) se substitue totalement aux algues pour un dosage et une fréquence de distribution déterminés. Les résultats de survie à Zoé3 restent malgré tout variables. La raison essentielle semble être la qualité bactériologique de l'eau de mer. Les artémias peuvent être remplacés à 50% par du CD3 (Crustacean Diet), ce taux de substitution offre le meilleur compromis survie et qualité des PL.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: P. vannamei; Microcapsules; Larves; Qualité; Proies vivantes.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00176/28733/27201.pdf
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