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Registros recuperados: 41
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A co-modelling process of social and natural dynamics on the isle of Ouessant: Sheep, turf and bikes ArchiMer
Rouan, Mathias; Kerbiriou, Christian; Levrel, Harold; Etienne, M.
An interdisciplinary team has applied the multi-agent system formalism to study shrub encroachment in the Biosphere Reserve on the isle of Ouessant. The main goals were (1) to understand vegetation dynamics, and (2) to represent how main agents, or actors view the dynamics of natural resources in relation to their own living practices. The management strategies established for each type of stakeholders were formalised and the impact of these strategies on biodiversity was analyzed at various temporal and spatial scales. Following a short description of the model, three aspects of the modelling process are discussed in more detail: the use of the chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population as a representative variable for the interactions between...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Companion modelling; Agent-based model; Biodiversity; Social dynamics; Shrub encroachment; Biosphere Reserve.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00009/11992/9059.pdf
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A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative survey methods used for the monitoring of marine recreational fishing in France ArchiMer
Bellanger, Manuel; Levrel, Harold.
The growth of marine recreational activities raises the issues of the current lack of knowledge on these activities and the information required to assess their potential impacts. Indeed, the monitoring of unrecorded activities is a great challenge, especially when basic information, such as the size of the population practicing the different activities, is unknown. In this paper, the experience of the monitoring of marine recreational fishing was used to carry out a diagnosis study to assess the cost-effectiveness of survey methods used in France between 2004 and 2012. Costs of alternative surveys were balanced with data quality, and particular attention was paid to potential biases. Results showed that the involvement of citizens through diary surveys...
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Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00366/47769/47855.pdf
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Assessing the impact of land-cover changes on ecosystem services: A first step toward integrative planning in Bordeaux, France ArchiMer
Cabral, Pedro; Feger, Clement; Levrel, Harold; Chambolle, Melodie; Basque, Damien.
The quantification and integration of ecosystem services (ES) into urban planning decisions is becoming increasingly important. However, studies that quantify and analyze the impacts in terms of ES changes are still scarce. We analyzed multiple ES provided by the landscape of the Urban Community of Bordeaux (CUB), in France, between 1990 and 2006 as a result of land use and cover change (LUCC) with Corine Land Cover and other open data. These ES were selected with the help of local stakeholders and were calculated using a spatially explicit modeling approach with InVEST and own-produced models. It was found that all ES, except erosion regulation, have decreased as a consequence of LUCC. Results also suggest that LUCC change decisions which do not consider...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Landscape services; Geographical information systems; Spatial planning; Land use and cover change; Corine land cover; Natural capital project.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00347/45847/45919.pdf
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Assessing the maintenance costs of marine ecosystems in the context of the MSFD: the French experience ArchiMer
Mongruel, Remi; Levrel, Harold; Bailly, Denis.
This short paper presents the approach which has been implemented in France for estimating the costs of ecosystem degradation in the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Among the possible approaches, forgone benefits assessment or maintenance costs assessment, France decided to use the latter. The paper contains an introduction, a section which explains how to choose an economic approach coherent with the MSFD rationale, a section which exposes the methodology developed for implementing the approach, and a section on the main results.
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Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00412/52338/53125.pdf
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Balancing state and volunteer investment in biodiversity monitoring for the implementation of CBD indicators: A French example ArchiMer
Levrel, Harold; Fontaine, B.; Henry, Pierre-yves; Jiguet, Frederic; Julliard, Romain; Kerbiriou, Christian; Couvet, Denis.
According to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), states have to provide indicators in order to assess the performance of their initiatives for halting the loss of biodiversity. Sixteen headline indicators have been identified for monitoring the CBD targets. Of these indicators only one, "Trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species," is a direct headline indicator of "non-exploited" biodiversity. In France, the implementation of this indicator is completely dependent on data collected by volunteers. Since this investment of volunteer time is equivalent to savings in administrative costs, we attempt in this paper to assign it a monetary value. This enables us to estimate how much the French administration saves thanks to volunteer...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biodiversity monitoring; CBD indicators; Citizen science; Replacement cost.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00006/11694/8614.pdf
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Biodiversity offset markets: What are they really? An empirical approach to wetland mitigation banking ArchiMer
Vaissiere, Anne-charlotte; Levrel, Harold.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biodiversity offset; Market; Hybrid form; Mitigation banking; Wetlands.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00248/35884/34682.pdf
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Biodiversity offsets for offshore wind farm projects: The current situation in Europe ArchiMer
Vaissiere, Anne-charlotte; Levrel, Harold; Pioch, Sylvain; Carlier, Antoine.
The European Union׳s energy policy aims to increase the proportion of energy derived from renewable sources in Europe. Marine renewable energy, offshore wind energy especially, contributes to the renewable energy mix. Offshore wind farms appear to be clean, and are supported by governments and NGOs as a way to reduce the use of conventional energy resources and thus decrease greenhouse gas emissions. However, developing infrastructure in marine areas can impact marine ecosystems. European directives ask offshore wind farm developers to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) including a mitigation hierarchy, i.e. envisaging measures that would avoid, reduce, and if possible offset significant adverse effects on ecosystems and human activities....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mitigation hierarchy; Offshore wind farms; EIA.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00187/29834/28312.pdf
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Biodiversity offsetting: Clearing up misunderstandings between conservation and economics to take further action ArchiMer
Vaissiere, Anne-charlotte; Levrel, Harold; Scemama, Pierre.
Biodiversity offsetting (BO) is increasingly adopted as a conservation tool by many countries while it has received several critics among which its possible links to several forms of Nature economicization. We believe that some of these concerns rest on misunderstandings generated by the difficulty to interpret economic principles from ecological viewpoints and the lack of a common language between conservationists and economists. Because this issue is vivid and the concepts not yet stabilized, key aspects of the potential advances and limits of BO to conservation practice must be clarified. This short communication (1) addresses the links between the BO concept and the central sustainability principle and (2) clarifies key assumptions regarding three...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biodiversity offsetting; Sustainability; Commodification; Marketization; Privatization; Ecological restoration.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00361/47215/47450.pdf
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Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment ArchiMer
Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickael; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gerard.
Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00177/28812/27293.pdf
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Co-Modeling Process, Negotiations, and Power Relationships: Some Outputs From a MAB Project on the Island of Ouessant ArchiMer
Levrel, Harold; Etienne, Monique; Kerbiriou, Christian; Le Page, Christophe; Rouan, Mathias.
For many conservation scientists, interdisciplinarity and participation can be efficient in the management of biodiversity. For both methods, new tools and new participative processes such as the so-called co-modeling process are required. The key questions addressed in this article are how group dynamics shape the model and why certain perspectives dominate in a process designed to be democratic. It is necessary, therefore, in order to appreciate the design and the legitimacy of the model that has been co-constructed, to address the questions of both the stakeholders' interests and their status in the process. Our case study is a co-modeling program based in a French biosphere reserve. It enabled us to highlight the key role of the mediator who had to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Power relationships; Participation; Multi agent system; Co modeling; Co adaptive management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6153.pdf
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Coût d’opportunité versus coût du maintien des potentialités écologiques : deux indicateurs économiques pour mesurer les coûts de l’érosion de la biodiversité ArchiMer
Levrel, Harold; Hay, Julien; Bas, Adeline; Gastineau, Pascal; Pioch, Sylvain.
The cost of ecosystem services degradation is a major topic as underlined by the TEEB program (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity), which proposed an assessment of the costs of policy inaction in the field of biodiversity conservation. In the same vein, the report of the French Centre for Strategic Analysis on the Economic Approach to Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services turns its attention to the value of ecosystem services, suggesting some elements that could help measure the cost of biodiversity degradation. There is however some confusion regarding the notion of cost. Thus, in the case of TEEB the proposed cost assessment translates into monetary terms the loss of potential profits from ecological services. Yet, another way of assessing these...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Services écologiques; Biodiversité; Valeur; Coûts; Méthodes d’estimation; Ecosystem services; Biodiversity; Value; Costs; Assessmentmethodology.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00120/23115/20960.pdf
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Ecosystem services assessment and compensation costs for installing seaweed farms ArchiMer
Cabral, Pedro; Levrel, Harold; Viard, F.; Frangoudes, Katia; Girard, Sophie; Scemama, Pierre.
In a global context of promotion and expansion of blue growth initiatives, the development of activities such as aquaculture calls for the assessment of the potential impacts on biodiversity at different levels and associated services. This paper presents an assessment of the potential impact of the installation of seaweed farms on ecosystem services and the induced compensation costs. Biophysical and socioeconomic indicators have been developed for helping decision makers to select the most suitable locations. The approach considers a multi-criteria approach based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA). The former is used to obtain biophysical ecosystem services and socioeconomic indicators and the latter to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Integrated marine policy; Habitat equivalency analysis; Compensation costs; No net loss; Blue growth.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00341/45169/44602.pdf
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Enhancing citizen contributions to biodiversity science and public policy ArchiMer
Couvet, D.; Jiguet, F.; Julliard, R.; Levrel, Harold; Teyssedre, A..
Citizen science, defined as participation of the general public in scientific research, could significantly help scientists to address biodiversity issues, through (i) monitoring the state of biodiversity, (ii) framing indicators which synthesise and communicate information on the state of biodiversity, (iii) building scenarios to evaluate the plausible consequences of different policies. A key asset of citizen science is that participating citizens disseminate the information they gain, thereby increasing the profile of issues being researched. We review further benefits associated with biodiversity monitoring, indicators and policy scenarios, envisioned as collaborative tools between scientists and citizens. Such collaboration promotes both the...
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Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6214.pdf
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Évaluation monétaire des services écosystémiques. Un exemple d’usage dans la mise en place d’une politique de l’eau en France ArchiMer
Feuillette, Sarah; Levrel, Harold; Blanquart, Stéphanie; Gorin, Olivier; Monaco, Guillaume; Penisson, Bruno; Robichon, Stéphane.
In the context of the Water Framework Directive, the French Water Agencies were asked to justify exemptions, for disproportionate cost reasons, to the “good water” status in a series of river basins in 2015. The ministry of the Environment and the economists of the Water Agencies agreed on the fact that this justification would be based on cost-benefit analyses. A great number of cost-benefit analyses were carried out on water bodies or groups of water bodies. This article reports on this experience conducted by the French Water Agencies. It highlights the fact that the large majority of restoration projects generated higher costs than benefits. It suggests that the implementation of the Water Framework Directive could be considerably limited by the use of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Environnement; Dispositifs institutionnels; Eau; Évaluation économique; Coûts disproportionnés; Environment; Institutional systems; Water; Economic valuation; Disproportionate costs.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00480/59158/61787.pdf
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Faraway, so close : les enjeux de la marée noire DeepWater Horizon vus depuis la France ArchiMer
Pioch, Sylvain; Hay, Julien; Levrel, Harold.
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00026/13756/10886.pdf
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First results from a pilot survey of recreational fishing in France ArchiMer
Herfaut, Johanna; Levrel, Harold; Thebaud, Olivier; Tranger, Hervé; Berthou, Patrick; Dintheer, Christian; Guyader, Olivier; Morizur, Yvon.
Between 2006 and 2008, Ifremer, in collaboration with the polling institute BVA, implemented a pilot survey of french recreational fisheries. The aim of the survey was to assess the overall population involved in this activity, taking into account the diversity of recreational fishing practices, from fish and shellfish gathering on the seashore to angling and spearfishing. The study was designed to provide first estimates of fishing effort, catches and landings, and economic impacts of recreational fishing. The protocol implemented was two-step. First, a telephone survey of french households, based on a sampling frame of the entire french population of people aged 15+, was carried out to assess the population of fishers and give a first general view of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Recreational fishing; Survey methodology; Catch and effort assessment; Economic impact.
Ano: 2008 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00502/61368/64984.pdf
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French marine economic data 2009 ArchiMer
Kalaydjian, Regis; Daures, Fabienne; Girard, Sophie; Van Iseghem, Sylvie; Levrel, Harold; Mongruel, Remi.
The report presents a survey of marine related activities in France and an assessment of their economic weight in terms of value added and employment estimates. A brief outline of the recent past and present economic situation of these activities, and of their position on international markets is given. The survey presents the commercial sector, including marine resource exploitation, manufacturing activities and services, followed by the public sector, including the Navy, state intervention at sea, coastal environment protection and marine sciences. A summary gives an overall estimation of marine value added and employment.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Economy; Marine; Value added; Employment; Industry; Services.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00050/16145/13628.pdf
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Has the value of global marine and coastal ecosystem services changed? ArchiMer
Pendleton, Linwood H.; Thebaud, Olivier; Mongruel, Remi; Levrel, Harold.
In 1997, Robert Costanza and his colleagues published a groundbreaking study [1] that estimated the monetary value of the contribution of the world's ecosystems to human wellbeing. The methods used were cited as preliminary and received considerable criticism [2] and [3]. In two more recent peer-reviewed studies [4] and [5], the authors update the original estimates of ecosystem service value and find: (1) that original per area ecosystem service values were underestimated and (2) using these revised per area values, the total global value of ecosystem services has declined. Just under ninety-five percent of the estimated loss in ecosystem service value comes from revisions by the authors in the value estimates of marine ecosystem services. These revisions...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine ecosystem services; Global value; Aggregate values.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00300/41098/40271.pdf
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Influence of the Organization of Actors in the Ecological Outcomes of Investment in Restoration of Biodiversity ArchiMer
Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold.
This paper investigates the consequences of the organization of actors on the performances of biodiversity restoration projects. It leans on an interdisciplinary framework that uses ecological engineering information to answer an economic issue following the transaction cost economics framework. Applied to four case studies, this analysis allows us to establish a direct link between the organization of restoration projects and their ecological performance and in fine on their reproducibility. In the end we show that projects that are embedded within flexible organizational forms are in phase with ecological engineering principles and are more likely to be replicated. This focus on the organization of actors in restoration projects provides new insights to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biodiversity restoration; Organization; Transaction costs economics; Ecological engineering.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00468/57999/60478.pdf
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Instrumental Learning and Sustainability Indicators: Outputs from Co-Construction Experiments in West African Biosphere Reserves ArchiMer
Levrel, Harold; Bouamrane, M.
Co-adaptive management of biodiversity is largely based on a collective learning process. This collective learning concerns "instrumental policy learning," "social policy learning," and " political learning." This paper focuses on instrumental policy learning that has been launched in four West African biosphere reserves. It is based on a MAB-UNESCO/UNEP-GEF programme concerning the co-construction of interaction indicators (between development and conservation), inspired by the Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) methodology. Using this process, we were able to test conventional Pressure-State-Response indicators, highlight their limitations, and develop new indicators starting from stakeholders' stories and perceptions. These new indicators can...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Local knowledge; Instrumental learning; Interaction indicators; Integrated natural resource management; Biosphere reserves.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-5290.pdf
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