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A Binomial Tree Approach to Valuing Fixed Rotation Forests and Flexible Rotation Forests Under a Mean Reverting Timber Price Process AgEcon
Tee, James; Scarpa, Riccardo; Marsh, Dan; Guthrie, Graeme.
NPV and LEV are established and common approaches to valuing single rotation and infinite rotation forests respectively, when the rotation age is fixed in advanced. More recently, Real Options approaches have been employed to value single and infinite rotation forests with a flexible harvest age. Under a stochastic timber price process, it has been shown that the valuation of a flexible rotation forest is equal or higher than that of a fixed rotation forest, because a flexible harvest regime delays the harvest if the timber price is not favourable, whereas a fixed harvest regime would proceed to harvest regardless of the price. Often, valuation of fixed and flexible rotation ages are compared using 2 different methods – NPV (or LEV) and Real Options. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: NPV; LEV; Real Options; Optimal Harvest Decision; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96836
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Analysis of Environmental and Economic Efficiency: Application of the Overseer model and simulated data AgEcon
Ramilan, Thiagarajah; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Marsh, Dan.
New Zealand’s success in raising agricultural productivity has been accompanied by higher input use, leading to adverse effects on the environment. Until recently, analysis of farm performance has tended to ignore such negative externalities. The current emphasis on environmental issues has led dairy farmers to target improvements in both environmental performance and productivity. Therefore measuring the environmental performance of farms and integrating this information into farm productivity calculations should assist informed policy decisions which promote sustainable development. However this is a challenging process since conventional environmental efficiency measures are usually based on simple input and output flows but nitrogen discharge is a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Data Envelopment Analysis; Economic; Efficiency; Environment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97161
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Climate Change Mitigation Policy: The Effect of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme on New Radiata Pine Forest Plantations in New Zealand AgEcon
Tee, James; Scarpa, Riccardo; Marsh, Dan; Guthrie, Graeme.
Climate change is one of the toughest challenges facing the world today. Putting a price on carbon emissions is an important step towards climate change mitigation. A cap and trade system is one of the ways to create a carbon price. The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZETS) is the world’s first economy-wide cap and trade system that covers all sectors and all 6 greenhouse gases. Forestry is a major part of the NZETS, allowing foresters to earn carbon credits for new forests planted on and after 1st January 1990 (afforestation and reforestation). At the same time, the NZETS also makes foresters liable for harvesting new forests planted on and after 1st January 1990, and deforesting forests existing on and before 31st December 1989. In this paper, we...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100703
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Comparing Welfare Estimates from Fixed Status Quo Attributes vs People’s Perceived Attributes of Water Quality AgEcon
Marsh, Dan; Mkwara, Lena Asimenye.
Data from a choice experiment on the community’s preferences for water quality improvements in streams was used to assess the effect of using a fixed status quo versus people’s perceived status quo on willingness to pay values. More than 50% of respondents perceived the quality of water in streams to be different to the status quo in the initial experimental design. Study results have shown that respondents who opted for their own perceived status quo alternative had stronger preferences and higher willing to pay for water quality improvements than their counterparts.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Choice experiments; Fixed status quo; People’s perceived status quo; Willingness to pay; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97155
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Does respondent’s perceived knowledge of the status quo affect attribute attendance and WTP in choice experiments? Evidence from the Karapiro Catchment Freshwater streams AgEcon
Marsh, Dan; Mkwara, Lena Asimenye; Scarpa, Riccardo.
In environmental valuation studies with stated preference methods researchers often provide descriptions of status quo conditions which may differ from those perceived by respondents. Ignoring this difference in utility baselines may affect the way attributes are attended to in choice tasks and further affect the magnitude of utility changes and hence bias the implied estimates of benefits from the proposed environmental policies. We investigate this issue using data from a choice experiment on a community’s willingness to pay for water quality improvements in streams. About 60% of respondents perceived the description of the quality of water in streams to be better than the one we provided in our scenario. Our results show some differences in serial...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Choice experiments; Fixed status quo; People’s perceived status quo; Willingness to pay.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96809
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Farm Business Planning in Kazakhstan AgEcon
Marsh, Dan.
The agriculture sector in Kazakhstan has undergone rapid change over the last ten years. In the first stage state owned and collective farms were transformed into producer cooperatives owned by their former employees. Central provision of essential inputs was rapidly withdrawn while product prices were initially held down to protect urban consumers. Faced by rising input prices, escalating tax demands and disappearing product markets the cooperatives sold much of their livestock and built up unsustainable levels of debt. In the latest stage of the process, bankruptcy procedures have been used to write off debts and reorganise the cooperatives into private farms. Against this background the paper describes an attempt to assist three farms to draw up...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123834
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How Can Economists Help Clear Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance? AgEcon
Marsh, Dan.
Millions of mines lie in or on the ground in 62 countries resulting in thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Most mines are cleared using probes and hand held mine detectors; although sniffer dogs and a variety of machines are becoming more common. Clearing landmines is very expensive with costs often reaching US$10 per square metre; over US$1.5 billion has been spent on clearing mines since 1992. Most of the organisations involved in mine clearance have concentrated on technical aspects and put less emphasis on the most cost effective way of getting the job done. This paper reviews the contribution that economists can make in the area of humanitarian mine clearance and describes the development of a software package and manual designed to help...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Mine Clearance; Cost Effectiveness Analysis; Software Model; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98503
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How Can We Predict Performance in Tertiary Level Economics? AgEcon
Zhang, Lemin; Marsh, Dan.
The New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) started to introduce a new qualification; the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) in 2002. NCEA level 3 replaced the University Bursary Examinations in 2004. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the number and quality of credits gained at NCEA level 3 by students and their academic performance in a first year economics course - Business Economics and the New Zealand Economy at Waikato University. Other factors that could affect student performance are also investigated. Our analysis suggests that several factors can have an impact on student's performance in ECON100. These factors include nationality, semester, total number of NCEA level 3 credits and the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Qualification; Education; Testing; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31974
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Institutional analysis for nitrogen pollution abatement in a Waikato river sub-catchment in New Zealand AgEcon
Ramilan, Thiagarajah; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Marsh, Dan.
Nitrogen levels in water resources in the Waikato region are increasing, mainly as a result of non-point source pollution from agricultural activities. Non-point pollution management is a complex issue requiring sufficient information and appropriate institutions. This paper considers the environmental policy literature and analyse how institutions, contract design, and monitoring and transaction costs in the presence of farm heterogeneity encourage optimal abatement. The analysis identifies the key institutional issues to be addressed in the design of appropriate policy measures to address water quality in Waikato river sub-catchment.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Transaction cost; Compliance; Contract design; Heterogeneity; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10408
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“Mixed signals: Stated preferences for future states of three New Zealand rivers” AgEcon
Bell, Brian A.; Sinner, Jim; Phillips, Yvonne; Yap, Michael; Scarpa, Riccardo; Batstone, Chris; Marsh, Dan.
We conducted an online choice survey to inform advice to the Tasman District Council on setting management objectives for multiple uses and values across several catchments. One sub-sample was recruited via a survey company and a second via a public call with prize draw. From a survey with unlabelled choice sets for three rivers, we estimated a separate model for each river. Coefficients for natural character, fish & fishing, local jobs and cost were generally significant and had expected signs. Coefficients on swimming and boating attributes were weak even though 68% and 31%, respectively, of the panel sample reported engaging in these activities. Levels of attributes varied for the three rivers and, together with within-sample variation, made...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124234
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Modelling riparian buffers for water quality enhancement in the Karapiro catchment AgEcon
Ramilan, Thiagarajah; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Marsh, Dan.
The use of riparian land buffers is widely promoted as a method of mitigating the effects of sediment and nutrient runoff from intensive land use in New Zealand. Farmers receive advice and financial assistance from Regional Councils for activities such as establishment and planting of riparian buffers, but funding is limited. The effect of buffers on water quality goals varies across land types so the optimum size of riparian buffer width varies across farms. We build a stylised model to determine the optimum buffer width and apply it to the Karapiro catchment. The model can easily be extended to model salinity removal, conservation reserve programmes, establishing wetlands and carbon sequestration.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59166
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Valuation of Carbon Forestry and the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: A Real Options Approach Using the Binomial Tree Method AgEcon
Tee, James; Scarpa, Riccardo; Marsh, Dan; Guthrie, Graeme.
Under the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme, new forests planted on/after 1st January 1990 can earn carbon credits. These credits have to be repaid upon forest harvest. This paper analyses the effects of this carbon scheme on the valuation of bareland, on which radiata pine is to be planted. NPV/LEV and Real Options methods are employed, assuming stochastic timber and carbon prices. Valuation increases significantly and rotation age is likely to be lengthened. We include a scenario analysis of potential implications of rotation age lengthening on carbon stock management in New Zealand.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS); Climate change policy; Kyoto Protocol; Real options; Carbon forestry; Tradable permit; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q23; Q28; Q54.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123665
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Valuation of Water Quality Improvements in the Karapiro Catchment: A Choice Modelling Approach AgEcon
Marsh, Dan; Baskaran, Ramesh.
Water pollution is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental issues facing New Zealand. Waikato region residents have reported that water pollution is easily their most important environmental concern in each of four attitude surveys conducted by Environment Waikato. Technical and regulatory mechanisms to reduce water pollution, especially non-point source pollution from agriculture are the focus of an intensive research effort both in New Zealand and internationally. This work should assist farmers and policy makers to identify the most cost effective options for achieving any given improvement in water quality. Research described in this paper aims to complement existing research projects by developing appropriate methodology for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Water Quality; Non Market Valuation; Choice Modelling.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47951
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Valuing the Risk of Death and Injury from Landmines in Thailand AgEcon
Barns, Sandra A.; Cameron, Michael P.; Gibson, John; Lim, Steven; Marsh, Dan; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Tressler, John.
This paper presents estimates of the benefits of clearing landmines in rural Thailand using the contingent-valuation (CV) method. The data came from a survey where we asked 341 respondents referendum-type questions that elicit their willingness to pay for landmine clearance. Our estimates imply a value of a statistical life of between US$0.2-0.3 million. The survey also provides estimates of the injury risk-death risk tradeoff and the implicit value of statistical injury. These estimates suggest that the value of lives and injuries saved from mine clearing is likely to be at least an order of magnitude greater than those used in existing studies of mine clearing. Linking a household expenditure survey involving the same sample enables the relationship...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Contingent valuation; Landmines; Value of statistical life; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Political Economy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; J17; J28; 022; Q28.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97797
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Valuing Trout Angling Benefits of Water Quality Improvements while Accounting for Unobserved Lake Characteristics: An Application to the Rotorua Lakes AgEcon
Mkwara, Lena Asimenye; Marsh, Dan.
Trout angling is one of the most popular water-based recreational activities in the Rotorua Lakes. Despite the high demand for trout angling and other recreational purposes, water quality in some of these lakes has been declining over the past decades and initiatives to try to restore the lakes are underway. To compliment these efforts, this study uses the travel cost random utility models to explore how changes in water quality would impact upon angler’s choice of fishing destinations. The welfare impacts due to water quality changes and possible lake closures are also explored. These findings highlight the importance of discrete choice random utility models as a policy decision making tool for recreational-based natural resource managers in New Zealand....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115514
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