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Registros recuperados: 62
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A physiological and biochemical approach to selecting the ideal diet for Ostrea edulis (L.) broodstock conditioning (part A) ArchiMer
Gonzalez-araya, Ricardo; Queau, Isabelle; Quere, Claudie; Moal, Jeanne; Robert, Rene.
To select the best microalgae for Ostrea edulis conditioning, four single species diets were fed to batches of broodstock, which were then compared using physiological and biochemical approaches. Ingestion and absorption were first studied, showing that Chaetoceros gracilis and Skeletonema marinoï were efficiently ingested (4.9–5.3 mg g−1 h−1) and absorbed (1.9–2.5 mg g−1 h−1) while Tetraselmis suecica led to the lowest physiological responses (0.36 and 0.12 mg g−1 h−1 respectively). When O. edulis were fed any microalgae except T-ISO with only 79 mg g−1, gonads accumulated carbohydrates from 116 to 141 mg g−1 and the extent of accumulation depended on the species supplied in the order T. suecica<C. gracilis<S. marinoï. When oysters were fed either...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ostrea edulis; Conditioning; Algal diets; Ingestion; Absorption; Biochemical composition.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00033/14449/11748.pdf
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Activités amylasique et trypsique du zooplancton-indices de nutrition ? perspectives et limites ArchiMer
Samain, Jean-francois; Moal, Jeanne.
The regulation of the synthesis of the digestive enzymes of the zooplankton and the brine shrimp (amylase and trypsine activity) has been studied to find some nutrition indexes enabling the description of the zooplankton's nutritive activity in situ. These regulations lead us to tackle three domains of pelagic ecology:- The evaluation of the organisms' nutrive needs and the capacity of the environment to satisfy them.- The monitoring of the pelagic ecosystem- The disturbance of the ecosystems.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Histoire Ifremer.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1981/publication-5972.pdf
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Amélioration des productions phytoplanctoniques en écloserie de mollusques : caractérisation des microalgues fourrage ArchiMer
Robert, Rene; Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Kaas, Raymond; Martin-jezequel, Véronique; Moal, Jeanne; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Nicolas, Jean-louis; Bernard, Eudes; Connan, Jean-paul; Le Dean, Loic; Le Gourrierec, Gaetane; Leroy, Bertrand; Quere, Claudie.
in mollusc hatcheries. Consequently, we assessed themost commonly used species to establish their growth and size profiles, their cytomorphological, biochemical, biomolecular identification as well as their cytometer signs, and also their ability to grow under extreme conditions of temperature and salinity. This work aimed at matching the conformity of the strains used in Argenton (dispatched to most of the French commercial hatcheries) to those of a referenced culture collection. A previous screening preceded this study, because of the 45 species and/or clones held originally, Argenton kept no more than 15 species. As most of the latter are also represented in referenced collection, our strains are therefore correctly identified. On the other hand, the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ecological limits; Biomolecular profile; Flow cytometry; Biochemical composition; Cytomorphology; Phytoplankton; Mollusc; Hatchery; Ecotolérance; Profil biomoléculaire; Cytométrie en flux; Composition biochimique; Cytomorphologie; Phytoplancton; Mollusques; Ecloserie.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/rapport-1546.pdf
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An amylase gene polymorphism is associated with growth differences in the Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Prudence, Marie; Moal, Jeanne; Boudry, Pierre; Daniel, Jean-yves; Quere, Claudie; Jeffroy, Fanny; Mingant, Christian; Ropert, Michel; Bedier, Edouard; Van Wormhoudt, A; Samain, Jean-francois; Huvet, Arnaud.
This study investigated the non-neutrality of genetic polymorphism in two alpha-amylase genes (AMYA and AMYB) in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Bi-parental oyster families, bred to be polymorphic for markers in these genes, were monitored for growth and survival for 1 year under standard culture conditions in two French production sites. Within-family genotype frequencies indicated that the two amylase genes were closely linked (c. 1.7 cM). Within two of three families, significant differences in growth were observed between genotypes at one of the two production sites, suggesting that this polymorphism is not neutral and might be under selection because of its role in digestive function. Estimated daily yields were different between amylase genotypes,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth; Genotype; Digestive enzyme; Bivalve; Alpha amylase.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-1691.pdf
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Approche de l'état physiologique de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas au cours d'un cycle saisonnier à Marennes-Oléron ArchiMer
Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Bodoy, Alain; Le Coz, Jean-rene.
The energy charge was measured for two Crassostrea gigas populations, during an annual survey at Marennes Oleron, to appreciate the condition of health of these oysters. It is assumed that the actual decrease in production of this area is related to a biomass overload which affects the oysters by lowering their scope for growth. Energy charge, an index developped by ATKINSON (1968), defines the energy equilibrium of organisms. It is the adenylic nucleotide ratio: E.C = (ATP + 1/2ADP)/ATP + ADP + AMP). We have measured this parameter to determine the state of health of these oysters. A methodological study has been conducted previously to define the conditions of sampling, conservation and extraction for a HPLC assay. The HPLC method (high performance...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marennes Oleron; Seasonal variations; Crassostrea gigas; Physiological indice; Nucleotides; Energy charge; Marennes Oléron; Cycle saisonnier; Crassostrea gigas; Indiced physiologique; Nucléotides; Charge énergétique.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1987/publication-2869.pdf
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Association among growth, food consumption-related traits and amylase gene polymorphism in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Huvet, Arnaud; Jeffroy, F; Fabioux, C; Daniel, Jean-yves; Quillien, Virgile; Van Wormhoudt, A; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Boudry, Pierre; Pouvreau, Stephane.
To examine further a previously reported association between amylase gene polymorphism and growth in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, ecophysiological parameters and biochemical and molecular expression levels of alpha-amylase were studied in Pacific oysters of different amylase genotypes. Genotypes that previously displayed significantly different growth were found to be significantly different for ingestion and absorption efficiency. These estimated parameters, used in a dynamic energy budget model, showed that observed ingestion rates (unlike absorption efficiencies) allowed an accurate prediction of growth potential in these genotypes. The observed association between growth and amylase gene polymorphism is therefore more likely to be related to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ingestion; Gene expression; Bivalve; Alpha amylase.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-5165.pdf
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BABE : Comparaison des sites de Ronce et Baie de Veys, incidence sur la reproduction et les mortalités : Ecologie côtière, mortalités, croissance, environnement - Physiologie - Immunologie ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Le Moine, Olivier; Faury, Nicole; Guilpain, Patrice; Geairon, Philippe; Razet, Daniel; Seugnet, Jean-luc; Robert, Stephane; Ropert, Michel; Simonne, Charlotte; Hugonnet, Virginie; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Huvet, Arnaud; Samain, Jean-francois; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Frouel, Stephane; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Delaporte, Maryse; Paillard, Christine.
Four laboratories are involved in this multidisciplinary study: the Conchological Laboratory of Normandie (LCN), the Invertebrates Physiology Laboratory (LPI), the Université Bretagne Occidentale (LEMAR IHP) and the Conchological Laboratory of Poitou-Charentes (LCPC). The part of the study which is presented here (thematics "Coastal ecology") was produced in collaboration with the LCN. The data on the Bay of Veys was collected by Michel Ropert. This study aims at observing the "sites" effect on mortality and on the general biology of the animal, as well as measuring some environmental elements (e.g. water temperature, etc.). The geographical sites are Gefosse in the Bay of Veys (East Cotentin) and the Ronce bank in the south of the Marennes Oléron Bay. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Immunologie; Physiologie; Paramètres environnementaux; Croissance; Ecologie côtière; Baies des Veys Cotentin; Ronce Charente Maritime; Comparaison sites; Reproduction; Mortalités; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3405.pdf
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Changes in biochemical and hemocyte parameters of the pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas fed T-Iso supplemented with lipid emulsions rich in eicosapentaenoic acid ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Chu, Fu-lin; Langdon, Chris; Moal, Jeanne; Lambert, Christophe; Samain, Jean-francois; Soudant, Philippe.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hemocyte parameters such as hemocyte concentration, phagocytosis, and non-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, as well on proximate biochemical and fatty acid compositions. One-year-old oysters (C. gigas) were fed T-Isochrysis aff. galbana(T-Iso), which is low in 20:5n-3, either alone or with supplements of a lipid emulsion rich in 20:5n-3 at 1%, 10% or 50% (dry weight of the algal ration) for up to 7 weeks. Changes in gill fatty acid composition demonstrated that the lipid emulsion was well ingested by oysters during the dietary conditioning. Biochemical analysis indicated that oysters fed supplements of 50%...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Immunology; Hemocytes; Eicosapentaenoic acid 20 : 5n 3; Crassostrea gigas; Bivalves.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2604.pdf
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Characterisation of physiological and immunological differences between Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) genetically selected for high or low survival to summer mortalities and fed different rations under controlled conditions ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Jegaden, M; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Degremont, Lionel; Boudry, Pierre; Samain, Jean-francois.
Within the framework of a national scientific program named "MORtalites ESTivales de l'huitre creuse Crassostrea gigas" (MOREST), a family-based experiment was developed to study the genetic basis of resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. As part of the MOREST project, the second generation of three resistant families and two susceptible families were chosen and pooled into two respective groups: "R" and "S". These two groups of oysters were conditioned for 6 months on two food levels (4% and 12% of oyster soft-tissue dry weight in algal dry weight per day) with a temperature gradient that mimicked the Marennes-Oleron natural cycle during the oyster reproductive period. Oyster mortality remained low for the first two...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Summer mortality; Reproduction; Reactive oxygen species ROS; Hemocyte parameters; Genetic selection; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3578.pdf
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Characterization of summer mortalities of C. gigas oyster in France in relation to environmental parameters ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Ropert, Michel; Bedier, Edouard; Costil, K. S.; Dubois, Brice; Degremont, Lionel; Bouget, Jean-francois; Martin, Jean-louis; Enriquez-diaz, M.; Faury, Nicole; Le Moine, Olivier; Renault, Tristan; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Huvet, Arnaud; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
Field characterization of summer mortality was performed in France in the frame of the Morest project. Natural and hatchery spat were compared between three oyster production areas in France. Regardless of the natural or hatchery origin, oysters died during the reproduction period after temperature reaches 19 degree C. Thus, in southern areas, temperature accelerated gametogenesis of small spat (10mm) as well as adults, and mortality appeared for the two age classes. In contrast, sexual maturation proceeded more slowly in northern where spat mortality was lower compared to 18 months old oysters. However, critical gametogenesis and temperature were not sufficient to induce mortalities, as observed in examples with stable environment. Alternatively sediment...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Seasonal variation; Oyster culture; Mortality causes; Hatcheries; Gametogenesis; Environmental factors; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3348.pdf
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C/N et contrôle de la physiologie des cultures de phytoplancton ArchiMer
Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Le Coz, Jean-rene.
Nutrients can be used for induction of carbohydrate or protein metabolism of three unicellular algae, their chemical variations measured by c/N ratio. The C/N determination and evolution can be used as a control for growth phase and satured conditions. Cultures of routine production have been tested by such a method. The results are discussed. [NOT CONTROLLED OCR]
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Histoire Ifremer.
Ano: 1979 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1979/publication-5221.pdf
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Delivery of riboflavin to larval and adult pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg by lipid spray beads ArchiMer
Langdon, Cj; Seguineau, Catherine; Ponce, B; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
Lipid spray beads (SB) were prepared containing 13% w/w particulate riboflavin. Beads suspended in seawater lost 73% riboflavin after 24 h. Release of riboflavin from SE ingested by Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae was observed under epifluorescent light. Riboflavin concentrations in tissues of adult oysters fed on riboflavin-SB were significantly (SNK, P < 0.05) greater than those of oysters fed on seawater-filled SE. Concentrations of riboflavin in oysters exposed to dissolved riboflavin were not significantly greater than those of oysters fed on seawater-filled SE: indicating that elevated riboflavin concentrations in oysters fed on riboflavin-SB were attributable to breakdown of ingested beads rather than uptake of dissolved riboflavin...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Spray beads; Lipid; Riboflavin; Oyster; Larvae; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/10493/9511.pdf
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Ecologie bacterienne dans les bacs d'elevage larvaire de coquilles Saint-Jacques (Pecten maximus ) ArchiMer
Jacq, E; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Corre, S; Daniel, J; Nicolas, Jean-louis; Cochard, Jean-claude; Fera, P.
Larval rearings were performed with seawater either freshly pumped or after storage in a pond. Concerning bacterial populations these waters were characterized by a high diversity, little sized bacteria whose few of them (1%) were cultivable on Zobell medium. In the tanks, the bacterial ecosystem was modified by the presence of antibiotics, larvae and algae: the diversity was lowered, the cellular volume was increased by a factor 2 to 5, 100% bacteria were cultivable and chloramphenicol resistant, and their metabolism changed. Taxonomic screening showed no differences among the two waters neither at the beginning nor at the end of the rearings. However, depending on the water (stored or not) differences were identified for bacterial physiology and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine aquaculture; Pond culture; Scallop culture; Ecology; Antibiotics; Organic matter; Grazing; Carbohydrates; Mathematical models; Modelling; Growth; Bacterial diseases; Biological production; Culture tanks; Larvae; Rearing.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-914.pdf
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Ecophysiological and metabolic adaptations to sulphide exposure of the oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Cheize, Marie; Gastineau, Olivier; Daniel, Jean-yves; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Huvet, Arnaud; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Van Wormhoudt, A; Samain, Jean-francois.
The purpose of this study is to examine the response of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to sulphide at different biological scales. A first experiment was designed to measure for 20 h the clearance (CR) and oxygen consumption (OC) rates of oysters exposed at different concentrations of sulphide (0, 3, 6, 12, 20, and 40 mu M). The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the metabolic adaptations to chronic sulphide exposure for 10 days by measuring PK and PEPCK enzyme activities, succinate and alanine content, the adenylate energy charge (AEC), and the activity of the electron transport system (ETS)in whole oysters at above 20 mu M. PK and PEPCK mRNAs and enzyme activities have been measured in adductor muscle. When exposed to sulphide above 20 mu M, CR...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: ATP; AEC; Electron transport system; Succcinate; Alanine; Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; Pyruvate kinase; Oxygen consumption; Clearance rate; Crassostrea gigas; Sulphide; Oyster.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-3924.pdf
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Effect of a mono-specific algal diet on immune functions in two bivalve species - Crassostrea gigas and Ruditapes philippinarum ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, Philippe; Moal, Jeanne; Lambert, Christophe; Quere, Claudie; Miner, Philippe; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Paillard, Christine; Samain, Jean-francois.
The impact of diets upon the fatty acid composition of haemocyte polar lipids and consequently upon immune parameters has been tested in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Oysters and clams were fed each of three cultured algae: Chaetoceros calcitrans, which is rich in 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6) and poor in 22:6(n-3) fatty acids; T-Iso (Isochrysis sp.), which is rich in 22:6(n-3) and deficient in 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6); and Tetraselmis suecica, which is deficient in 22:6(n-3) and contains only small amounts of 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6). Fatty acid composition of haemocyte polar lipids was greatly affected by the diet. Oysters and clams fed C. calcitrans maintained a higher proportion of 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6) in their haemocyte...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ruditapes philippinarum; Crassostrea gigas; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Phagocytosis; Oxidative activity; Haemocyte membrane; Nutrition; Immunology; Bivalve; Immunologie; Bivalve; Ruditapes philippinarum; Crassostrea gigas; Acides gras poly insatures; Phagocytose; Flambee respiratoire; Membrane; Hemocyte; Nutrition.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/publication-354.pdf
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Effect of environmental and nutritive conditionings on defense mechanisms of oyster Crassostrea gigas during an annual cycle ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Moal, Jeanne; Soudant, Philippe; Lambert, Christophe; Pouvreau, Stephane; Enriquez, Martha; Degremont, Lionel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Ropert, Michel.
In the frame of MOREST project, a common biological material, resulting of a mixture of different families produced in experimental hatchery, was reared in two different environmental fields : Normandy and Charente. Concomitantly, a pool was conditioned at the Ifremer Argenton hatchery with three different algae levels : 4%, 8% and 12% of algal dry weight per oyster dry weight. During the experiments, five immune parameters were studied in parallel with survival rate and reproductive status (stages and intensity). Site location, seasonal variations and experimental diet level clearly influenced oyster immune parameters. Haemocyte counts were higher for oysters reared in Normandy than those reared in Charente and in hatchery. Granulocyte percentage was...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Defense mechanisms; Nutrition; Seasonal variations; Physiology; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3500.pdf
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Effect of nutrition on Crassostrea gigas larval development and the evolution of physiological indices. Part A: Quantitative and qualitative diet effects ArchiMer
Ben Kheder, Rym; Quere, Claudie; Moal, Jeanne; Robert, Rene.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Larvae; Growth; Metamorphosis; Nutrition level and quality; Lipids; Condition indices.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00009/11997/9041.pdf
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Effect of nutrition on Crassostrea gigas larval development and the evolution of physiological indices Part B: Effects of temporary food deprivation ArchiMer
Ben Kheder, Rym; Quere, Claudie; Moal, Jeanne; Robert, Rene.
In the natural environment bivalve larvae are exposed to variable conditions and can therefore face periods of food shortage. To understand the resistance of early life stages of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), larvae were experimentally starved for 4 days at different periods of their development, and the resulting variations in their lipid reserves then analysed using image analysis and biochemical techniques. Faced with a temporary lack of food, the larvae halted their growth in size and weight and started to live off their lipid reserves; this effect was highly marked when the period of food deprivation was at the beginning of larval rearing, but was less marked when food deprivation was after day 14. The larvae conserved their developmental...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Larvae; Growth; Metamorphosis; Starvation; Lipids.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00018/12906/10145.pdf
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Effect of Rhodomonas salina addition to a standard hatchery diet during the early ontogeny of the scallop Pecten maximus ArchiMer
Tremblay, Rejean; Cartier, Simon; Miner, Philippe; Pernet, Fabrice; Quere, Claudie; Moal, Jeanne; Muzellec, Marie-louise; Mazuret, Michel; Samain, Jean-francois.
The main objective of this study was to identify algal diets that maximize the survival and growth and alter the biochemical content of Pecten maximus larvae with the aim of improving metamorphosis. We also evaluated the potential of the cryptophyceae Rhodomonas salina as a food source for these larvae. Two flagellates, Isochrysis aff. galbana (T) and Pavlova lutheri (P), and two diatoms, Chaetoceros gracilis (C) or Skeletonema costatum (S), were tested as two ternary diets, namely PTC and PTS. PTC and PTS were compared with diets that also included R. salina (R). The addition of R. salina and the replacement of C. gracilis by S. costatum in the traditional hatchery diet seem to be two interesting alternatives for increasing the productivity of larval...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Algal fatty acids and sterols; Energetic content; Metamorphosis; Nutrition; Scallop.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2404.pdf
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Effect of sediment nearness on the metabolic enzyme activity and energy state of the oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Fleury, Pierre-gildas; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
This study was designed to assess in situ the effects of sediment nearness on Crassostrea gigas metabolism. One year-old oysters were reared for 5 months (April-August) in plastic bags on metallic frames at 10 and 60 cm off the sediment at the beginning of April. The management of the energetic resources (storage, consumption) was estimated with respect to biochemical changes of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the effect of the sediment nearness at cellular level, the metabolic rate was evaluated by assessing pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme activities and electron transport system (ETS) activity. The metabolic pathways were assessed by measuring ATP and intermediary metabolites such as...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Aspartate; Succinate; Alanine; ETS; PEPCK; PK; Carbohydrate; Lipids; Proteins; Sediment; Oyster; Aspartate; Succinate; Alanine; ETS; PEPCK; PK; Glucides; Lipides; Proteines; Sédiment; Huître.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2803.pdf
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