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A Flexible Multistage Demand System Based on Indirect Separability AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The notion of indirect separability is exploited to derive a new multistage demand system. The model allows a consistent parameterization of demand relations at various budgeting stages and it fulfills the requirement of flexibility while satisfying separability globally. Two propositions are derived to characterize flexible and separable functional forms, which lead to the specification of a flexible and separable translog (FAST) demand system. The model is particularly attractive for modeling large complete demand systems, and is illustrated with an application to Canadian food demand.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D11; D12; C51.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18514
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A LINEAR INVERSE DEMAND SYSTEM AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Vissa, Anuradha.
We present an inverse demand that can be estimated in a linear form. The model is derived from a specification of the distance function which is parametrically similar to the cost function underlying the Almost Ideal Demand System. Simulation results suggest that this linear inverse demand system has good approximation properties.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30954
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AJAE Appendix: Deriving a Flexible Mixed Demand System: The Normalized Quadratic Model AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Rizzi, Pier Luigi.
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 89, Number 4, November 2007.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7100
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AJAE Appendix: Grading, Minimum Quality Standards, and the Labeling of Genetically Modified Products AgEcon
Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 89, Number 3, August 2007.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7404
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ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF RISK IN COMMODITY SUPPLY MODELS: AN ANALYSIS OF SOW FARROWING DECISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES AgEcon
Holt, Matthew T.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The role of price risk in sow farrowings is investigated by using bivariate ARCH-M and GARCH-M models and a nonparametric kernel estimator. To account for the relevant time horizon of irreversible supply decisions, predictions for mean price and conditional price variance are iterated forward. The empirical results vary markedly in terms of their implications for risk response in hog supply decisions, with the ARCH-M and GARCH-M models suggesting a small and negative risk effect. Estimates of the marginal risk premium also indicate moderate and variable departures from marginal cost pricing in sow farrowing supply decisions.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30737
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ARE ALL TAXES EQUALLY BAD? HOW REDUCING IOWA'S SALES TAX COULD SAVE IOWANS MORE THAN $100 MILLION PER YEAR AgEcon
Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo; Caruth, Brad.
Under current U.S. law, taxpayers can deduct up to 100 percent of their state income taxes from their adjusted gross income when calculating their federal income taxes. As a result, Iowans currently pay approximately $251 million less to the federal government than they would otherwise pay. There is, however, no equivalent stipulation allowing for the deduction of state sales taxes. Consequently, by eliminating the sales tax and replacing the lost revenue with an income-based tax, Iowans could save a substantial amount of money on their federal tax returns without any change in revenue for the Iowa government. Alternatively, by replacing the sales tax with an income-based tax, the State of Iowa could increase its tax revenue without increasing the total...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Federal itemized deductions; Income tax; Sales tax; State budget; Tax policy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18452
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Biotechnology and the Development of Food Markets: Retrospect and Prospects AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
Biotechnology has had an important impact on the agricultural and food industries over the last twelve years by way of fast and extensive adoption of a few genetically modified (GM) crops. This has produced large efficiency gains, including higher yields and reduced costs of weed and pest control, as well as some environmental benefits. The expected development of crops with additional agronomic traits, and with output traits to improve the nutrition and health attributes of food products, holds the potential for even more pervasive impacts. Full realisation of such promises may require overcoming the constraining effects of restrictive GM product regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified products; Innovation; Regulation; Research and development..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42811
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Biotech--Who Wins? Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward GMOs and the issue of labelling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations; a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed. Emerging output-trait GMOs are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23862
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Competition Issues in the Seed Industry and the Role of Intellectual Property AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L1; L4; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94757
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including corn, has been expanding but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding exports flows to various markets. Trade costs include costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary-phytosanitary (SPS) regulations imposed by foreign countries on U.S. corn seed exports. SPS policy information comes from the Excerpt data base of USDA-APHIS. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers. A SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Seeds; Corn; SPS; Phytosanitary; Exports; Trade cost; Technical barriers; Tariffs; TBT.; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6402
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including that of corn, has been expanding, but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding export flows to various markets, including costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers, estimated based on data from 48 countries and for the years 1989 to 2004. An SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of seeds faced by foreign users. A sample selection...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corn; Distance; Phytosanitary; Seeds; SPS; Tariff; Technical barriers; Trade cost.; Demand and Price Analysis; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46589
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Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18413
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ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON GMO MARKET SEGREGATION AgEcon
Miranowski, John A.; Moschini, GianCarlo; Babcock, Bruce A.; Duffy, Michael D.; Wisner, Robert N.; Beghin, John C.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Lence, Sergio H.; Baumel, C. Phillip; Harl, Neil E..
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) crops have become increasingly popular with Iowa farmers over the past few years. The current genetic modifications are focused on pest management technologies. Although there were early efforts by environmental activists to disrupt the adoption of GMO technology, few concerns were raised by U.S. food retailers and consumers. The primary concern was getting European Union (EU) regulatory approval for each GMO crop variety event as late as spring 1999. The situation has changed dramatically in the last few months, and the current situation is highly uncertain. This paper provides the economic perspective on the issues surrounding non-GMO/GMO market segregation, the potential price impacts that may materialize with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18232
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GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP INNOVATIONS AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: TRADE AND WELFARE EFFECTS IN THE SOYBEAN COMPLEX AgEcon
Sobolevsky, Andrei; Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology to separate conventional and biotech products in the supply chain. The calibrated model is solved for equilibrium prices, quantities, production patterns, trade flows, and welfare changes under different assumptions regarding regional government's production and trade policies, differentiated consumer tastes, and several other demand and supply parameters. Incomplete...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Food labeling; Genetically modified products; Identity preservation; Innovations; Intellectual property rights; International trade; Loan deficiency payments; Market failure; Monopoly; Roundup Ready soybeans; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18348
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Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Menapace, Luisa; Pick, Daniel H..
The economics of geographical indications (GIs) is assessed within a vertical product differentiation framework that is consistent with the competitive structure of the agricultural sector with free entry/exit. It is assumed that certification costs are needed for GIs to serve as (collective) credible quality certification devices, and production of high-quality product is endogenously determined. We find that GIs can support a competitive provision of quality that partly overcomes the market failure and leads to clear welfare gains, although they fall short of delivering the (constrained) first-best level of the high-quality good. The main beneficiaries of the welfare gains are consumers. Producers may also accrue some benefit if the production of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competitive industry; Free entry/exit; Geographical indications; Marshallian stability; Quality certification; Trademarks; Welfare; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6891
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Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields? AgEcon
Xu, Zheng; Hennessy, David A.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We study U.S. county corn yields 1964-2008, controlling for location effects, fertilization technologies and weather. We find evidence that trend yield growth has been fastest in the Central Corn Belt, genetic modification technologies have increased trend yield, and this increase has been largest in the Central Corn Belt.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Corn Yield; Trend; Regional Effects; Weather; Fertilization.; Crop Production/Industries; Industrial Organization; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L65; Q16.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61303
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IDENTITY PRESERVATION AND LABELING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS: SYSTEM DESIGN AND ENFORCEMENT ISSUES AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
This paper analyzes economic issues that arise in devising a credible and enforceable system of identity preservation and labeling for genetically modified (GM) and non-GM products. The model represents three stages in the supply chain: farm production, marketing handlers, and final users. The possibility of accidental co-mingling of non-GM products is modeled at the marketing stage. Regulation takes the form of a threshold level of purity for non-GM products, a probability of government testing to verify compliance with the threshold level, and a fine for violators. Uncertainty is modeled explicitly, such that would-be suppliers of non-GM products always face some risk of failing the test and incurring a fine. The paper also presents a novel demand...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Enforcement; Food labeling; Identity preservation; Regulation; Uncertainty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18355
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INNOVATION AND TRADE WITH ENDOGENOUS MARKET FAILURE: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS. AgEcon
Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
We build a partial-equilibrium, two-country model to analyze some implications of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. In the model, innovators hold proprietary rights on the new technology, whereas farmers are (competitive) adopters; some consumers deem food produced from GM products to be inferior to traditional food; countries trade both traditional and GM products; countries can adopt regulations (such as mandatory labeling of GM products) that have direct trade implications; and, crucially, the mere introduction of GM crops affects the costs of non-GM food (because it makes it necessary to implement costly identity preservation). The analysis shows that, although agricultural biotechnology innovations have the potential to improve...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18555
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Intellectual Property Rights and Crop-Improving R&D under Adaptive Destruction AgEcon
Yerokhin, Oleg; Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual property regime with or without a "research exemption" provision. The study of the welfare function that also accounts for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biological resistance; Intellectual property rights; Markov perfect equilibrium; Patents; Research exemption; R&D; Sequential innovation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10008
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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECTS AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper analyzes the main economic issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO). A retrospective view on the establishment of the TRIPS (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights) Agreement, a still controversial accomplishment of the Uruguay Round of trade liberalization, is provided. The paper reviews the economic rationale for the harmonization of IPRs, drawing both on economic theory considerations as well as emerging empirical evidence. The logic of linking IPR protection and trade in the context of the WTO is also re-examined. Some specific attention is devoted to the implications of TRIPS for agricultural and biotechnology innovations. The impact that IPR protection can...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Copyrights; Cross-border externalities; Intellectual property; International trade; Patents; Trademarks; TRIPS; WTO; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18369
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