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A Century of Synthetic Fertilizer: 1909-2009 Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
This year marks a centenary of the synthetic fertilizer industry. German chemists, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch, in 1909 demonstrated their industrial process for the manufacture of ammonia. The achievement won them accolades including Nobel Prizes. The output of their Haber-Bosch process can be used for either peace or war, agriculture or munitions, and the rapid adoption by Germany of this industrial process is credited with prolonging WW1. Most of the synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer of the past century, and right up to the present, has been manufactured using the Haber-Bosch process. The use of synthetic fertilizers has led to significant negative environmental outcomes. Rudolf Steiner was an early voice against chemical agriculture. Steiner's...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; History of organics; Switzerland; Farming Systems; Farm nutrient management; Germany; Europe.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15797/1/15797.pdf
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A Choice: Standards for Sale or Open Access? Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
The Australian National Standard for Organic and Bio-Dynamic Produce was first issued in 1992, and revised editions have appeared in 1998, 2002 and 2007. It is an export standard and serves as a de facto domestic standard. It is currently freely available for download. There is a proposaal that the copyright residing in organic standards in Australia be relinquished to a private company which licences and profits from the sale of standards. This article questions this standards-for-sale model and asks whether the community and the organic cause are better served by the standard remaining as an Open Access document, rather than a pay-per-view document.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Australia Knowledge management Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13093/1/13093.pdf
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A History of the Organic Agriculture Movement in Australia Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Australia’s involvement in the organic movement is dated from 1928 in this account. There have been four ‘waves’ of organic advocacy in Australia. The First Wave (1920s & 1930s) follows Rudolf Steiner’s 1924 call at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) for a differentiated agriculture. Australian anthroposophists, beginning with Ernesto Genoni, responded to this call by joining Steiner’s Agricultural Experimental Circle (AEC) of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners which was coordinated from Dornach, Switzerland by Dr Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. Bob Williams presented the first public lecture on biodynamics at the home of Walter Burley and Marion Mahoney Griffin at Castlecrag (Sydney) in 1938. The Second Wave of organic agriculture in Australia (1940s &...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Australia; History of organics; Country reports.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26110/7/26110.pdf
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A Postcard from Korea: Worldʼs First Organic Agriculture Museum Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Korea has trumped the world in creating the world’s first organic farming museum. The Namyangju Organic Museum is a surprise - and for several reasons. Firstly, it is surprisingly good. And secondly, it is surely surprising that the world’s first organic agriculture museum appears in Korea? It is a specialist museum of which Namyangju can be justly proud. The museum caters for a variety of ages, from youngsters to oldsters, and for a variety of interests, from casual, to practical, to scholarly. Screen-based techno-interactive exhibits are an obvious hit with children. The Namyangju Organic Museum was launched to coincide with the 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress (September - October 2011), the first such event to be held in Asia.This museum can serve...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Farming Systems; Knowledge management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/20571/1/Paull2011JBDT.NamyangjuMuseum.pdf
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A Postcard from Oxford: Rudolf Steiner at Manchester College Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
At the height of his powers, Rudolf Steiner presented a two-week conference at Oxford. The ‘Oxford Holiday Conference’ was titled ‘Spiritual Values in Education & Social Life’ (Mackenzie, 1922b), and it was this 1922 conference that laid the foundations for establishing Waldorf education in Britain and from there the rest of the Anglo world. The original Waldorf School had been established in 1919 by Rudolf Steiner at the invitation of a German industrialist, Emil Molt, in Stuttgart, Germany. Steiner states that in the Waldorf School he sought "to apply the educational principles arising out of Anthroposophy”. The Stuttgart school began with 150 students and this had grown to 700 by the time of the Oxford Conference. The Oxford Conference ran from...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Values; Standards and certification United Kingdom History of organics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/18810/1/Paull2010ManchesterJBDT.pdf
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A Postcard from Stuttgart: Rudolf Steiner's 150th anniversary exhibition 'Kosmos' Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
It is easy to imagine that Rudolf Steiner (1861­‐1925) would be delighted with the new exhibition 'Kosmos Rudolf Steiner' at Stuttgart's modernistic Kunstmuseum. Kosmos is a major retrospective exhibition of Steiner's life and ideas. Kosmos appears 150 years after Steiner's birth, and this is a timely anniversary to present the manand his ideas, fresh to a new audience. Kosmos Rudolf Steiner is, first and foremost, a celebration of a life lived with intensity, purpose and zest. Visitors may be drawn by curiosity, and others will be drawn by familiarity. Whether it was art, agriculture, architecture or anthroposophy, whether education or eurythmy, furniture or well-­‐being, Steiner touched it, and his touch has endured. After Stuttgart, the exhibition moves...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Education; Extension and communication History of organics Knowledge management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19512/1/Paull2011KosmosJBDT.pdf
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A Review of the Independent Review of the South Australian GM Food Crop Moratorium and Fourteen Alternative Findings Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
The present review of the Independent Review of the South Australian GM Food Crop Moratorium (Anderson, 2019) reveals that the so-called Independent Review is not independent at all and thus it falls at the first hurdle. Kym Anderson is a long term vocal advocate of genetically modified crops and has expressed such views regularly over the past two decades. The Independent Review was commissioned by the South Australian Minister for Primary Industries and Regional Development. There were 216 public submissions, of these, 78% (n=168) were for retaining the existing Moratorium, 18% (n=39) were for scrapping the Moratorium, and 4% (n=8) were undecided. 100% of the food available in Australian supermarkets is GM-free which mirrors the sentiments of Australian...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farming Systems Values; Standards and certification Food systems Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/35027/1/Paull2019.SA.GM.MoratoriumReview.na.pdf
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A World Map of Organic Agriculture Organic Eprints
Paull, John; Hennig, Benjamin.
This paper presents a world map of organic agriculture. A Gall-Peters projection map of the world is taken as the reference map (where map areas are proportional to territorial areas). Applying the area of organic agriculture to countries, the World Map of Organic Agriculture presents countries as proportional in size to their share of the total of world organic hectares (such a map can be referred to as an equal-area cartogram or a densityequalising map). The World Map of Organic Agriculture accounts for 37.2 million hectares of organically managed agricultural land (certified organic and in-conversion organic) from 160 countries, and here distributed across the 200 territories of the reference map. The World Map of Organic Agriculture visually reveals...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Farming Systems; World.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19535/1/Paull%26Hennig2011EJSS.pdf
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Agent Orange Day: Remediating chemical trespass Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Agent Orange Day, 10th August, is a day for us to remember the raison d'être of the organics movement. It was on this day, 51 years ago, that the USA embarked on the most audacious and extensive program of chemical warfare that the world has witnessed. Continuously, over a decade (1961-1971), vast swathes of Vietnam's forests, waterways, and croplands were drenched and re-drenched in high dosage agricultural herbicides, reportedly up to 50 times the recommended dosages. The US military intention was to denude the land of forests and crops, and, on these crude terms, it was a success. Estimates put the area of Vietnam affected at three million hectares (7.4 million acres). The objective was to deny cover and crops to ‘the enemy’. The Viet Cong were fighting...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; Knowledge management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/27566/7/27566.pdf
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Angels of the First Class: The Anthroposophic Art of Ernesto Genoni, Goetheanum, 1924 Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Ernesto Genoni (1885-1975) was the pioneer of biodynamics in Australia. The exhibition, Angels of the First Class, presents art that he produced under the tutelage of Rudolf Steiner at Dornach, Switzerland, in the year of Steiner's Agriculture Course. A century ago, Ernesto joined the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) and served as a stretcher bearer on the killing fields of the Western Front in 1916, in the battles of the Somme and Pozières. In 1923, Ernesto wrote to Rudolf Steiner from Italy offering his labour for advancing the Anthroposophy project. Ernesto arrived at Dornach early in 1924 and successfully applied to Dr Steiner for acceptance into the First Class (Erste Klasse der Freien Hochschule für Geisteswissenschaft). The First Class was Steiner’s...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Australia; Italy; Switzerland; History of organics.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30452/1/Paull2016.AnthroArt.A5.pdf
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Asian Spring for organic agriculture: Korea takes a lead Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Korea’s Organic World Congress (OWC) was a milestone for Korea, for Asia, and for the world. It perhaps signals an Asian Spring for organics where Korea, in particular, and Asia, in general, are set to make rapid progress in meeting their aspirations and goals for reclaiming food and agriculture as organic. Korea’s OWC can serve to reinvigorate the momentum of organics in Asia where the organic statistics are dominated by the ‘organic giants’ of China and India. One remarkable enduring legacy of the OWC is the Namyangju Organic Museum. It is the world’s first museum dedicated to organic agriculture and was launched to coincide with the OWC. It is housed in a bold and strikingly modern new building. The museum presents a timeline of the history of organic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Values; Standards and certification Knowledge management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20839/4/20839.pdf
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Atlas of Organics: Four maps of the world of organic agriculture Organic Eprints
Paull, John; Hennig, Benjamin.
This paper presents four maps of the world of organic agriculture. Density equalising maps (cartograms) have previously been published of the world of organic agriculture based on the reported hectares of certified organically managed agriculture land. The four maps in the present atlas of organic agriculture are visual presentations of current global organics data: (a) certified organic agriculture hectares; (b) certified organic wildculture hectares; (c) total certified organic production hectares (organic agriculture plus wildculture plus forestry plus aquaculture); (d) certified organic producers. Australia dominates in the world map of the organic agriculture hectares, Europe is strongly represented, and Africa is weakly represented. Finland dominates...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Farming Systems; Africa; Asia; Australia; China; European Union; India; Latin America; North America; United Kingdom; United States; World; Knowledge management; Europe.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30187/1/PaullHennig2016.OAMaps.pdf
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Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924 Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course held at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924 was arguably the world’s first organic agriculture course - although the terms ‘biodynamic agriculture’ and ‘organic farming’ appeared in the decades that followed. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer and others have stated that there were about 60 attendees at the course, while Rudolf Steiner and others have stated that there were about, or more than, 100 attendees. The present study examines the original attendance records to reveal that there were 111 attendees. There were 30 women and 81 men. They came from six countries: Germany (N=61); Poland (N=30); Austria (N=9); Switzerland (N=7); France (N=2); and Sweden (N=2). Of the 60% of enrolees who declared a profession, 38 could be...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Farming Systems Values; Standards and certification History of organics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18809/1/Paull2011KoberwitzEJSS.pdf
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Australia: Organic farming to soar in 2013 Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
An analysis by IBIS World predicts that organic farming is one of the top five Australian “industries to fly” in 2013. The value of revenue from organic farming is predicted to grow by 12.5%, and to rise from AU$549 million in 2012, to AU$617 million in 2013 (€434 m to €488 m). Of the five proposed high fliers, organic farming is forecast to grow slower than oil and gas production (15.9%), but faster than the other three high fliers: online education (10.5% growth), online shopping (9.1%) and apartment and townhouse construction (9.0%). Karen Dobie, General Manager of IBISWorld (Australia), said that “Consumers are becoming increasingly eco and health conscious. This means they are more willing to pay a premium price to prevent environmental degradation...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Australia.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26245/7/26245.pdf
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Australia's original Demeter Farm (1934-1954) Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Two members of Rudolf Steiner’s Experimental Circle were the first to establish a Demeter Farm in Australia. In 1934 Ileen Macpherson (1898-1984) and Ernesto Genoni (1885-1964) founded their ‘Demeter Biological Farm’ on the Princes Highway in Dandenong, Victoria. They were guided by Steiner’s book of his Agriculture Course (1924). They managed their 40 acre farm using biodynamic (BD) practices for the next two decades. Ileen and Ernesto pioneered biodynamic and thereby organic farming in Australia. They were the first to adopt the name ‘Demeter’ for an Australian BD enterprise. This was before the terms ‘biodynamic farming’ and ‘organic farming’ had any currency (which date from 1938 and 1940 respectively). They worked their BD farm for two decades until...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; Australia; Italy; Switzerland; History of organics.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32143/1/Paull2017.Demeter.JBDT.pdf
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Beyond Equal: From Same but Different to the Doctrine of Substantial Equivalence Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
A same-but-different dichotomy has recently been encapsulated within the ill-defined concept of “substantial equivalence”. By invoking this concept the genetically modified organism (GMO) industry has escaped the rigors of safety testing that might otherwise apply. The curious concept of “substantial equivalence” grants a presumption of safety to GMO food. This presumption has yet to be earned, and has been used to constrain labelling of both GMO and non-GMO food. It is an idea that well serves corporatism. It enables the claim of difference to secure patent protection, while upholding the contrary claim of sameness to avoid labelling and safety scrutiny. It offers the best of both worlds for corporate food entrepreneurs, and delivers the worst of both...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Policy environments and social economy Values; Standards and certification.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/13485/1/13485.pdf
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Bhutan's plans to go 100% organic make progress Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
Bhutan's Minister for Agriculture and Forestry, Dr Pema Gyamtsho, confirmed aspirations for his country to be the world's first country to go 100% organic. Certifying a whole country as organic would set a new challenge for certifiers. At the 2013 Delhi Sustainable Development Summit held this month in India, Gyamtsho stated: "Ours is a mountainous terrain. When we use chemicals they don't stay where we use them, they impact the water and plants. We say that we need to consider all the environment. Most of our farm practices are traditional farming, so we are largely organic anyway". The Bhutan Minister added that "we are Buddhists, too, and we believe in living in harmony with nature. Animals have the right to live, we like to to see plants happy and...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Farming Systems; Asia; Country reports.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24671/7/24671.pdf
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Biodynamic agriculture shows steady global growth Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
New figures released by Demeter-International reveal the steady global growth of biodynamic agriculture. Certified biodynamic hectares are up 2% (from 144,497 to 147,495 hectares), biodynamic processors are up 5% (from 456 to 478), and biodynamic distributors are up 3% (from 185 to 190). The number of countries with Demeter-International certified biodynamic activity increased from 48 to 52. Croatia and Peru enter the list with newly reported biodynamic farms, and Bulgaria and Ukraine enter the list with new biodynamic distributors. There is considerable volatility in the statistics, with most countries reporting changes in the statistics for 2012 compared to the previous year. The three leading countries, based on biodynamic hectares, are Germany (with...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; France; India; Italy; Spain; World; Germany.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26246/13/26246.pdf
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Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938 Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
In the last year of his life, the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner challenged the direction and practice of contemporary agriculture. This was an early response to the proliferation of chemical agriculture. Steiner laid the foundation for an alternative agriculture, one that would ‘heal the earth’, in the agriculture course, a series of eight lectures at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924. Steiner set in train a process that led to the development, articulation, and naming of biodynamic agriculture, culminating in the publication of 'Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening' by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer in 1938. Pfeiffer's book appeared in Dutch, English, French, German, and Italian, and fulfilled Steiner's injunction to bring his agricultural lecture course...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Education; Extension and communication Research methodology and philosophy Baltic states History of organics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18836/1/Paull2011KoberwitzJOS.pdf
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Board changes at IFOAM's World Board Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
At the recent elections the World Board of the organic movement’s international governing body, IFOAM, there was a major changing of the guard. Vanaja Ramprasad was one of the members newly elected to the ten-member World Board of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. She is the director of India's Green Foundation and she has a passionate interest in “the real reasons for third world poverty and hunger”. In this interview she explains: "My interest in the work was inspired by the deep desire to understand the reasons for the disconnect I saw between the food system and the distancing of the very people who produced it". She declares that organics offers "the only future if the planet is to survive".
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general India Food systems Education; Extension and communication.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/16640/1/16640.pdf
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