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AGTEC-Org Agronomy Handbook of Methods Organic Eprints
Celette, Florian; Peigne, Joséphine; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Carcea, Marina; Aveline, Anne; Hellou, Guénaëlle; Mäder, Paul; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Mayer, Jochen; Dubois, David; Thommen, Andreas; Schweinzer, Agnes; Friedel, Juergen K.; David, Christophe.
A common handbook was conceived in the CORE Organic AGTEC-Org project in order to give some elements of field trial monitoring.
Tipo: Working paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Composting and manuring Soil tillage Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16461/1/AGTEC_Agronomy_Handbook_of_Methods.pdf
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Co-designing innovative cropping systems to improve soil functioning in organic farming Organic Eprints
Lefèvre, Vincent; Capitaine, Mathieu; Peigne, Joséphine; Roger-Estrade, Jean.
Organic agriculture is called upon to raise production to meet growing demand all the while ensuring the respect of the environment. In this context, improving the soil biological activity is crucial. Farmers are taking great interest in agroecological practices, such as conservation tillage associated with soil cover crops. The inclusion of these practices into current organic crop management systems calls for profound changes in the whole system.In this paper, we present aeight steps method to help farmers designing innovative prototypes of cropping systems. The method involves three design workshops, starting with a given decontextualized situation, before progressively integrating farmers‟ constraints. The method was run with two groups of six and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Soil.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26301/1/LefevreV_2013_CIAG_Vol32.pdf
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Conservation tillage in organic farming Organic Eprints
Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul; Peigne, Joséphine; Cooper, Julia.
Conservation tillage in organic farming combines the principles of organic farming with the benefits of soil erosion control achieved by the conversion from ploughing to either reduced tillage or no-tillage/direct-seeding. This chapter reviews more than two decades of on-station and on-farm research. The chapter outlines the main benefits of conservation tillage before considering its main challenges. The chapter also contains a number of specific case studies from the field. Finally, the chapter looks ahead to future research trends in this area and offers detailed guidance on where to find further information about this subject.
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34333/1/Book-%20Improving%20organic%20crop%20cultivation.pdf
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DIVERSITY OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES AMONG EUROPEAN ORGANIC FARMERS “TILMAN-ORG SESSION” Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers for adopting conservation agriculture practices is currently growing. But, there are few technical and scientific references available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices. The main objectives of this study are (1) to explore the diversity of crop management practices using conservation agriculture methods among European farmers, and (2) to identify main farmers’ strategies. We carried out a survey of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a multi factor analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of spring and winter crop managements. Organic farmers in Europe,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23910/1/23910_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Earthworm sampling Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Huber, Kathrin; Pfiffner, Lukas.
Earthworms are key organisms and indicators of soil quality, which also links to the productivity of an ecosystem. The higher the earthworm density and diversity, the better the earthworm’s living conditions and the more fertile is the soil. They are relatively easy to detect and determine into three ecological groups. The number and distribution of the three ecological categories and the numerous earthworm species depends on soil management, soil type, the Vegetation and climate conditions. In this technical note, various methods how to sample, measure and interpret earthworms are shown.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Specific methods.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32691/1/peigne-etal-2018-earthworms.pdf
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Effect of reduced tillage in organic farming on soil structure measured by non-destructive X-ray computed tomography in two long-term experimental field trials Organic Eprints
de Gode, Ron; Peigne, Joséphine; Fliessbach, Andreas; Brussaard, Lijbert.
Reduction of tillage intensity by non-inversion and very superficial tillage techniques is expected to have effects on soil structure such as soil porosity and soil structure stratification. Our hypothesis was that, mainly due to earthworms’ activity, soil macroporosity increases in the superficial soil layer with non-inversion and very superficial tillage compared to ploughing whereas, the opposite would be observable in the deeper soil layers. In the framework of the FERTILCROP project (http://www.fertilcrop.net/fc-home-news.html), we compared the effects of ploughing, non-inversion tillage and very superficial tillage techniques on soil structure in soil strata and more specifically on soil macropores using non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT)...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32842/1/de-goede-etal-2018-reduced-tillage.pdf
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How organic farmers practice conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; Payet, Vincent; David, Christophe; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José M.; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beechman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers in adopting conservation agriculture principles, including minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation has been growing since the early 2000s. However, currently there is no network for organic farmers practicing conservation agriculture, and a lack of knowledge on how organic farmers implement conservation agriculture in practice. Consequently, few technical references are available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices, in particular on controlling weeds without the use of herbicides. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to explore the diversity of conservation agriculture techniques (i.e., reduced tillage, no-tillage and green manures) practiced among...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Environmental aspects; Europe.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31244/1/peigne-etal-2015-Howorganicfarmerspractice-RAaFS-31-1-p72-85.pdf
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Improving baking quality, nutritional value and safety of organic winter wheat / Améliorer la qualité technologique, nutritionnelle et sanitaire du blé biologique, Principaux leviers agronomiques et technologiques Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Abecassis, Joël; Carcea, M.; Celette, Florian; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Friedel, J.; Hiltbrunner, J.; Mäder, Paul; Messmer, Monika; Narducci, V.; Peigne, Joséphine; Thomsen, I. K..
The organic bread wheat market has been diversified over time through the emergence of different sale channels. Processors require organic bread wheat of higher quality and safety in order to meet the consumers’ demand. The overall objective of the AGTEC-Org project was to identify agronomical and technological ways to improve the performance of organic wheat and flour. The findings would contribute to enhanced baking quality and nutritional value of organic flour, as well as prevention of mycotoxin contamination. The project involved 9 research centers or universities from 5 European countries for a total budget of about 1.5 million €. More than 400 experimental treatments were analyzed from 23 agronomic trials and 4 lab-experiments on food technology....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Food security; Food quality and human health Composting and manuring Processing; Packaging and transportation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26013/1/David_2013_CIAG_Vol32.pdf
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New challenges to improve organic bread wheat production in Europe Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Celette, Florian; Abecassis, Joël; Carcea, Marina; Friedel, Jürgen K.; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Messmer, Monika; Peigne, Joséphine; Samson, Marie-Françoise; Schweinzer, Agnes; Thomsen, I.K.; Thommen, Andreas.
The total organic area in the EU-27 had an annual average growth rate of nearly 15% from 1998 to 2006 with winter wheat being the most important cereal crop. Wheat yield in organic farming is around 30% to 70% of yield of conventional farming but higher premia for organic wheat may to some extent compensate for this. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems and four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation are considered to be the most serious threat in organic wheat production. Organic wheat producers will have to fulfil the technological needs of bakers although the requirements differ widely from small artisan bakers to large enterprises handling the organic bread...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19483/1/OWBread_ISOFAR2011_David_et_al2011.pdf
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ORGANIC FARMERS IN EUROPE: MOTIVATIONS AND PROBLEMS FOR USING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES. "TILMAN-ORG Session" Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
As conservation agriculture and organic farming are currently considered as environmentally friendly options for producing food, this study explores the motivations and problems of organic European farmers that apply at least two of the following techniques: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and/or (iii) green manures conservation practices. We carried out a survey about motivations and problems of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a principal component analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of motivations and problems. The most important motivations are related to soil preservation concerns and problems are mainly linked...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Social aspects; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23939/1/23939_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Organic farmers’ motivations and challenges for adopting conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; Payet, Vincent; Mäder, Paul; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Antichi, Daniele; Barberi, Paolo; Beeckmann, Annelies; Bigongiali, Federica; Cooper, Julia; Dierauer, Hansueli; Gascoyne, Kate; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Surböck, Andreas; Willekens, Koen; David, Christophe.
Conservation agriculture and organic farming are considered as promising sustainable agricultural system for producing food, while minimizing environmental impacts. Despite an increasing number of experimental data on organic conservation practices and various studies dealing with the adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers, none of those studies have specifically addressed conservation agriculture adoption under organic conditions in Europe. We carried out a survey with 159 farmers located in 10 European countries. These farmers had applied at least two of the following conservation practices: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and (iii) green manures. Each farmer assessed socio-economic, agronomic and environmental motivations and problems for...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil tillage; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29478/1/casagrande-etal-2015-OrganicAgriculture-p1-15-OrgFarmersMotivations.pdf
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Participative design of conservation agriculture cropping systems in organic agriculture Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Lefèvre, Vincent; Capitaine, Mathieu; Peigne, Joséphine.
This paper compares to co-design processes aiming at defining innovative cropping systems that combine conservation agriculture and organic farming.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Farming Systems; Systems research and participatory research; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29317/1/FSD5_Casagrande%20et%20al%20V2.pdf
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REDUCED TILLAGE AND COVER CROPS IN ORGANIC ARABLE SYSTEMS PRESERVES WEED DIVERSITY WITHOUT JEOPARDISING CROP YIELD Organic Eprints
Barberi, Paolo; Aendekerk, Raymond; Antichi, Daniele; Armengot, Laura; Berner, Alfred; Bigongiali, Federica; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Carlesi, Stefano; Celette, Florian; Chamorro, Lourdes; Crowley, Oliver; Döring, Thomas; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Hess, Jürgen; Huiting, Hilfred; José-Maria, Laura; Klaedtke , Stéphanie; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peigne, Joséphine; Sukkel, Wijnand; Surböck, Andreas; Talgre, Liina; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
One of the objectives of the TILMAN-ORG Project is to improve weed management under conservation agriculture (reduced tillage and/or cover crops) in organic arable systems. The shift from ploughing to conservation agriculture should not only maintain crop yield but possibly improve weed community diversity. This paper summarises the results on (1) weed abundance, (2) weed diversity and (3) crop yield obtained in the first year of the project (2012) in 13 trials scattered across Europe.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24158/1/24158_MM.pdf
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Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks: a meta-analysis Organic Eprints
Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Barberi, Paolo; Fliessbach, Andreas; Peigne, Joséphine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; De Vliegher, Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul.
Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the results from both published and unpublished research comparing deep or shallow inversion tillage, with various categories of reduced tillage under organic management. Shallow refers to less than 25 cm. We found that (1) division of reduced tillage practices into different classes with varying degrees of intensity allowed us to assess the trade-offs between reductions in tillage intensity, crop yields, weed incidence, and soil C stocks. (2) Reducing tillage intensity in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/29974/1/Cooper-etal-2016-ASD-36_22.pdf
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Soil fertility after 10 years of conservation tillage in organic farming Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Vian, Jean François; Payet, Vincent; Saby, Nicolas.
It has become commonplace to consider ploughing as an agricultural practice that destroys soil fertility. Organic farmers have traditionally used the plough to till their soil and control weeds. However, there is a growing interest in adopting tillage practices without ploughing to preserve long-term soil fertility and in the hope, subsequently, of increasing crop yields. The aim of this paper is to assess if conservation tillage treatments in organic farming did in fact improve long-term soil fertility, wheat rooting and yield in a long term field experiment (2004–2015). We compared the effects of conservation tillage treatments (superficial tillage – ST- with chisel at 15 cm depth and very superficial tillage – VST- at 5–7 cm depth) and conventional...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32372/1/10yearsofACinOF.pdf
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Spade test Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Gautronneau, Yvan; Vian, Jean François; Achard, Perrine; Chignier-Riboulon, Maxime; Ruffe, Lysiane; Vaskou, Claire.
The spade test is a diagnosis tool to assess soil structure (scoring from 1 to 5 = very compacted). This tool is a simplified version of the soil profile diagnosis method that quickly provides information to the user and helps for decision making (e.g. tillage operations). The guideline document explains how to extract a soil block with a spade (20 cm * 20 cm * 25 cm or more) and interpret the observed soil structure. The spade test only requires a spade and a tarp. The leaflet contains an interpretation table for scoring the soil structure based on the observation of the clods. It also contains a notation sheet. The tool has been developed for organic agriculture but could be used in conventional agriculture. The test is applicable in all European...
Tipo: Practice tool Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/32099/1/peigne-etal-2016-GuideTestBeche-ISARA_Lyon.pdf
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Test Bêche. Guide d'ultilisation Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Gautronneau, Yvan; Vian, Jean François; Achard, Perrine; Chignier-Riboulon, Maxime; Ruffe, Lysiane; Vaskou, Claire.
Afin de suivre l’état physique d’un sol, différents outils d’observation au champ existent. En Europe du Nord, on retrouve le test VESS (Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure) issu du test Peerlkamp. Ce test VESS permet d’apprécier la qualité de la structure des sols au niveau des premiers horizons. Il est basé sur un système de notation de 1 (très bonne qualité de structure du sol) à 5 (mauvaise qualité de structure du sol). En pratique, sa réalisation sur le terrain dure 5 à 15 minutes. Il permet d’avoir diverses informations sur les agrégats du sol (taille, forme, force, couleur) et les éléments biologiques (présence de racines). On peut aussi apprécier les éventuelles porosités. En Nouvelle-Zélande, le test VSA (Visual Soil Assessment) est pratiqué....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Soil quality Education; Extension and communication.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31137/1/peigne-etal-2016-GuideTestBeche-ISARA_Lyon.pdf
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