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Agricultural Technology Choices for Poor Farmers in Less-Favored Areas of South and East Asia AgEcon
Pender, John L..
During the past several decades dramatic improvement has occurred in agricultural productivity and livelihoods in South and East Asia, stimulated by the Green Revolution and supported by several other factors. Nevertheless, hundreds of millions of rural people in less-favored environments of this region still live in poverty and received limited benefit from the Green Revolution. To address these problems, alternative technological approaches to the conventional Green Revolution technologies are being advocated to address the problems of poor farmers in less-favored areas of Asia, including low external input and sustainable agricultural approaches, organic agriculture and biotechnology. This paper reviews the literature on agricultural technology options...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural technologies; Low-external input and sustainable agriculture; Organic farming; Biotechnology; Less favored areas; Rural poverty; South and East Asia; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42404
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Assessing the Impact of the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) in the Uganda Rural Livelihoods AgEcon
Benin, Samuel; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Okecho, Geresom; Pender, John L.; Nahdy, Silim; Mugarura, Samuel; Kato, Edward; Kayobyo, Godfrey.
The National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program of Uganda is an innovative public-private extension service delivery approach, with the goal of increasing market oriented agricultural production by empowering farmers to demand and control agricultural advisory services. Although initial evaluations of NAADS have been quite favourable, these evaluations have been primary qualitative in nature. This study quantifies the initial impacts of NAADS in the districts and sub-counties where the program was operating by 2005. It is based on descriptive analyses of results of a survey of 116 farmer groups and 894 farmers in sixteen districts where the program was operating at the time and four districts where NAADS had not yet begun operating to control...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Impact assessment; Agricultural extension; Uganda; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42375
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COMMUNITY NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF WOODLOTS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Pender, John L.; Tesfaye, Girmay.
This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We find that collective management of woodlots generally functions well in Tigray. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the woodlots contribute substantially to community wealth, increasing members’ willingness to provide collective effort to manage the woodlots. We find that benefits are greater and problems less on woodlots managed at the village level than those managed at a higher municipality level, and that the average intensity of management is greater on village-managed woodlots. Nevertheless, we...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16117
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DETERMINANTES DE ESTRATEGIAS COMUNITARIAS DE SUBSISTENCIA Y EL USO DE PRACTICAS CONSERVACIONISTAS DE PRODUCCION AGRICOLA EN LAS ZONAS DE LADERA EN HONDURAS AgEcon
Jansen, Hans G.P.; Rodriguez, Angel; Damon, Amy L.; Pender, John L..
In this paper we discuss the principal results of participatory surveys that were conducted between June 2001 and May 2002 in 95 communities (villages) in the rural hillside areas in Honduras. The principal objectives of the study were to determine the main income earning strategies at the community level; identify the most important determinants of these strategies; and analyze the principal factors that determine the use of conservation technologies and investments. A total of eight different income-earning strategies were identified that largely reflect differences in comparative advantages between different communities. We used a multinominal logit model to explain the choice of income earning strategy as determined by biophysical factors (elevation,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16078
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DETERMINANTS OF CEREAL DIVERSITY IN COMMUNITIES AND ON HOUSEHOLD FARMS OF THE NORTHERN ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS AgEcon
Benin, Samuel; Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Smale, Melinda; Pender, John L.; Ehui, Simeon K..
On farm conservation of crop diversity poses obvious policy challenges in terms of the design of appropriate incentive mechanisms and possible trade-offs between conservation and productivity. This paper compares factors explaining the inter-specific diversity (diversity among species) and infra-specific diversity (diversity among varieties within a species) of cereal crops grown in communities and on individual farms in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Using named varieties and ecological indices of spatial diversity (richness, evenness, and inverse dominance), we find that a combination of factors related to the agro-ecology of a community, its access to markets, and the characteristics of its households and farms significantly affect both the inter-...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Household Farms; Communities; Ethiopia; Agrobiodiversity; On Farm Conservation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16101
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Determinants of land use change: evidence from a community study in Honduras AgEcon
Bergeron, Gilles; Pender, John L..
This study investigates the micro-determinants of land use change using community, household and plot histories, an ethnographic method that constructs panel data from systematic oral recalls. A 20-year historical timeline (1975-1995) is constructed for the village of La Lima in central Honduras, based on a random sample of 97 plots. Changes in land use are examined using transition analysis and multinomial logit analysis. Transition analysis shows that land use transitions were relatively infrequent in areas under extensive cultivation, but more so in areas of intensive cultivation; and that most changes favored intensification. Econometric analysis suggests that land use intensification was influenced by plot level variables (especially altitude, slope,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Honduras; Land use; Econometrics--Case studies; Horticultural products; Land management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97464
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Determinants of Smallholder Commercialization of Food Crops: Theory and Evidence from Ethiopia AgEcon
Pender, John L.; Alemu, Dawit.
In this paper, we develop a theoretical farm household model of food crop production and marketing decisions, derive testable hypotheses concerning the determinants of these decisions, and test these hypotheses, using data on cereal production and marketing collected from a nationally representative survey of 7,186 farm households in Ethiopia. Focusing on production and marketing decisions for teff and maize, the two most important crops in Ethiopia, we find that most producers of these crops are either autarkic or net buyers (especially for maize) and that net buyers and autarkic households are poorer in many respects than net sellers. This implies that interventions to increase cereal productivity will favorably affect distribution for most producers....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Smallholder production; Commercial behavior; Market participation; Cereal crops; Ethiopia; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42354
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DETERMINANTS OF SOIL NUTRIENT BALANCES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDRESSING LAND DEGRADATION AND POVERTY IN UGANDA AgEcon
Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Pender, John L.; Kaizzi, Crammer.
A regression model was used to investigate the determinants of soil nutrient depletion in Uganda. The major determinants of soil nutrient balances are household endowments, access to markets, and extension services, non-farm activities and agricultural potential. The results suggest the need to address soil nutrient depletion using multi-sectoral approaches.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20279
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Development domains for Ethiopia: capturing the geographical context of smallholder development options AgEcon
Chamberlin, Jordan; Pender, John L.; Yu, Bingxin.
The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the government of Ethiopia frequently frames policy discussions by broadly different geographical conditions of moisture availability, recognizing moisture reliable, drought prone and pastoralist areas. These conditions are seen as important criteria for determining the nature, extent and priority of development interventions for different parts of the country. There is considerable evidence, however, that other geographical factors also have important implications for rural development options. This paper uses agroecology, access...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Small farmers; Geographic conditions; Rural development strategies; Development policy; Agro-ecology; Market access; Livelihoods; Population density; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55410
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DEVELOPMENT PATHWAYS AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN UGANDA: CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS AgEcon
Pender, John L.; Jagger, Pamela; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Sserunkuuma, Dick.
This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of change in livelihood strategies ("development pathways”"), land management practices, resource and human welfare conditions in Uganda since 1990, based upon a community-level survey conducted in 107 villages. The pattern of agricultural development since 1990 involved increasing specialization and commercialization of economic activities, consistent with local comparative advantages and market liberalization. Six dominant development pathways emerged, all but one of which involved increasing specialization in already dominant activities: expansion of cereal production, expansion of banana and coffee production, non-farm development, expansion of horticultural production, expansion of cotton, and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Development; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19814
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DEVELOPMENT PATHWAYS AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN UGANDA: CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS AgEcon
Pender, John L.; Jagger, Pamela; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Sserunkuuma, Dick.
This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of change in livelihood strategies (“development pathways”), land management practices, agricultural productivity, resource and human welfare conditions in Uganda since 1990, based upon a community-level survey conducted in 107 villages. The pattern of agricultural development since 1990 involved increasing specialization and commercialization of economic activities, consistent with local comparative advantages and market liberalization. This pattern was associated with changes in land use and agricultural practices, including expansion of cultivated area, grazing lands and woodlots at the expense of forest and wetlands; increased ownership of cattle but declining ownership of other livestock; and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Land management; Development pathways; Uganda; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16124
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Disaster Relief through the Tax Code: Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf Opportunity Zone AgEcon
Williamson, James M.; Pender, John L..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: This project investigates the impact of geo-graphically targeted Federal tax relief enacted in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. To facilitate administration of relief efforts and define eligibility for the temporary tax law changes; The Gulf Opportunity Zone (GO Zone) was created. We estimate the initial impacts of these tax incentives using propensity score matching (PSM) and Mahalanobis metric matching (MM) methods; Combined with difference-in-difference (DD) estimation; To limit the confounding influences of observable and fixed unobservable differences between counties affected by these incentives and similarly storm-damaged counties in the region that were not included in the GO Zone. Results show that per capita personal income and net earnings increased more rapidly in GO Zone counties that experienced minimal storm damage than in similar non-GO Zone counties in the GO Zone States and neighboring States.; Public Economics; H2; H24; H25.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103578
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Economic Development Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties AgEcon
Brown, Jason P.; Hoen, Ben; Lantz, Eric; Pender, John L.; Wiser, Ryan.
Replaced with revised version of poster 07/07/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wind turbine; Propensity score matching; Spatial lag model; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q21; R11.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103437
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Economic Impacts of Regional Approaches to Rural Development: Initial Evidence on the Delta Regional Authority AgEcon
Pender, John L.; Reeder, Richard J..
This study assesses the initial economic outcomes of the Delta Regional Authority (DRA), which began funding rural development projects in the Mississippi Delta region in 2002. The study focuses on non-metropolitan DRA counties and similar counties elsewhere in the Mississippi Delta region and the southeast, using a quasi-experimental approach that combines matching methods, double and triple difference and switching regression estimation. We find that per capita income and transfer payments grew more rapidly in DRA counties than similar non-DRA counties, and that these impacts are larger in counties in which DRA spending was larger. Each additional dollar of DRA spending per capita is associated with an increase of $15 in personal income per capita...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural economic development programs; Economic impacts; Mississippi Delta; Delta Regional Authority; Matching estimators; Double difference; Triple difference estimation; Switching regression; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; R58; R11; O18; C21.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60909
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Employment and the Rural Recession: Context and Spatial Variation of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Spending AgEcon
Marre, Alexander W.; Pender, John L.; Monchuk, Daniel C..
In December 2007 the U.S. economy entered a depression and unemployment surged to highs not seen in 30 years. The first part of this paper uses the most recently available data from BLS to examine the geography of the recession. We focus on the similarities and differences in the recession’s impact on nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties, and counties with different economic and demographic characteristics. The second part looks at the Federal response to the recession in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Using publicly available data, we explore how these funds are being allocated across rural and urban counties and county classifications, and the potential implications of these funds on local rural labor markets and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonmetropolitan unemployment; Economic development policy; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; R58; J21.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61132
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Evaluating the Impact of Land Tenure and Titling on Access to Credit in Uganda AgEcon
Petracco, Carly K.; Pender, John L..
Increasing smallholder farmers’ access to credit is a paramount concern in Africa in general and in Uganda in particular, as a means to help modernize agriculture. We use matching impact evaluation methods to assess four pair-wise comparisons: i) households who have freehold land with vs. without a title, ii) households who have customary land with vs. without a customary certificate, iii) households with a title or certificate having freehold vs. customary tenure, and iv) households without a title or certificate having freehold vs. customary tenure. Each comparison is then evaluated for the impact on access to any form of credit, formal credit and informal credit. Two matching methods were used and the results compared to test the robustness of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Uganda; Land tenure; Land titling; Rural credit; Agricultural Finance; Land Economics/Use; Q15; Q14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51899
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From "best practice" to "best fit" a framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide AgEcon
Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin E.; Pender, John L.; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier M.; Mbabu, Adiel N.; Spielman, David J.; Horna, J. Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc J..
The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are defined in the paper as the entire set of organizations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being… To classify pluralistic agricultural advisory services, the paper distinguishes between organizations from the public, the private and the third sector that can be involved in (a) providing and (b) financing of agricultural advisory services. The framework for analyzing pluralistic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55396
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From the Ground Up: Impacts of a Pro-Poor Community-Driven Development Project in Nigeria AgEcon
Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Phillip, Dayo; Mogues, Tewodaj; Pender, John L.; Yahaya, Muhammed Kuta; Adebowale, Gbenga; Arokoyo, Tunji; Kato, Edward.
The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and vulnerable groups. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts of Fadama II, which is a CDD project and the largest agricultural project in Nigeria. This study used propensity score matching (PSM) to select 1728 comparable project beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The study also used double difference methods to compare the impact indicators. Our results show that Fadama II project succeeded in targeting the poor and women farmers in its productive asset acquisition component. Participation in the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community driven development; Poverty reduction; Propensity score matching; Difference-in-difference; Fadama; And Nigeria; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42344
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Global food crisis; Monitoring and assessing impact to inform policy responses AgEcon
Benson, Todd; Minot, Nicholas; Pender, John L.; Robles, Miguel; von Braun, Joachim.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54045
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Impact of Soil Conservation on Crop Production in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands AgEcon
Kassie, Menale; Pender, John L.; Yesuf, Mahmud; Kohlin, Gunnar; Bluffstone, Randall; Mulugeta, Elias.
Land degradation, in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, threatens food security and the sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources in promoting soil conservation practices, in an effort to improve environmental conditions and reduce poverty. However, very limited rigorous empirical work has examined the economics of adopting soil conservation technology. This paper investigates the impact of stone bunds1 on crop production value per hectare in low and high rainfall areas of the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional data from more than 900 households having multiple plots per household. We use modified random effects models, stochastic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ethiopia; Soil conservation; Crop production; Agro-ecology; Matching method; Stochastic dominance; Modified random effects model; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42366
Registros recuperados: 55
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