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Registros recuperados: 102
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A comparative ecophysiological study of two infaunal filter-feeding bivalves: Paphia rhomboides and Glycymeris glycymeris ArchiMer
Savina, Marie; Pouvreau, Stephane.
A comparative ecophysiological study was carried out in September and November 2002 for two bivalves, Paphia rhomboides and Glycymeris glycymeris, which are significantly harvested in the Western Channel (French coast). Individual measurements of clearance and respiration rates were performed for both species, in several experimental conditions of temperature and phytoplankton concentrations. Those conditions were chosen to be in the range of those commonly observed in the subtidal area of the Western Channel. The mean value of clearance rate and oxygen consumption obtained from continuous data recording did not reveal any significant influence of temperature in the investigated range, but a significant difference between P rhomboides and G. glycymeris....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Filter feeding; Bivalves; Glycymeris glycymeris; Paphia rhomboides; Scope for growth; Ecophysiology.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/publication-379.pdf
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A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) growth model for Pacific oyster larvae, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Rico-villa, Benjamin; Bernard, Ismael; Robert, Rene; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Dynamic Energy Budget; Crassostrea gigas; Bivalve larvae; Ecophysiology; Growth.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00009/11996/9040.pdf
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A flow-through rearing system for ecophysiological studies of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae ArchiMer
Rico Villa, Benjamin; Woerther, Patrice; Mingant, Christian; Le Piver, David; Pouvreau, Stephane; Hamon, Michel; Robert, Rene.
While literature is relatively abundant on adult shellfish, ecophysiological studies at the larval stage are scarce because of both technical difficulties and inadequate methodology. A tool dedicated to provide basic information for larval ecophysiology was accordingly developed. Two steps were followed: first a flow-through method of Crassostrea gigas larval culture was perfected during a set of experiments in which rearing systems and larval density were assessed. Then a continuous hydrobiological data recorder was adapted with modifications to comply with our experimental aim. SILO (Système d'Instrumentation des Larves en flux Ouvert) allowed the successive acquisition of hydrobiological parameters in ten 150 l larval tanks in which larvae were reared...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Temperature; Ecophysiology; Bivalve larvae; Crassostrea gigas; Flow through.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4167.pdf
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A single bio-energetics growth and reproduction model for the oyster Crassostrea gigas in six Atlantic ecosystems ArchiMer
Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Bourles, Yves; Maurer, Daniele; Robert, Stephane; Mazurie, Joseph; Gangnery, Aline; Goulletquer, Philippe; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Many studies based on bioenergetics growth models have investigated the effects of environmental factors on oyster (Crassostrea gigas) growth and physiology. However, most of these models are site-specific and cannot be applied to other culture sites without the re-estimation of parameters or re-formulation of some processes. We aimed to develop a generic growth model suitable for application in contrasting environments, with a constant set of parameters. We tested the oyster-DEB model (Bourlès et al. 2009) for the stimulation of C. gigas growth in different cohorts (spats and adults) at major shellfish culture sites in France, in several years: Arcachon (1993–1994); Marennes-Oléron (2007); Quiberon (1999, 2000, 2001); Rade de Brest (2008); Baie du...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: DEB theory; Modelling; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Phytoplankton; Temperature effect; Coastal environment..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00043/15403/12762.pdf
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Application of a bioenergetic growth model to larvae of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L. ArchiMer
Thomas, Yoann; Garen, Pierre; Pouvreau, Stephane.
We applied, for the first time, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) growth model to the larval phase in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera var. cumingii (Linnaeus, 1758) to evaluate the impact of spatio-temporal variation in the atoll lagoon environment on its capacity for development. The specific parameters of the model, which represent ingestion, temperature effect and the relationship between length and biovolume of the larvae, were determined from experiments or taken from the literature. The interpretation of the values of these parameters allowed us to identify the underlying adaptive character trait: P. margaritifera larvae have a good capacity to exploit low food concentrations and a narrow range of thermal tolerance restricted to hydrobiological...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth Model; Dynamic Energy Budget; Larva; Pinctada Margaritifera; Atoll Lagoon.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00048/15919/13346.pdf
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Application of a dynamic energy budget model to the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, reared under various environmental conditions ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane; Bourles, Yves; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Gangnery, Aline; Alunno-bruscia, Marianne.
The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model (Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 1986. Energy budgets can explain body size relations. J. Theor. Biol. 121, 269¿282; Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic Energy and Mass Budgets in Biological Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 424 pp.) has been adapted to describe the dynamics of growth and reproduction of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) reared in different areas under conditions ranging from controlled to natural. The values of the model parameters were estimated from available physiological data and from published information. The sets of data used to validate the model came from three long-term growth experiments (> 5 months) performed on Pacific oysters reared under different conditions of food and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Reproductive effort; Reproduction; Growth; Ecophysiology; Dynamic energy budget; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-1817.pdf
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Association among growth, food consumption-related traits and amylase gene polymorphism in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Huvet, Arnaud; Jeffroy, F; Fabioux, C; Daniel, Jean-yves; Quillien, Virgile; Van Wormhoudt, A; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois; Boudry, Pierre; Pouvreau, Stephane.
To examine further a previously reported association between amylase gene polymorphism and growth in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, ecophysiological parameters and biochemical and molecular expression levels of alpha-amylase were studied in Pacific oysters of different amylase genotypes. Genotypes that previously displayed significantly different growth were found to be significantly different for ingestion and absorption efficiency. These estimated parameters, used in a dynamic energy budget model, showed that observed ingestion rates (unlike absorption efficiencies) allowed an accurate prediction of growth potential in these genotypes. The observed association between growth and amylase gene polymorphism is therefore more likely to be related to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ingestion; Gene expression; Bivalve; Alpha amylase.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-5165.pdf
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BABE : Comparaison des sites de Ronce et Baie de Veys, incidence sur la reproduction et les mortalités : Ecologie côtière, mortalités, croissance, environnement - Physiologie - Immunologie ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Le Moine, Olivier; Faury, Nicole; Guilpain, Patrice; Geairon, Philippe; Razet, Daniel; Seugnet, Jean-luc; Robert, Stephane; Ropert, Michel; Simonne, Charlotte; Hugonnet, Virginie; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Huvet, Arnaud; Samain, Jean-francois; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Frouel, Stephane; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Delaporte, Maryse; Paillard, Christine.
Four laboratories are involved in this multidisciplinary study: the Conchological Laboratory of Normandie (LCN), the Invertebrates Physiology Laboratory (LPI), the Université Bretagne Occidentale (LEMAR IHP) and the Conchological Laboratory of Poitou-Charentes (LCPC). The part of the study which is presented here (thematics "Coastal ecology") was produced in collaboration with the LCN. The data on the Bay of Veys was collected by Michel Ropert. This study aims at observing the "sites" effect on mortality and on the general biology of the animal, as well as measuring some environmental elements (e.g. water temperature, etc.). The geographical sites are Gefosse in the Bay of Veys (East Cotentin) and the Ronce bank in the south of the Marennes Oléron Bay. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Immunologie; Physiologie; Paramètres environnementaux; Croissance; Ecologie côtière; Baies des Veys Cotentin; Ronce Charente Maritime; Comparaison sites; Reproduction; Mortalités; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3405.pdf
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Bilan 2015 du dispositif national de surveillance de la santé des mollusques marins ArchiMer
Lupo, Coralie; Osta Amigo, Axel; Fleury, Elodie; Robert, Stephane; Garcia, Celine; Arzul, Isabelle; Baillon, Laury; Bechemin, Christian; Canier, Lydie; Chollet, Bruno; Dechamps, Lucie; Dubreuil, Christine; Faury, Nicole; Francois, Cyrille; Godfrin, Yoann; Lapegue, Sylvie; Morga, Benjamin; Travers, Marie-agnes; Tourbiez, Delphine; Masson, Jean-claude; Verin, Francoise; Cordier, Remy; Gangnery, Aline; Louis, Wilfried; Mary, Charlotte; Normand, Julien; Penot, Julia; Cheve, Julien; Dagault, Francoise; Le Jolivet, Aurore; Le Gal, Dominique; Lebrun, Luc; Bellec, Gwenael; Bouget, Jean-francois; Cochennec-laureau, Nathalie; Palvadeau, Hubert; Grizon, James; Chabirand, Jean-michel; Pepin, Jean-francois; Seugnet, Jean-luc; D'Amico, Florence; Maurer, Daniele; Le Gall, Patrik; Mortreux, Serge; Baldi, Yoann; Orsoni, Valerie; Bouchoucha, Marc; Le Roy, Valerian; Pouvreau, Stephane; Queau, Isabelle; Lamoureux, Alice.
Depuis 1992, la surveillance de la santé des mollusques marins du littoral français est assurée par le réseau de Pathologie des Mollusques (Repamo). Ses activités s’inscrivent dans le cadre de la Directive Européenne 2006/88/CE. Depuis son évaluation par la plateforme nationale d’épidémiosurveillance en santé animale en 2012, l’objectif de surveillance est la détection précoce des infections dues à des organismes pathogènes exotiques et émergents affectant les mollusques marins sauvages et d’élevage. L’année 2015 est la première année de transition pour laquelle un début d’évolution des modalités de surveillance de la santé des mollusques marins animées par l’Ifremer a été amorcé. Un dispositif hybride de surveillance a été mis en place, s’appuyant sur...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réseau; Surveillance; Pathologie; Mollusques; Coquillages; Santé; Mortalité; Maladie.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00324/43486/42945.pdf
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Biological characteristics of sperm in European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis ) ArchiMer
Suquet, Marc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Queau, Isabelle; Boulais, Myrina; Le Grand, Jacqueline; Ratiskol, Dominique; Cosson, Jacky.
n brooding mollusc species that incubate larvae before their release in seawater, the biology of gametes remains poorly explored. The present study describes some biological characteristics of sperm of the European flat oyster, a native species that has been over-exploited in the past and is nowadays classified as an endangered species in Europe. Flat oysters were collected by divers in the Rade de Brest (Finistère, France), during its natural reproduction period. Gonadal pH is acidic (6.31 ± 0.10). Spermatozoa are clustered in spermatozeugmata, an acellular structure in which the sperm heads are embedded. After their transfer in seawater, spermatozeugmata have a mean diameter of 64 ± 3 μm and they release free spermatozoa for a mean duration of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Oyster; Ostrea edulis; Brooding species; Sperm; Spermatozeugmata; Endangered species.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00454/56539/58245.pdf
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By-catch and Discarding in Pelagic Trawl Fisheries ArchiMer
Morizur, Yvon; Tregenza, N; Heessen, H; Beerow, S; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Incidental mammal catch and the composition of the fish catch were studied in pelagic trawl fisheries in the North-East Atlantic. Several seasonal European fisheries were investigated with scientific observation on the fishing vessels. A total of 379 days at sea were observed . The sampled fisheries were horsemackerel (Dutch, French), herring (Irish), mackerel (UK), pilchard (UK , French) and other French fisheries (hake, tuna, bass, black bream, anchovy). Unintentional catches of dolphins were recorded in four of the investigated fisheries (Dutch horsemackerel, French tuna, French hake and French sea bass) at a rate of 1 dolphin per 100 tow hours; Grey seals were caught in the Irish herring fishery at a rate of 4 individuals per 100 tow hours. The fish...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Albacore; Bluefin tuna Bass Black bream Whiting Hake Anchovy Pilchard Mackerel Horsemackerel Seal Cetacean Incidental mammal catch Reasons for discarding Discards By catch Pelagic trawl.
Ano: 1996 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1996/rapport-1236.pdf
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Caractéristiques biologiques des gamètes et larves d'huître plate européenne (Ostrea edulis): données préliminaires ArchiMer
Suquet, Marc; Queau, Isabelle; Le Grand, Jacqueline; Ratiskol, Dominique; Pouvreau, Stephane.
      The biology of gametes and larvae in brooding mollusc species remains little explored. The aim of this study is to present the results obtained in 2016, on biological characteristics of gametes and larvae of European flat oyster.       Measurements were carried out on 50 oysters, collected by divers in the Rade de Brest (Finistère, France), during the spawning period of this species. Gonad pH is acidic (6.58±0.54). After the dissociation of spermatozeugmata, an acellular structure to which the spermatozoa are clustered, the percentage of motile spermatozoa ranged from 20 to 34% and the Velocity of the Average Path from 70 to 85µm/s. Spermatozeugmata were shed after serotonin injection. Oocytes (mean diameter: 129.4±19.1µm) were rarely observed (2...
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Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00383/49390/49803.pdf
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Characterisation of physiological and immunological differences between Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) genetically selected for high or low survival to summer mortalities and fed different rations under controlled conditions ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Jegaden, M; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Degremont, Lionel; Boudry, Pierre; Samain, Jean-francois.
Within the framework of a national scientific program named "MORtalites ESTivales de l'huitre creuse Crassostrea gigas" (MOREST), a family-based experiment was developed to study the genetic basis of resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. As part of the MOREST project, the second generation of three resistant families and two susceptible families were chosen and pooled into two respective groups: "R" and "S". These two groups of oysters were conditioned for 6 months on two food levels (4% and 12% of oyster soft-tissue dry weight in algal dry weight per day) with a temperature gradient that mimicked the Marennes-Oleron natural cycle during the oyster reproductive period. Oyster mortality remained low for the first two...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Summer mortality; Reproduction; Reactive oxygen species ROS; Hemocyte parameters; Genetic selection; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3578.pdf
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Conception et réalisation de bancs automatisés pour les mesures écophysiologiques des mollusques filtreurs en condition contrôlée à La Station Expérimentale d'Argenton ArchiMer
Fagon, N.; Le Souchu, Pierrick; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Force est de constater que, malgré un intérêt croissant depuis les 20 dernières années en matière d'écophysiologie des mollusques, il n'existe, à notre connaissance, aucun système réellement adapté à la mesure en continu et de façon concomitante des principales fonctions écophysiologies des mollusques filtreurs (notamment consommation et filtration). Faisant suite à la réalisation d'un cahier des charges et d'une version préliminaire d'un système, le but du présent projet est de doter la Station Expérimentale d'Argenton (entité expérimentale de l'UMR « Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins) de deux systèmes automatisés et opérationnels de mesures de l'écophysiologie des mollusques filtreurs. Après un bref rappel des principes de mesures des...
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Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00306/41769/40982.pdf
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Défi MOREST - Mortalités estivales de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas. Caractérisation des facteurs de risques associés aux mortalités estivales - Synthèse du thème 6 - Le risque température. (La Rochelle 14- 15 mars 2006) ArchiMer
Lambert, C.; Moal, J.; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Samain, Jean-francois.
Les mortalités apparaissent toujours très rapidement après le passage de la température de l'eau à 19°C. II a bien été montré que ce n'était pas la valeur absolue de la température qui était associée à la mortalité, puisque des années très chaudes comme 2003, peu de mortalités étaient enregistrées. II s'agit plutôt d'un seuil à partir duquel le risque devient réel. La température affecte tous les processus de la physiologie et c'est un facteur clef de la distribution géographique des espèces. Les espèces se maintiennent dans les conditions environnementales qui ont permis leur adaptation. Les mortalités traduisent donc une rupture de l'adaptation ou une modification brutale de l'environnement qui peut affecter les équilibres qui se sont installés entre...
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Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00304/41537/40745.pdf
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Déterminisme du recrutement larvaire de l’huître creuse (Crassostrea gigas) dans la lagune de Thau. ArchiMer
Lagarde, Franck; Fiandrino, Annie; Richard, Marion; Bernard, Ismael; Mortreux, Serge; Ubertini, Martin; Chiantella, Claude; Boj, Marie; Meddah, Slem; Leurion, Axel; Soriano, Solenn; Fuhrmann, Marine; Le Gall, Patrik; Chiera, Caroline; Berteaux, Tom; Guillou, Jean-louis; Roque D'Orbcastel, Emmanuelle; Perignon, Adeline; Bonnet, Delphine; Roques, Cecile; Bec, Beatrice; Cochet, Helene; Gervasoni, Erika; Miron, Gilles; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Since spat mortality events that were firstly detected in 2008, Mediterranean shellfish industry seeks to exploit the Pacific oyster spat from lagoon natural recruitment. The CRCM, Cepralmar and Ifremer developed accordingly a research project named PRONAMED Phase 1 and 2 - 2010-2014, in order to define the economic potential of spatfall and improve knowledge of the reproductive cycle of Crassostrea gigas in this specific environmental context. The results of the past three year‘s study (2012, 2013, 2014) showed that broodstock have the ability to provide larvae after sexual maturation and spawning. A coincidence was noted between moon phase (new and full moon) and spawnings with an amplifying effect of storms on the intensity of spawning (Ubertini et al....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Lagune; Recrutement; Naissain; Huître creuse; Ecologie larvaire; Cycle de reproduction; Captage naturel.; Lagoon; Recruitment; Spat; Pacific oysters; Larval ecology; Reproduction Cycle; Natural spat collection..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00279/39054/37620.pdf
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DIversification de la pêcherie de la RAde de Brest par l'étude de semis de PEtoncle Noir : le projet DIRAPEN ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane.
Comme de nombreuses espèces d’invertébrés marins natifs de nos côtes, le pétoncle noir (Mimachlamys varia) connaît, depuis 30 ans, une très forte diminution de son abondance avec une disparition progressive des gisements sauvages autrefois réputés. Dans ce contexte, le développement d’une activité de « Sea ranching » peut être une piste intéressante pour soutenir certaines pêcheries côtières, comme c’est le cas pour la coquille Saint Jacques en rade de Brest depuis les années 1990. L’objectif du projet DIRAPEN était donc de lancer à nouveau, en 2015 et sur le site pilote de rade de Brest, des opérations de semis de naissains de pétoncles noirs afin d'étudier les conditions d’un soutien au stock pour cette espèce. Ce rapport présente l’accompagnement...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pétoncle; Mimachlamys varia; Sea Ranching; Semis; Restauration écologique; Rade de Brest (France); Variegated Scallop; Mimachlamys varia; Sea Ranching; Shellfish mariculture; Ecological restoration; Bay of Brest (France).
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00363/47425/47446.pdf
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Ecophysiological and metabolic adaptations to sulphide exposure of the oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Cheize, Marie; Gastineau, Olivier; Daniel, Jean-yves; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Huvet, Arnaud; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Van Wormhoudt, A; Samain, Jean-francois.
The purpose of this study is to examine the response of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to sulphide at different biological scales. A first experiment was designed to measure for 20 h the clearance (CR) and oxygen consumption (OC) rates of oysters exposed at different concentrations of sulphide (0, 3, 6, 12, 20, and 40 mu M). The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the metabolic adaptations to chronic sulphide exposure for 10 days by measuring PK and PEPCK enzyme activities, succinate and alanine content, the adenylate energy charge (AEC), and the activity of the electron transport system (ETS)in whole oysters at above 20 mu M. PK and PEPCK mRNAs and enzyme activities have been measured in adductor muscle. When exposed to sulphide above 20 mu M, CR...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: ATP; AEC; Electron transport system; Succcinate; Alanine; Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; Pyruvate kinase; Oxygen consumption; Clearance rate; Crassostrea gigas; Sulphide; Oyster.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-3924.pdf
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Ecophysiological model of growth and reproduction of the black pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera: potential applications for pearl farming in French Polynesia ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane; Bacher, Cedric; Heral, Maurice.
A model of bioenergetics of the black pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) was built to simulate growth, reproduction and spawning in suspended culture at field sites in Takapoto lagoon (French Polynesia). This model was based on allometric scaling of physiological functions and scope for growth (SFG) calculations. The input functions were clearance rate (CR, 1 day(-1)), retention efficiency (RE, %) for each kind of particle encountered in suspended matter, pseudofaeces and faeces productions (PF and F, mg C day(-1)), excretion and respiration rate (U and R, mg C day(-1)). The assimilated carbon (i.e., SFG, mg C day(-1)) was partitioned to the three internal state variables (somatic tissue, shell and gonad) according to the asymptotic increase of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl farming; Food depletion; Scope for growth; Carrying capacity; Suspension feeding; Tropical lagoon.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/publication-380.pdf
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Ecophysiologie de la reproduction chez l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane; Lepennec, M.
The reproductive cycle of Megathura crenulata was documented and quantification of oocyte lipid reserves with lipo-specific stains was explored in both this species and in Crassostrea gigas. The necessity of providing food to female broodstock C. gigas in spring was re-evaluated, because subsequent larval and post-larval rearing performance was not affected by broodstock starvation during conditioning. Developmental study of the organs responsible of particle processing in C. gigas allowed the identification of critical stages related to the ontogenesis of each organ, as well as a better understanding of the evolution of these organs, highly-modified in the Ostreidae. Ciliary type identification and mucocyte mapping from post-larval to adult stage showed...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mucocytes; Mantle; Gill; Larvae postlarvae juveniles; Feeding; Crassostrea gigas; Megathura crenulata; Development; Reproduction; Mucocytes; Manteau; Branchie; Larves post larves juvéniles; Alimentation; Crassostrea gigas; Megathura crenulata; Développement; Reproduction.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/rapport-1867.pdf
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