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Registros recuperados: 9
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Assessing the Constraints and Opportunities for Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly: Two Case Studies from the US Initiative for Joint Implementation AgEcon
Powell, Mark R.; Lile, Ronald D.; Toman, Michael.
This paper assesses the constraints and opportunities for private-sector participation in Activities Implemented Jointly under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. After some initial background, the discussion turns to the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) - its objectives, proposal review and evaluation criteria, and a classification of project proposals by project type and stage of development. Two USIJI projects are developed as case studies. One case is an energy end use project that has gained formal acceptance and financing. The other case is an energy production project proposal that has not secured acceptance or financing. In both cases, transaction costs were substantial, and project proponents regarded...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Public Economics; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10555
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Control of Dioxins (and other Organochlorines) from the Pulp and Paper Industry under the Clean Water Act and Lead in Soil at Superfund Mining Sites: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in addressing dioxins (and other organochlorines) from the pulp and paper industry under the Clean Water Act and lead in soil at large Superfund mining sites. The common thread between both cases is the challenge posed by administering national pollution control programs while considering site-by-site variability in factors that influence environmental risks. In the first case study, high levels of dioxin in fish downstream of pulp and paper mills were inadvertently detected in 1983 as part of an EPA effort to determine background levels of dioxin in areas presumed to be relatively uncontaminated. These findings quickly got the release of dioxins from pulp and paper mills on EPA's research agenda....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10610
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Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism: Lessons from U.S. Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Powell, Mark R.; Toman, Michael.
The "Clean Development Mechanism" (CDM) contained in the December 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides, for the first time, the capacity for industrialized countries to claim credits for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions or offsets undertaken in cooperation with host developing countries. However, the Protocol provides no guidance on how these cooperative activities for GHG reduction and sustainable development would be undertaken in practice, including the particularly important issue of the relationship of the private sector vis-à-vis government institutions in designing, financing, and securing approval for jointly implemented GHG abatement projects. The pilot program for "Activities...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10868
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Risk Assessment for National Natural Resource Conservation Programs AgEcon
Powell, Mark R.; Wilson, James D..
This paper reviews the risk assessments prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in support of regulations implementing the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). These two natural resource conservation programs were authorized as part of the 1996 Farm Bill. The risk assessments were required under the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. The framework used for the assessments was appropriate, but the assessments could be improved in the areas of assessments endpoint selection, definition, and estimation. Many of the assessment endpoints were too diffuse or ill-defined to provide an adequate characterization of the program benefits. Two reasons...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10859
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Science in Sanitary and Phytosanitary Dispute Resolution AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
The World Trade Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS Agreement) relies heavily on science and expert organizations to avoid and resolve trade disputes over measures enacted under the rationale of food safety or plant and animal health protection. However, the state of science for sanitary and phytosanitary risk analysis is highly uncertain, and the SPS Agreement leaves many science policy issues unsettled. The international agencies charged under the SPS Agreement with harmonizing standards and forging international scientific consensus face a daunting and politically-charged task. Two case studies are briefly developed. In the first case, the international scientific consensus strongly supports the U.S. challenge of the European Union's...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food; Agriculture; World trade organization; Sanitary and phytosanitary risk; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10504
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The 1983-84 Suspensions of EDB under FIFRA and the 1989 Asbestos Ban and Phaseout Rule under TSCA: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in a decision under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA): the 1983-84 suspensions of ethylene dibromide (EDB); and in a decision under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): the 1989 Asbestos Ban and Phaseout Rule. By requiring EPA to balance the risks and benefits of the commercial use of toxic substances, both statutes place considerable analytical burdens on the agency, though TSCA places a more substantial burden on EPA for acquiring science and demonstrating unreasonable risks. In the case of EDB, data produced outside EPA over which the agency had no control incited a public alarm. Because a senior EPA official had contaminated the agency's reservoir of public...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10907
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The 1987 Revision of the NAAQS for Particulate Matter and the 1993 Decision Not to Revise the NAAQS for Ozone: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions regarding National Ambient Air Quality Standards: the 1987 Revision of the NAAQS for Particulate Matter and the 1993 Decision Not to Revise the NAAQS for Ozone. In the first case, more than ten years before EPA proposed to revise the NAAQS for particulates, narrowly-scoped results of academic experiments suggesting that the agency should focus its regulatory efforts on smaller diameter suspended particulates penetrated deep into the agency, far removed from decision-makers in Washington. The particulates review was elaborate and protracted and was promoted and inhibited by multiple factors. Due to the lengthy review period, however, researchers involved in complex epidemiological...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10701
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The 1991 Lead/Copper Drinking Water Rule and the 1995 Decision Not to Revise the Arsenic Drinking Water Rule: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions under the Safe Drinking Water Act: the 1991 revision of the lead drinking water regulations and the 1995 decision to pursue additional research instead of revising the arsenic in drinking water standard. In the first case, a committed band of policy entrepreneurs within EPA mobilized and supplemented scientific information which had accumulated in the agency's air program to force lead in drinking water up the agency's regulatory agenda. In the minds of senior EPA decision-makers, there was adequate science to justify making the lead in drinking water regulation more stringent; the critical question was "how far to go" in terms of regulatory compliance expenditures. To the extent...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10454
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Three-City Air Study AgEcon
Powell, Mark R..
This study analyzes the local regulatory and non-regulatory determinants of ambient air quality in Allegheny, Baltimore, and Cuyahoga Counties over the period 1972-1992. Mandated pollution control investments appear to have often had a statistically significant effect in reducing maximum concentrations of suspended particulates and tropospheric ozone in these areas. The effects of regulatory air quality controls, however, generally have been overshadowed by the impacts of non-regulatory factors. In general, local regulatory and nonregulatory factors failed to account for a majority of the variation in local air quality. This underscores the importance of regional or national factors in determining local air quality.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10641
Registros recuperados: 9
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

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