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Registros recuperados: 38
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Adoption and Impact of Hybrid Wheat in India AgEcon
Matuschke, Ira; Qaim, Matin.
In the light of ongoing debates about the suitability of hybrid seeds for smallholder farmers, this paper analyzes the adoption and impact of hybrid wheat in India. Based on survey data we show that farmers can benefit significantly from the proprietary technology. Neither farm size nor the subsistence level influence the adoption decision, but access to information and credit matters. Moreover, willingness-to-pay analysis reveals that adoption levels would be higher if seed prices were reduced. Given decreasing public support to agricultural research, policies should be targeted at reducing institutional constraints, to ensure that resource-poor farmers are not bypassed by private sector innovations.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Hybrid wheat; India; Technology adoption; Contingent valuation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25678
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BT COTTON IN ARGENTINA: ANALYZING ADOPTION AND FARMERS' WILLINGNESS TO PAY AgEcon
Qaim, Matin; de Janvry, Alain.
Unlike several other countries, where Bt cotton is being rapidly adopted, in Argentina technology diffusion has been rather slow. Based on recent survey data, it is shown that the technology significantly reduces insecticide applications and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high price charged for genetically modified seeds. Using the contingent valuation method, it is shown that farmer's’ average willingness to pay for Bt cotton is less than half the actual market price. A lower price would not only increase benefits for cotton growers, but could also multiply the profits of the monopoly seed producer, thus resulting in a Pareto improvement. Implications of the sub-optimal pricing strategy are discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19710
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Can genetic engineering for the poor pay off? An ex-ante evaluation of Golden Rice in India AgEcon
Stein, Alexander J.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Qaim, Matin.
Genetic engineering (GE) in agriculture is a controversial topic in science and society at large. While some oppose genetically modified crops as proxy of an agricultural system they consider unsustainable and inequitable, the question remains whether GE can benefit the poor within the existing system and what needs to be done to deliver these benefits? Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to produce provitamin A. The technology is still in the testing phase, but, once released, it is expected to address one consequence of poverty " vitamin A deficiency (VAD) " and its health implications. Current interventions to combat VAD rely mainly on pharmaceutical supplementation, which is costly in the long run and only partially successful. We develop a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering; Beta-carotene biofortification; Vitamin A deficiency; Golden Rice; Health benefits; DALYs; Cost-effectiveness; Cost-benefit analysis; India; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8534
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Changing Consumer Buying Habits in Developing Countries: A Disaggregate Demand Analysis for Fruits and Vegetables in Vietnam AgEcon
Mergenthaler, Marcus; Qaim, Matin; Weinberger, Katinka.
Food systems in developing countries are currently undergoing a rapid transformation, with important implications for local farmers, wholesalers, and retailers. While supply side aspects of this transformation have been analyzed previously, issues of consumer demand have received much less attention. This paper analyzes changing consumption habits for fresh fruits and vegetables in Vietnam, using household survey data and a demand systems approach. Demand for products from modern supply chains – particularly modern retailers and non-traditional imports – is highly income elastic. Also, supermarket expansion impacts on consumer demand. This implies a continued restructuring of the food sector in the further process of economic development.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transformation of food systems; Supermarkets; Food safety; Non-traditional imports; South-East Asia; Vietnam; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9878
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Competition, Kinship or Reciprocity? Village Experiments in Alternative Modes of Exchange AgEcon
Subramanian, Arjunan; Qaim, Matin.
In this paper, detailed data on transactions in a village commodity market are used to explain the puzzle of sluggish agricultural supply response. We show that existence of reciprocity among sellers exhibits multiple equilibria and creates trade diversion. Large volumes of the commodity are sold to a trader who does not offer the best price, but on whom sellers depend through transactions in other markets. An implication of this trader-idiosyncratic effect on supply is that policies that affect prices may result in different supply responses.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Reciprocity; Kinship; Neighborhood effects; Trader idiosyncrasy; Equilibrium; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25434
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Contract farming and smallholder incentives to produce high quality: experimental evidence from the Vietnamese dairy sector AgEcon
Saenger, Christoph; Qaim, Matin; Torero, Maximo; Viceisza, Angelino.
In emerging markets for high-value food products in developing countries, processing companies search for efficient ways to source raw material of consistent quality. One widely embraced approach is contract farming. But relatively little is known about the appropriate design of contracts, especially in a small farm context. We use the example of the Vietnamese dairy sector to analyze the effectiveness of existing contracts between a processor and smallholder farmers in terms of incentivizing the production of high quality milk. A framed field experiment is conducted to evaluate the impact of two incentive instruments, a price penalty for low quality and a bonus for consistent high quality milk, on farmers’ investment in quality-improving inputs....
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/rural/urban development; Institutional and behavioral economics; Demand and price analysis; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C93; D22; L14; O13; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122614
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Direct and Indirect Determinants of Obesity: The Case of Indonesia AgEcon
Romling, Cornelia; Qaim, Matin.
Overweight and obesity are becoming serious issues in many developing countries. Since undernutrition is not completely eradicated yet, these countries face a dual burden that obstructs economic development. We analyze the nutrition transition in Indonesia using longitudinal data from the Indonesian Family and Life Survey, covering the period between 1993 and 2007. Obesity has been increasing remarkably across all population groups, including rural and low income strata. Prevalence rates are particularly high for women. We also develop a framework to analyze direct and indirect determinants of body mass index. This differentiation has rarely been made in previous research, but appears useful for policy making purposes. Regression models show that changing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Obesity; Overweight; Nutrition Transition; Asia; Indonesia; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; I10; O12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108350
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Economics of Biofortification AgEcon
Qaim, Matin; Stein, Alexander J.; Meenakshi, J.V..
Micronutrient malnutrition affects billions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Different micronutrient interventions are currently being used, but their overall coverage is relatively limited. Biofortification – that is, breeding staple food crops for higher micronutrient contents – has been proposed as a new agriculture-based approach. Yet, as biofortified crops are still under development, relatively little is known about their economic impacts and wider ramifications. In this article, the main factors that will influence their future success are discussed, and a methodology for economic impact assessment is presented, combining agricultural, nutrition, and health aspects. Ex ante studies from India and other developing countries...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Micronutrient malnutrition; Public health; Biofortification; Agricultural technology; Impact analysis; Developing countries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I1; I3; O1; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25584
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Effects of Bt Cotton in India During the First Five Years of Adoption AgEcon
Sadashivappa, Prakash; Qaim, Matin.
While previous research has analyzed the impacts of Bt cotton in India, most available studies are based on one or two years of data only. We analyze the technology’s performance over the first five years of adoption, using panel data with three rounds of observations. On average, Bt adopting farmers realize pesticide reductions of about 40%, and yield advantages of 30-40%. Profit gains are in a magnitude of US $60 per acre. These benefits have been sustainable over time. Farmers’ satisfaction is reflected in a high willingness to pay for Bt seeds. Nonetheless, in 2006 Indian state governments decided to establish price caps at levels much lower than what companies had charged before. This intervention has further increased farmers’ profits, but the impact...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Genetically modified crops; Farm survey; India; Seed markets; Technology adoption; Willingness to pay (WTP); Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; O33; Q16; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49947
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Estimating the Adoption of Bt Eggplant in India: Who Benefits from Public-Private Partnership? AgEcon
Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin.
The study analyzes ex-ante the adoption of insect resistant Bt eggplant in India. Farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) is estimated using the contingent valuation method. Given the economic importance of insect pests, the average WTP for proprietary Bt hybrids is more than four times the current price of conventional hybrids. Since the private innovating firm has shared its technology with the public sector, it is likely that public open-pollinated Bt varieties will also be released after a small delay. This will reduce farmers' WTP for Bt hybrids by 35%, thus decreasing the scope for corporate pricing policies. Nonetheless, ample profit potential remains. Analysis of factors influencing farmers' adoption decisions demonstrates that public Bt varieties will...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public-private partnership; Biotechnology; Bt eggplant; Adoption; Willingness to pay; India; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25311
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Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology, and Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya AgEcon
Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets are gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on productivity and efficiency have hardly been studied. We use a meta-frontier approach and combine this with propensity score matching to estimate treatment effects among vegetable farmers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels increases farm productivity in terms of meta-technology ratios by 45%. We also find positive and significant impacts on technical efficiency and scale efficiency. Supermarket expansion therefore presents opportunities for agricultural growth in the small farm sector, which is crucial for poverty reduction in Africa.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Technical efficiency; Scale efficiency; Meta-frontier; Meta-technology ratio; Sample selection; Kenya; International Development; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; D24; L23; O12; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113508
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Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology and Technical Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya AgEcon
Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Brümmer, Bernhard; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets are currently gaining ground in the agri-food systems of many developing countries. While recent research has analyzed income effects in the small farm sector, impacts on farming efficiency have hardly been studied. Productivity effects in previous studies are also estimated with respect to different frontiers. Using a survey of Kenyan vegetable growers and a meta-frontier approach, we control for self-selection using propensity score matching and show that participation in supermarket channels increases farm productivity by 35-38%. Effects on technical efficiency are, however, insignificant. Supermarket expansion therefore presents opportunities for realizing agricultural growth, thus enhancing poverty alleviation and rural development.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Meta-frontier; Productivity; Meta-technology ratio; Sample selection; Kenya; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61190
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Gender, Agricultural Commercialization, and Collective Action in Kenya AgEcon
Fischer, Elisabeth; Qaim, Matin.
With the commercialization of agriculture, women are increasingly disadvantaged because of persistent gender-disparities in access to productive resources. Farmer collective action that intends to improve smallholder access to markets and technology could potentially accelerate this trend. Here, we use survey data of small-scale banana producers in Kenya to investigate the gender implications of recently established farmer groups. Traditionally, banana has been a women’s crop in Kenya. Our results confirm that the groups contribute to increasing male control over banana. While male control over banana revenues does not affect household food security, it has a negative marginal effect on dietary quality. We demonstrate that the negative gender implications...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gender; Collective action; Market access; Agricultural technology; Household food security and nutrition; Kenya; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D71; J16; O12; O13; O31; Q13.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121229
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GM Technology Adoption, Production Risk and On-farm Varietal Diversity AgEcon
Krishna, Vijesh V.; Zilberman, David; Qaim, Matin.
This paper examines the impact of transgenic technology adoption on varietal diversity. Transgenic pest-resistant varieties are hypothesized to reduce farmers’ demand for on-farm diversity through an act of substitution, as both serve as production risk reducing instruments. This adverse agro-biodiversity impact might be partially counteracted by an expanding seed sector, supplying a large number of transgenic varieties. The case of Bt cotton in India is taken for empirical illustration. The production function analyses show that both Bt technology and on-farm varietal diversity enhance yield, while reducing the production risk. With few Bt varieties available in the first years, technology adoption entailed a reduction in on-farm varietal diversity. This...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agro-biodiversity; Bt cotton; Production risk; Transgenic technology; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Productivity Analysis; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49173
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Health benefits of biofortification - an ex-ante analysis of iron-rich rice and wheat in India AgEcon
Stein, Alexander J.; Meenakshi, J.V.; Qaim, Matin; Nestel, Penelope; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A..
Hunger is acknowledged to impose a heavy burden on humankind with severe negative health consequences. Micronutrient malnutrition, or "hidden hunger", is an even more widespread problem, to which economic development and income growth alone are not expected to provide a solution any time soon. Existing micronutrient interventions like pharmaceutical supplementation or industrial fortification have their limitations and can be complemented by a new approach: breeding food crops for higher micronutrient densities. Knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of this new tool, also termed biofortification, is scarce. In this study, a framework for economic impact analysis is developed, which is then used for evaluation of iron-rich rice and wheat in India. Health...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19468
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Impact of Off-farm Income on Food Security and Nutrition in Nigeria AgEcon
Babatunde, Raphael O.; Qaim, Matin.
Reducing food insecurity in the developing world continues to be a major public policy challenge, and one that is complicated by the lack of a generalized comprehensive strategy for dealing with it. Around 854 million people are undernourished worldwide, many more suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, and the absolute numbers tend to increase further, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent food price hikes have contributed to greater public awareness of hunger related problems, also resulting in new international commitments to invest in developing country agriculture. Whereas agriculture-led growth played an important role in reducing food insecurity and transforming the economies of many Asian and Latin American countries, the same has not yet...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm households; Food security; Micronutrients; Child anthropometry; Off-farm income; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97332
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Income and Price Elasticities of Food Demand and Nutrient Consumption in Malawi AgEcon
Ecker, Olivier; Qaim, Matin.
Widespread malnutrition in developing countries calls for appropriate interventions, presupposing good knowledge about the nutritional impacts of policies. Little previous work has been carried out in this direction. We present a comprehensive analytical framework, which we apply for Malawi. Using household data and a demand systems approach, we estimate income and price elasticities of food, calorie, and micronutrient consumption. These estimates are used for policy simulations. Given multiple nutrient deficiencies, income-related policies are better suited than price policies to improve nutrition. While consumer subsidies for maize increase calorie and mineral consumption, they contribute to a higher prevalence of vitamin deficiencies.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quadratic almost ideal demand system; Food security; Micronutrient malnutrition; Calorie elasticities; Nutrient elasticities; Malawi; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6349
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Mikronährstoffmangel? Ein gesundheitsökonomischer Bewertungsansatz AgEcon
Zimmermann, Roukayatou; Stein, Alexander J.; Qaim, Matin.
Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious problem in many developing countries. Recently, agricultural technologies have been discussed as a complement to other intervention programs. Plant breeding, targeted at developing staple foods with higher contents of essential vitamins and trace minerals, could benefit the poor in particular. Yet, the economic repercussions of such innovations are still unclear. Because traditional models of technology assessment are inappropriate to capture the specific ramifications, we suggest a health economics approach. Herein, micronutrient malnutrition is understood as a phenomenon that causes health costs through diseases and premature deaths. Details of the methodology are discussed within an ex ante study of Golden Rice in...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Micronutrient malnutrition; Agricultural technology; Vitamin A; Golden Rice; Health effects; Philippines; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97429
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Modern food retailers and traditional markets in developing countries: Comparing quality, prices, and competition strategies in Thailand AgEcon
Schipmann, Christin; Qaim, Matin.
Supermarkets and hypermarkets are expanding rapidly in many developing countries. While consequences for farmers and consumers were analyzed recently, little is known about the implications for traditional retail formats such as wet markets. Using data from a market survey in Thailand and hedonic regression models, we analyze quality and prices for fresh vegetables from different retail outlets. Compared to wet markets, modern retailers sell higher quality at higher prices, indicating that they are primarily targeting better-off consumers. Hence, they are not directly competing for the same market segments. Yet there are signs that modern and traditional markets will gradually converge.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Supermarkets; Modern retailers; Traditional wet markets; Product quality; Vegetables; Thailand; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; C21; L15; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108348
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Modern Supply Chains and Product Innovation: How Can Smallholder Farmers Benefit? AgEcon
Schipmann, Christin; Qaim, Matin.
There is an emerging body of literature analysing how smallholder farmers in developing countries can benefit from modern supply chains. However, most of the available studies concentrate on export markets and fail to capture spillover effects that modern supply chains may have on local markets. Here, we analyse the case of sweet pepper in Thailand, which was initially introduced as a product innovation in modern supply chains, but which is now widely traded also in more traditional markets. Using survey data from smallholder farmers and econometric techniques, we show that sweet pepper cultivation contributes significantly to higher household incomes. Strikingly, at this stage, participation in modern supply chains does not lead to higher incomes than...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Adoption; Duration analysis; Impact assessment; Modern supply chains; Product innovation; Sweet pepper; Thailand; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C21; C25; C41; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51046
Registros recuperados: 38
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