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Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil BJMBR
Lin,C.A.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Nishioka,D.C.; Conceição,G.M.S.; Braga,A.L.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Neonatal mortality; Infant mortality; Air pollution.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004000500019
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Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung BJMBR
Pereira,C.E.L.; Heck,T.G.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Rhoden,C.R..
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a) determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b) determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days) induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) from vehicles (N = 30) for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h) periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30). Rats...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Lipid peroxidation; Particulate air pollution; Lung inflammation; Acute effects.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007001000008
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Effect of air pollution on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in São Paulo, Brazil BJMBR
Pereira Filho,M.A.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Arbex,F.F.; Arbex,M.; Conceição,G.M.; Santos,U.P.; Lopes,A.C.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Braga,A.L.F.; Cendon,S..
Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes; Air pollution; Emergency room visits; Time-series study.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2008000600015
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Effect of air pollution on pediatric respiratory emergency room visits and hospital admissions BJMBR
Farhat,S.C.L.; Paulo,R.L.P.; Shimoda,T.M.; Conceição,G.M.S.; Lin,C.A.; Braga,A.L.F.; Warth,M.P.N.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
In order to assess the effect of air pollution on pediatric respiratory morbidity, we carried out a time series study using daily levels of PM10, SO2, NO2, ozone, and CO and daily numbers of pediatric respiratory emergency room visits and hospital admissions at the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo Medical School, from August 1996 to August 1997. In this period there were 43,635 hospital emergency room visits, 4534 of which were due to lower respiratory tract disease. The total number of hospital admissions was 6785, 1021 of which were due to lower respiratory tract infectious and/or obstructive diseases. The three health end-points under investigation were the daily number of emergency room visits due to lower respiratory tract diseases,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Time-series; Poisson; Air pollution; Children; Respiratory morbidity.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2005000200011
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Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma BJMBR
Cabral,A.L.B.; Conceição,G.M.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Martins,M.A..
Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05)...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Asthma; Asthma severity; Pulmonary function tests; Symptom perception; Childhood asthma.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002000300006
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Effects of formaldehyde on the frog's mucociliary epithelium as a surrogate to evaluate air pollution effects on the respiratory epithelium BJMBR
Fló-Neyret,C.; Lorenzi-Filho,G.; Macchione,M.; Garcia,M.L.B.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
The increasing use of alcohol as an alternative fuel to gasoline or diesel can increase emission of formaldehyde, an organic gas that is irritant to the mucous membranes. The respiratory system is the major target of air pollutants and its major defense mechanism depends on the continuous activity of the cilia and the resulting constant transportation of mucous secretion. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of formaldehyde on the ciliated epithelium through a relative large dose range around the threshold limit value adopted by the Brazilian legislation, namely 1.6 ppm (1.25 to 5 ppm). For this purpose, the isolated frog palate preparation was used as the target of toxic injury. Four groups of frog palates were exposed to diluted Ringer...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Mucociliary clearance; Formaldehyde; Air pollution.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000500012
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Effects of pneumonectomy on nitric oxide synthase expression and perivascular edema in the remaining lung of rats BJMBR
Samano,M.N.; Pazetti,R.; Prado,C.M.; Tibério,I.C.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Moreira,L.F.P.; Pêgo-Fernandes,P.M.; Jatene,F.B.; Das-Neves-Pereira,J.C..
Pneumonectomy is associated with high mortality and high rates of complications. Postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema is one of the leading causes of mortality. Little is known about its etiologic factors and its association with the inflammatory process. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of pneumonectomy as a cause of pulmonary edema and its association with gas exchange, inflammation, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and vasoconstriction. Forty-two non-specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were included in the study. Eleven animals died during or after the procedure, 21 were submitted to left pneumonectomy and 10 to sham operation. These animals were sacrificed after 48 or 72 h. Perivascular pulmonary edema was more intense in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pneumonectomy; Pulmonary edema; Nitric oxide synthase; Animal models; NOS.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009001100019
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Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks BJMBR
Arbex,M.A.; Martins,L.C.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Negrini,F.; Cardoso,A.A.; Melchert,W.R.; Arbex,R.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Zanobetti,A.; Braga,A.L.F..
Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Indoor air pollution; Occupational diseases; Lung function; Nitrogen dioxide; Professional cooks; Kitchen.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000400011
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Lung tissue mechanics in the early stages of induced paracoccidioidomycosis in rats BJMBR
Shikanai-Yasuda,M.A.; Pereira,P.M.; Yamashiro-Kanashiro,E.; Duarte,M.I.S.; Assis,C.M.; Geraldes,E.A.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Pulmonary dysfunction represents the most important cause of death in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM). In order to investigate the functional changes of the lungs in the early stages of PBM, a model of benign disease was developed by intratracheal challenge of 12-week old isogenic Wistar rats with 1 x 106 yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Animals were studied 30 and 60 days after infection, when fully developed granulomas were demonstrable in the lungs. Measurements of airway resistance, lung elastance and tissue hysteresis were made during sinusoidal deformations (100 breaths/min, tidal volume = 2 ml) with direct measurement of alveolar pressure using the alveolar capsule technique. Infection caused a significant increase in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis; Pulmonary mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Alveolar pressure measurements; Hysteresis.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997001000006
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Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans BJMBR
Vinhaes,E.N.G.; Dolhnikoff,M.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia). The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8),...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Carotid body; Hypoxia; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Morphometry.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002001000002
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Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction BJMBR
Silva,M.F.R.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV) curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Paraquat; Experimental model; Acute lung injury; Pressure-volume curve; Respiratory work.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998000300018
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Pollen mother cells of Tradescantia clone 4430 and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea are equally sensitive to the clastogenic effects of X-rays BJMBR
Suyama,F.; Guimarães,E.T.; Lobo,D.-J.A.; Rodrigues,G.S.; Domingos,M.; Alves,E.S.; Carvalho,H.A.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
The Tradescantia micronucleus test is a sensitive bioassay for mutagenesis that may be employed both under field and laboratory conditions. This test has been standardized mostly on the basis of the results obtained with clone 4430. However, this clone is not well adapted to tropical weather, frequently showing problems with growth and flowering. In addition, it is attacked by parasites and insects, a fact that limits its use in field studies aiming at the biomonitoring of air pollution. In the city of São Paulo, Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. var. purpurea Boom is widely distributed as an ornamental plant in gardens and along roadsides and streets, mostly because of its natural resistance and its easy propagation. In this report, we present...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Tradescantia; Micronucleus; Environmental mutagenesis; Clastogenesis; X-Radiation; Pollution biomonitoring.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002000100018
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Pulmonary emphysema induced by passive smoking: an experimental study in rats BJMBR
Cendon,S.P.; Battlehner,C.; Lorenzi-Filho,G.; Dohlnikoff,M.; Pereira,P.M.; Conceição,G.M.S.; Beppu,O.S.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
We describe a short time model for inducing experimental emphysema in rats by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation. Three groups of male Wistar rats (6 months old) were studied: controls (N = 8), rats intoxicated for 45 days (s-45, N = 7) or for 90 days (s-90, N = 8). The exposed animals were intoxicated 3 times a day (10 cigarettes per exposure period), 5 days a week. Pulmonary damage was assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative pathological examination of the airways and lung parenchyma. The s-45 and s-90 animals were similar in terms of functional residual capacity (FRC) corrected for body weight (FRC/kg) but both groups of smoking rats exhibited significantly higher FRC/kg values than the controls (s-45 = 6.33; s-90 = 6.46; controls = 3.78;...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Passive smoking; Emphysema; Rats; Pulmonary function; Morphological analysis; Quantification.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997001000017
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Short-term exposure of mice to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash produces proximal airspace enlargements and airway epithelium remodeling BJMBR
Biselli,P.J.C.; Lopes,F.D.T.Q.S.; Moriya,H.T.; Rivero,D.H.R.F.; Toledo,A.C.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Mauad,T.; Martins,M.A..
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with inflammatory cell reactions, tissue destruction and lung remodeling. Many signaling pathways for these phenomena are still to be identified. We developed a mouse model of COPD to evaluate some pathophysiological mechanisms acting during the initial stage of the disease. Forty-seven 6- to 8-week-old female C57/BL6 mice (approximately 22 g) were exposed for 2 months to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a concentrate of air pollution. We measured lung mechanics, airspace enlargement, airway wall thickness, epithelial cell profile, elastic and collagen fiber deposition, and by immunohistochemistry transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), macrophage elastase (MMP12), neutrophils...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Emphysema; Cigarette smoke; Airways; TGF-β1; Mouse airway epithelium remodeling; Proximal airspace enlargements.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000500012
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The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory system mechanics and hemodynamics in postoperative cardiac surgery patients BJMBR
Auler Jr.,J.O.C.; Carmona,M.J.C.; Barbas,C.V.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Malbouisson,L.M.S..
We prospectively evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the respiratory mechanical properties and hemodynamics of 10 postoperative adult cardiac patients undergoing mechanical ventilation while still anesthetized and paralyzed. The respiratory mechanics was evaluated by the inflation inspiratory occlusion method and hemodynamics by conventional methods. Each patient was randomized to a different level of PEEP (5, 10 and 15 cmH2O), while zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) was established as control. PEEP of 15-min duration was applied at 20-min intervals. The frequency dependence of resistance and the viscoelastic properties and elastance of the respiratory system were evaluated together with hemodynamic and respiratory...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Postoperative cardiac surgery; PEEP; Respiratory mechanics; Hemodynamics.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2000000100005
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Tracheal instillation of urban PM2.5 suspension promotes acute cardiac polarization changes in rats BJMBR
Maatz,L.F.; Wood,G.J.A.; Rivero,D.H.R.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
The mechanisms by which PM2.5 increases cardiovascular mortality are not fully identified. Autonomic alterations are the current main hypotheses. Our objective was to determine if PM2.5 induces acute cardiac polarization alterations in healthy Wistar rats. PM2.5 samples were collected on polycarbonate filters. Solutions containing 10, 20, and 50 µg PM2.5 were administered by tracheal instillation. P wave duration decreased significantly at 20 µg (0.99 ± 0.06, 0.95 ± 0.06, and 0.96 ± 0.07; P < 0.001), and 50 µg (0.98 ± 0.06, 0.98 ± 0.07, and 0.96 ± 0.08; 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively) compared to blank filter solution (P < 0.001). PR interval duration decreased significantly at 20 µg (0.99 ± 0.06, 0.98 ± 0.07, and 0.97 ± 0.08) and 50 µg (0.99 ±...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: ECG alterations; Particulate matter; PM2.5; Wave segments; Tracheal instillation; Cardiovascular disease.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000200009
Registros recuperados: 16
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