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Registros recuperados: 64
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A metafrontier approach to measuring technical efficiencies across the UK dairy sector AgEcon
Barnes, Andrew Peter; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Sauer, Johannes.
A regional approach is applied to measure technical efficiencies on dairy farms which employs the deterministic metafrontier approach. We construct six super regions for the UK, i.e. Eastern, Western, Northern England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Data are collected through three different administrative systems, all be it under the same FADN guidance. We find for dairy farming comparative indicators of performance in all three data sets. The stochastic frontier approach is applied to construct 6 regional frontiers and a pooled (UK) dataset for comparison. A likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis that these regions operate under a common frontier which may indicate bias in previous attempts to measure dairying efficiency at the country...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic Production Frontiers; Metafrontiers; UK Farm Account Data; Dairy farming.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; D24; C23; C51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99369
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Agriculture in the Face of Changing Markets, Institutions and Policies: Challenges and Strategies AgEcon
Balmann, Alfons; Curtiss, Jarmila; Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Happe, Kathrin; Huang, Jikun; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Rozelle, Scott; Sedik, David J.; Ciaian, Pavel; Vranken, Liesbet; Doitchinova, Julia M.; Kanchev, Ivan; Miteva, Albena; Bachev, Hrabrin Ianouchev; Forgacs, Csaba; Guo, Hongdong; Ferto, Imre; Jolly, Robert W.; Zhu, Jianhua; Falkowski, Jan; Milczarek, Dominika; Peyerl, Hermann; Breuer, Gunter; Danilowska, Alina; Zawojska, Aldona; Ramanovich, Mikhail; Hemme, Torsten; Mirzaei, Farhad; Heidelbach, Olaf; Balkhausen, Oliver; Banse, Martin; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Grings, Michael; Luka, Oksana; Epstein, David B.; Naydenov, Nikolay; Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala; Il'ina, Natalia; Svetlov, Nikolai M.; Weitzel, Enno-Burghard; Bayaner, Ahmet; Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Hockmann, Heinrich; Cechura, Lukas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Glauben, Thomas; Azzarri, Carlo; Carletto, Calogero; Davis, Benjamin; Zezza, Alberto; Nivievskyi, Oleg; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Newton, Claire; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Doucha, Tomas; Travnicek, Zdenek; Fock, Theodor.
Since the late 1980s, agriculture in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) has been under considerable adjustment pressure due to changing political, economic and institutional environments. These changes have been linked to the transition process, as well as the ongoing integration into the European Union and the world market. Reduced subsidies, increased environmental and food quality demands, as well as structural changes in the supply, processing and food retailing sector call for major structural adjustments and the improvement of farmers’ managerial abilities. Though such changes always carry significant threats to farms, they also offer new opportunities for the farms' entrepreneurial engagement. Upcoming changes in the agricultural...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93012
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Alternative Soil Fertility Management Options in Malawi - An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Tchale, Hardwick.
In this paper, we analyze the factors that influence the productivity of maize among smallholder farmers, given that unfavourable output and input market conditions throughout the 1990s have compelled smallholder farmers into unsustainable agricultural intensification. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemical-based soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate, land husbandry practices as well as selected policy factors. The estimated model is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Smallholder agriculture; Soil fertility management; Yield response model; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21423
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Alternative Soil Fertility Management Options in Malawi – An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Tchale, Hardwick.
In this paper, we analyze the factors that influence t he productivity of maize among smallholder farmers, given that unfavourable output and input market conditions throughout the 1990s have compelled smallholder farmers into unsustainable agricultural intensification. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemicalbased soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate as well as land husbandry practices a s well as selected policy factors. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholder agriculture; Yield response model; Soil fertility management; Malawi; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25407
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Black-Box Frontiers and Implications for Development Policy – Theoretical Considerations AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Frohberg, Klaus; Hockmann, Heinrich.
The availability of efficiency estimation software – freely distributed via the internet and relatively easy to use – recently inflated the number of corresponding applications. The resulting efficiency estimates are used without a critical assessment with respect to the literature on theoretical consistency, flexibility and the choice of the appropriate functional form. The robustness of policy suggestions based on inferences from efficiency measures nevertheless crucially depends on theoretically well-founded estimates. This paper addresses stochastic efficiency measurement by critically reviewing the theoretical consistency of recently published technical efficiency estimates with respect to economic development. The results confirm the need for a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18772
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Breathtaking or Stagnating? - Productivity, Technical Change and Structural Dynamics in Danish Organic Farming AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Graversen, Jesper T.; Park, Timothy A..
This paper attempts to quantitatively measure the change in the productivity of Danish organic farming in recent years by using panel data on 56 organic farms mainly engaged in milk production for the period 2002 to 2004. Based on a translog production frontier framework the technical and scale efficiency on farm level is analyzed by considering also curvature consistency. The total change in productivity for the reference period is measured by using the Malmquist total factor productivity index approach based on a time trends as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias in technical change as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias in technical change as well elasticities of input substitution are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21481
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Determinants for fallowing land: The case of Kosovo AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure.
The key question of this paper is why farmers in Kosovo leave land fallow when the total land of their farms is rather small and households are rather large. In order to elicit some barriers to land utilisation in Kosovo, the paper is based on a comprehensive survey carried out in 2005 investigating agricultural households’ perceptions of production and market conditions, and employs several households and farm characteristics to empirically approximate the significance of different factors for leaving land fallow and not using it for production purposes. Three different econometric models are used expected to fit the data distribution. All estimated model specifications show a statistical significance at a satisfactory level and no severe signs of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fallow land decision; Kosovo; Tobit regression; Fractional response regression; Zero-inflated binomial regression; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51626
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Determinants of Food Industry Performance – Empirical Evidence Based on a Survey AgEcon
Furtan, William Hartley; Sauer, Johannes.
This paper empirically investigates the determinants of firms’ performance in the agri-food sector by using recent survey data for Denmark. Treating sales per employee as a proxy for value addition we estimate several bootstrapped regression models to draw conclusions on the marginal effects of potential performance determinants such as the form and nature of ownership, stage of the food chain and commodity sector, new product development, staff quality, firms’ competitive stance, and elements of firms’ strategy. To draw robust inferences we apply, besides the ordinary heteroscedasticity corrected Tobit ML-estimator, a nonparametric least absolute deviations estimator (LAD/CLAD) based on a quantile regression procedure. The results indicate that we cannot...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Value added; Innovation; Organizational type; Agribusiness; Q13; O31; O33.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6422
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DETERMINANTS OF FOOD INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE – SURVEY DATA AND REGRESSIONS FOR DENMARK AgEcon
Furtan, William Hartley; Sauer, Johannes.
This paper investigates empirically the determinants of firms’ performance in the agrifood sector by using recent survey data for Denmark. Treating sales per employee as a proxy for value added we estimate several bootstrapped regression models to draw conclusions on the marginal effects of potential performance determinants such as the form and nature of ownership, stage of the food chain and commodity sector, new product development, staff quality, firms’ competitive stance, and elements of firms’ strategy. To draw robust inferences we apply, besides the ordinary heteroscedasticity corrected Tobit ML-estimator, a nonparametric least absolute deviations estimator (LAD/CLAD) based on a quantile regression...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Value added; Innovation; Organizational type; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q13; O31; O33.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36851
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Determinants of smallholders’ decisions to leave land fallow: the case of Kosovo AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure.
The objective of this article is to investigate why farmers in Kosovo leave land fallow when the total land of their farms is small and households, almost fully dependent on farming for their livelihoods, are large. In order to elicit some of the barriers to land utilization, the article uses a comprehensive survey carried out during the agricultural year 2005/2006 to explore agricultural households’ perceptions of production, market conditions, and general security six years after the end of the military conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Several agro-environmental, household and farm characteristics are employed to empirically approximate the significance of different factors for leaving land fallow. Three different econometric models are used to address...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fallow land decision; Kosovo; Endogeneity; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C24; Q12; Q15.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94917
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Determinants of the Fallowing Decision in Kosovo AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure.
The key question of this paper is why farmers in Kosovo leave land fallow when the total land of their farms is rather small and households are rather large. In order to elicit some barriers to land utilisation in Kosovo, the paper is based on a comprehensive survey carried out in 2005 investigating agricultural households’ perceptions of production and market conditions, and employs several households and farm characteristics to empirically approximate the significance of different factors for leaving land fallow and not using it for production purposes. Three different econometric models are used expected to fit the data distribution. All estimated model specifications show a statistical significance at a satisfactory level and no severe signs of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fallow land decision; Kosovo; Tobit regression; Fractional response regression; Zero-inflated binomial regression; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51072
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Determining the Competitive Edge: Diversified Dairy Production Systems in the United States and the European Union AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Nehring, Richard F.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Blayney, Donald P.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Latruffe, Laure.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61149
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DIE OKONOMIE DER (LANDLICHEN) WASSERVERSORGUNG AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes.
Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert die optimale Organisation der Wasserversorgung unter Berücksichtigung der grundlegenden Gutscharakteristika und der spezifischen Produktions-struktur. Nach einer formalen Beschreibung der einzelnen Produktionsstufen und der realen Organisation des Wassersektors in Deutschland werden kurz verschiedene Modelle zur Sek-tororganisation vorgestellt. Anschließend wird versucht, die Bestimmung der ökonomisch optimalen Betriebs- und Angebotsorganisation zu erläutern. Schließlich werden zentrale öko-nomische Konzepte der Produktionsanalyse und der industriellen Organisation für eine empi-rische Überprüfung am Beispiel der Wasserversorgung beispielhaft modelliert. Es zeigt sich, dass empirisch fundierte Organisationsmodelle bisher...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water Supplying Industry; Production Analysis; Industrial Organisation; Economic Modelling; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L95; Q25; R50.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14910
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Distinguishing Different Industry Technologies and Localized Technical Change AgEcon
Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Sauer, Johannes.
When different technologies are present in an industry, assuming a homogeneous technology will lead to misleading implications about technical change and inefficient policy recommendations. In this paper a latent class modelling approach and flexible estimation of the production structure is used to distinguish different technologies for a representative sample of E.U. dairy producers, as an industry exhibiting significant structural changes and differences in production systems in the past decades. The model uses a transformation function to recognize multiple outputs; separate technological classes based on multiple characteristics, a flexible generalized linear functional form, a variety of inputs, and random effects to capture firm heterogeneity; and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61146
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Distinguishing Different Industry Technologies and Localized Technical Change AgEcon
Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Sauer, Johannes.
This contribution is based on the notion that different technologies are present in an industry. These different technologies result in differential “drivers” of economic performance depending on the kind of technology used by the individual firm. In a first step different technologies are empirically distinguished. Subsequently, the associated production patterns are approximated and the respective change over time is estimated. A latent class modelling approach is used to distinguish different technologies for a representative sample of E.U. dairy producers as an industry exhibiting significant structural changes and differences in production systems in the past decades. The production technology is modelled and evaluated by using the flexible functional...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Heterogenous Technologies; Transformation Function; Localized Technical Change; Production Economics; Q12; O33; C35.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91749
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Distinguishing Different Industry Technologies and Localized Technical Change AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Morrison Paul, Catherine J..
When different technologies are present in an industry, assuming a homogeneous technology will lead to misleading implications about technical change and inefficient policy recommendations. In this paper a latent class modelling approach and flexible estimation of the production structure is used to distinguish different technologies for a representative sample of E.U. dairy producers, as an industry exhibiting significant structural changes and differences in production systems in the past decades. The model uses a transformation function to recognize multiple outputs; separate technological classes based on multiple characteristics, a flexible generalized linear functional form, a variety of inputs, and random effects to capture firm heterogeneity; and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Heterogenous Technologies; Transformation Function; Localized Technical Change; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; O33; C35.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99834
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DISTORTED PRICES AND PRODUCER EFFICIENCY - ROMANIAN MAIZE AgEcon
Balint, Borbala; Sauer, Johannes.
This research aims at shedding empirical light on the relative efficiency of small-scale maize producers in Romania. Farmers in transition countries still face heavily distorted price systems resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints. To capture such distortions we formulate a stochastic shadow-cost frontier model to investigate the systematic input-specific allocative inefficiency. We further adjust the underlying cost frontier by incorporating shadow price corrections and subsequently reveal evidence on farm specific technical inefficiency. Different models are estimated due to the imposition of curvature correctness and the effects on the individual efficiency estimates are shown. The empirical results...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Efficiency; Shadow Cost Frontier; Functional Consistency; Maize; Romania; Crop Production/Industries; C40; D24; O33.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14958
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Economic Efficiency of U.S. Organic Versus Conventional Dairy Farms: Evidence from 2005 and 2010 AgEcon
Nehring, Richard F.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Sauer, Johannes.
We estimate an input distance function for U.S. dairy farming to examine the competitiveness of organic and non-organic dairy production by system and size. Across organic/non-organic systems and size classes, size is the major determinant of competitiveness based on various measures of productivity and returns to scale.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic; Non-organic; Input Distance Function; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119769
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ESS versus NVZ – The Cost-Effectiveness of Command-and-Control versus Agreement Based Policy Instruments AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Walsh, John.
This study empirically investigates the cost-effectiveness of different agri-environmental policy instruments. We compare the Environment Stewardship Scheme (ESS) as an example for a management agreement type instrument, to the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ) as an example for a command-and-control type instrument. Both instruments are currently applied in the UK. Based on a simple cost model considering also relevant transaction costs and risk we use different regression and resampling techniques to estimate the marginal effects of different factors with respect to the instruments‟ relative cost-effectiveness and to identify factors for cost variation over space and time. We control for the actual level of compliance by using compliance weighted average...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Environmental Instruments; Costs; Risk; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108963
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Evaluating Agri-Environmental Schemes – The Marginal Costs of Ecosystem Services AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Wossink, Ada.
We provide a new approach for assessing the cost of marginal ecosystem changes and the effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes. The approach is based on a theoretical and empirical analysis of the bio-economic production interactions between marketed outputs and non-marketed ecosystem services at the micro level. To frame the economic nature of the problem, we employ a generalized joint production model in combination with cost minimization. The generalized joint production framework allows for the consideration of complementary, substitutive and competitive relationships between agricultural production and non-marketed ecosystem services generation and avoids double counting. From this theoretical model we distinguish three theoretical cases depending...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental services; Bio-economic modelling; Economies of scale and scope; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q18; Q57; Q58..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99425
Registros recuperados: 64
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