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Registros recuperados: 23
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A statistical approach to relationships between fluid emissions and faults: The Sea of Marmara case ArchiMer
Henry, P.; Grall, Celine; Kende, J.; Viseur, S.; Ozeren, M. S.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Dupre, Stephanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Geli, Louis.
The Sea of Marmara is traversed by the North Anatolian Fault system and also presents abundant emission sites of methane gas into the water column. In order to assess the spatial relationship between gas emissions and active faults, the distribution of distances between gas emission sites and the nearest fault is calculated and compared with the distribution of distances between a uniform random distribution of points (Poisson process representing the null hypothesis of an absence of relationship between gas emissions and faults) and the nearest fault. Interestingly, the distance distribution for the Poisson process is nearly exponential, indicating that the fault map does not have a characteristic scale other than that representing the intensity of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Cold seeps; Gas emissions; Transform plate boundary; Strike-slip fault; Damage zone.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00441/55252/56739.pdf
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Acoustic detection of the spatial and temporal distribution of fish shoals in the Bay of Biscay ArchiMer
Scalabrin, Carla; Masse, Jacques.
Echo sounder data were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of shoal behaviour in the Bay of Biscay. Data collected from annual surveys were processed using MOVIES-B software in order to mcasure this variability. The software was designed to measure morphological, energetic and space-time distribution descriptors from the acoustic signal received from fish shoals. Two surveys, DAAG 90 and DAAG 91, provided the appropriate characteristics for such an analysis. The survey's objective was to obtain relative abundance indices for the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) biomass in the Bay of Biscay. The surveys were carried out in the same area (southern Bay of Biscay), at the same period (April) within one year interval (1990 and 1991), using the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fish shoal; Fisheries acoustics; Bay of Biscay; Pelagic fish.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00190/30111/28580.pdf
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Acoustic monitoring of gas emissions from the seafloor. Part I: quantifying the volumetric flow of bubbles ArchiMer
Leblond, Isabelle; Scalabrin, Carla; Berger, Laurent.
Three decades of continuous ocean exploration have led us to identify subsurface fluid related processes as a key phenomenon in marine earth science research. The number of seep areas located on the seafloor has been constantly increasing with the use of multi-scale imagery techniques. Due to recent advances in transducer technology and computer processing, multibeam echosounders are now commonly used to detect submarine gas seeps escaping from the seafloor into the water column. A growing number of en-route surveys shows that sites of gas emissions escaping from the seafloor are much more numerous than previously thought. Estimating the temporal variability of the gas flow rate and volumes escaping from the seafloor has thus become a challenge of relevant...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Seafloor observatory; Water column acoustics; Forward and inverse modeling; Fisheries echosounders; Acoustic backscattering; Gas emissions; Bubbles; Water tank experiments.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00192/30336/29094.pdf
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Anomalously deep BSR related to a transient state of the gas hydrate system in the western Black Sea ArchiMer
Ker, Stephan; Thomas, Yannick; Riboulot, Vincent; Sultan, Nabil; Bernard, Céline; Scalabrin, Carla; Ion, G; Marsset, Bruno.
A comprehensive characterization of the gas hydrate system offshore the western Black Sea was performed through an integrated analysis of geophysical data. We detected the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), which marks, in this area, the base of gas hydrate stability. The observed BSR depth does not fit the theoretical steady-state base of gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ). We show that the disparity between the BSR and predicted BGHSZ is the result of a transient state of the hydrate system due to the ongoing re-equilibrium since the Last Glacial Maximum. When gas hydrates are brought outside the stability zone due to changes in temperature and sea level, their dissociation generates an increase in interstitial pore pressure. This process is favorable to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas hydrate; BSR; Excess pore pressure; Black Sea.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00474/58531/61081.pdf
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Cartographie haute résolution des champs hydrothermaux de la ride sud du bassin de Guaymas ArchiMer
Ondreas, Helene; Scalabrin, Carla; Fouquet, Yves; Godfroy, Anne.
Insights into the factors controlling fluid circulation through the crust and the nature of fluid venting at the seafloor are first steps in understanding their effect on ocean properties and climate change. New data on the seafloor morphology, sub-surface sedimentary stratification, and water column of the sedimented Southern Trough hydrothermal field (Guaymas basin) were acquired during the BIG cruise in 2010. These data provide accurate and high-resolution information on the geological context of the vents, on the distribution of acoustic anomalies in the water column, and on the possible nature of the fluid generating these echoes. More than 40 hydrothermal edifices were observed. The southern zone of the study area hosts hydrothermal sites that differ...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mid-ocean ridges; Sedimented ridge; Hydrothermal systems; Fluid migration; Water-column acoustic images; Guaymas basin.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00436/54775/56229.pdf
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Changes in seabed morphology, mud temperature and free gas venting at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, offshore northern Norway, over the time period 2003-2006 ArchiMer
Foucher, Jean-paul; Dupre, Stephanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Feseker, Tomas; Harmegnies, Francois; Nouze, Herve.
The Håkon Mosby mud volcano is a 1.5-km-diameter geological structure located on the Southwest Barents Sea slope at a water depth of 1,270 m. High-definition seabed mapping of the mud volcano has been carried out in 2003 and 2006. A comparative analysis of the bathymetry and backscatter maps produced from the two surveys shows subtle morphological changes over the entire crater of the mud volcano, interpreted to be the consequence of mud eruption events. Mud temperature measurements point to a persistently warm mud at shallow depth in the crater. This is explained by upward fluid advection, rather than conductive cooling of mud flows. The small-scale spatial variability in the temperature distribution may be related to mud outflows or changes in the fluid...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sw barents sea; Cold seep ecosystems; Fluid flow; Methane; Sediment; Onshore; Fluxes; Margin; Water.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00004/11527/10261.pdf
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Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe ArchiMer
Carrera, Pablo; Churnside, J.h.; Boyra, G; Marques, V; Scalabrin, Carla; Uriarte, A.
The feasibility of using airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) was studied to assess the early juvenile fractions of the main pelagic fish species of the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe (anchovy, sardine, mackerel, and horse mackerel). Field comparisons with more established echosounder methods were undertaken in the summers of 1998 and 1999 during the recruitment period of sardine and anchovy in the selected areas, in the presence of a variety of oceanographic and environmental conditions. Backscattered energies as well as the types of target recorded by both devices were compared. The distributions of energies and the shape of the targets were generally similar for both techniques, with moderate numerical correlation between sensors,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: West Iberian Peninsula; Sardine; Recruitment; Echosounder; Bay of Biscay; Anchovy; Airborne lidar.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-2139.pdf
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Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault ArchiMer
Maia, Marcia; Sichel, Susanna; Briais, Anne; Brunelli, Daniele; Ligi, Marco; Ferreira, Nicolas; Campos, Thomas; Mougel, Berengere; Brehme, Isa; Hemond, Christophe; Motoki, Akihisa; Moura, Denise; Scalabrin, Carla; Pessanha, Ivo; Alves, Eliane; Ayres, Arthur; Oliveira, Pedro.
Mantle exhumation at slow-spreading ridges is favoured by extensional tectonics through low-angle detachment faults1, 2, 3, 4, and, along transforms, by transtension due to changes in ridge/transform geometry5, 6. Less common, exhumation by compressive stresses has been proposed for the large-offset transforms of the equatorial Atlantic7, 8. Here we show, using high-resolution bathymetry, seismic and gravity data, that the northern transform fault of the St Paul system has been controlled by compressive deformation since ~10 million years ago. The long-lived transpression resulted from ridge overlap due to the propagation of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge segment into the transform domain, which induced the migration and segmentation of the transform...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00345/45603/49042.pdf
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Fluid emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): A biogenic origin or the expression of hydrocarbon leakage? ArchiMer
Dupre, Stephanie; Berger, Laurent; Le Bouffant, Naig; Scalabrin, Carla; Bourillet, Jean-francois.
Fishery acoustic surveys conducted in the Bay of Biscay and dedicated to monitoring and predicting pelagic ecosystem evolution reveal numerous active seeps on the Aquitaine Shelf, east of the shelf break, at water depths ranging from 140 to 185 m. Some acoustic anomalies recorded in the water column with hull-mounted single and multibeam echosounders are clearly caused by fluid escape at the seabed, most likely gases. These fluid emissions are associated at the seafloor with high backscatter subcircular small-scale mounds, on average less than 2 m high and a few metres in diameter. Based on near-bottom video and acoustic surveys, these mounds are interpreted to be by-products of gas seepage, possibly methane-derived authigenic carbonates. The spatial...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bay of Biscay; Aquitaine Shelf; Parentis Basin; Fluid; Seepage; Acoustics.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00201/31192/29888.pdf
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Freshwater lake to salt-water sea causing widespread hydrate dissociation in the Black Sea ArchiMer
Riboulot, Vincent; Ker, Stephan; Sultan, Nabil; Thomas, Yannick; Marsset, Bruno; Scalabrin, Carla; Ruffine, Livio; Boulart, Cedric; Ion, Gabriel.
Gas hydrates, a solid established by water and gas molecules, are widespread along the continental margins of the world. Their dynamics have mainly been regarded through the lens of temperature-pressure conditions. A fluctuation in one of these parameters may cause destabilization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments below the seafloor with implications in ocean acidification and eventually in global warming. Here we show throughout an example of the Black Sea, the world’s most isolated sea, evidence that extensive gas hydrate dissociation may occur in the future due to recent salinity changes of the sea water. Recent and forthcoming salt diffusion within the sediment will destabilize gas hydrates by reducing the extension and thickness of their thermodynamic...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00418/52981/53916.pdf
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Gas and seismicity within the Istanbul seismic gap ArchiMer
Geli, Louis; Henry, P.; Grall, Celine; Tary, Jean-baptiste; Lomax, A.; Batsi, Evangelia; Riboulot, Vincent; Cros, Estelle; Gurbuz, C.; Isik, S. E.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Le Pichon, X.; Ruffine, Livio; Dupre, Stephanie; Thomas, Yannick; Kalafat, D.; Bayrakci, G.; Coutellier, Q.; Regnier, Thibaut; Westbrook, Graham; Saritas, H.; Cifci, G.; Cagatay, M. N.; Ozeren, M. S.; Gorur, N.; Tryon, M.; Bohnhoff, M.; Gasperini, L.; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Scalabrin, Carla; Augustin, Jean-marie; Embriaco, D.; Marinaro, G.; Frugoni, F.; Monna, S.; Etiope, G.; Favali, P.; Becel, A..
Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the “Istanbul seismic gap”) has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources. Here, we show that a large number of the aftershocks that followed the M 5.1 earthquake of July, 25th 2011 in the western Sea of Marmara, occurred within a zone of gas overpressuring in the 1.5–5 km depth...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00439/55072/56500.pdf
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La géomorphologie des fonds marins et la présence d’hydrates de gaz contrôlent les émissions de gaz dans la Mer Noire au large de la Roumanie ArchiMer
Riboulot, Vincent; Cattaneo, Antonio; Scalabrin, Carla; Gaillot, Arnaud; Jouet, Gwenael; Ballas, Gregory; Marsset, Tania; Garziglia, Sebastien; Ker, Stephan.
The Romanian sector of the Black Sea deserves attention because the Danube deep-sea fan is one of the largest sediment depositional systems worldwide and is considered the world's most isolated sea, the largest anoxic water body on the planet and a unique energy-rich sea. Due to the high sediment accumulation rate, presence of organic matter and anoxic conditions, the Black sea sediments offshore the Danube delta is rich in gas and thus shows Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSR). The cartography of the BSR over the last 20 years, exhibits its widespread occurrence, indicative of extensive development of hydrate accumulations and a huge gas hydrate potential. By combining old and new datasets acquired in 2015 during the GHASS expedition, we performed a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hydrates de gaz; Gaz libre; Panaches de gaz; BSR; Mer Noire; Géomorphologie; Gas hydrates; Free gas; Gas flares; BSR; Black Sea; Geomorphology.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00407/51860/53914.pdf
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Le répulsif à cétacés : performances acoustiques requises ArchiMer
Le Gall, Yves; Origne, Laurent; Scalabrin, Carla; Morizur, Yvon.
Acoustic deterrent devices could be an appealing solution to tackle accidental cetacean by-catches in pelagic trawls or in fishing net gears. The bibliographical data on two species (Harbour porpoise and bottlenosed dolphin) have been analyzed in terms of audiogram, discomfort noise level that could lead to behavioural changes, sensory fatigue, and threshold for permanent hearing injuries. It is possible, on the basis of the above data, to characterize an efficient annoyance sound threshold which is not harmful to the species to be protected. Taking into account the properties of the sound waves propagation in the marine environment and according to the required range, the minimal amplitude of the repulsive sound to emit is proposed. Accordingly, the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Wave propagation; Behaviour; Audiogram; Capture; Cetacean; In fishing net gear; Pelagic trawl; Acoustic deterrent; Propagation onde; Comportement; Audiogramme; Capture; Cétacé; Filet; Pêche artisanale; Chalutage pélagique; Répulsif acoustique.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-1124.pdf
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Methodological developments for improved bottom detection with the ME70 multibeam echosounder ArchiMer
Bourguignon, Sebastien; Berger, Laurent; Scalabrin, Carla; Fablet, Ronan; Mazauric, Valerie.
Multibeam echosounders and sonars are increasingly used in fisheries acoustics for abundance estimation. Because of reduced side-lobe levels in the beam-array pattern, the new Simrad ME70 multibeam echosounder installed on board Ifremer's RV "Thalassa" has been designed to allow improved detection of fish close to the seabed. To achieve this objective, precise and unambiguous detection of the water-bottom interface is required, which raises the issue of bottom detection, especially in the outer beams. The bottom-detection method implemented in the ME70 is based on the amplitude of the reverberated echo. Such an approach is efficient for vertical beams, but less accurate for beams with higher incidence angles, typically 30°–40° for the beam configurations...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Multibeam echosounder; Fisheries; Bottom detection; Acoustics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6629.pdf
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MOVIES-B: an acoustic detection description software. Application to shoal species' classification ArchiMer
Weill, Alain; Scalabrin, Carla; Diner, Noel.
Software, MOVIES-B, developed by IFREMER (Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer), enables the recognition of echogram features as acoustic detection structures according to spatial-energetic contiguity criteria. These structures (shoals, plankton layers) are described by energetic, morphological, spatial and temporal descriptors. Specifying acoustic detections as individual shoals will allow shoal by shoal echo-integration and may lead to better biomass estimation and shoal species description. The conceptual and operational framework of MOVIES-B is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part presents preliminary work performed in order to assess the feasibility of classification and possible species identification of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Echo-intégration; Banc de poissons; Acoustique halieutique; Analyse statistique; Classification hiérarchique; Echo-integration; Fish shoal; Fisheries acoustics; Statistical analysis; Clustering analysis.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00190/30078/28573.pdf
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Multidisciplinary investigation on cold seeps with vigorous gas emissions in the Sea of Marmara (MarsiteCruise): Strategy for site detection and sampling and first scientific outcome ArchiMer
Ruffine, Livio; Ondreas, Helene; Blanc-valleron, Marie-madeleine; Teichert, Barbara M. A.; Scalabrin, Carla; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Birot, Dominique; Croguennec, Claire; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Pierre, Catherine; Donval, Jean-pierre; Alix, Anne-sophie; Germain, Yoan; Bignon, Laurent; Etoubleau, Joel; Caprais, Jean-claude; Knoery, Joel; Lesongeur, Francoise; Thomas, Bastien; Roubi, Angelique; Legoix, Ludovic Nicolas; Burnard, Pete; Chevalier, Nicolas; Lu, Hailong; Dupre, Stephanie; Fontanier, Christophe; Dissard, Delphine; Olgun, Nazli; Yang, Hailin; Strauss, Harald; Ozaksoy, Volkan; Perchoc, Jonathan; Podeur, Christian; Tarditi, Corinne; Ozbeki, Eyyup; Guyader, Vivien; Marty, Bernard; Madre, David G; Pitel-roudaut, Mathilde; Grall, Celine; Embriaco, Davide; Polonia, Mina; Gasperini, Lucas; Cagatay, M. Namik; Henry, Pierre; Geli, Louis.
MarsiteCruise was undertaken in October/November 2014 in the Sea of Marmara to gain detailed insight into the fate of fluids migrating within the sedimentary column and partially released into the water column. The overall objective of the project was to achieve a more global understanding of cold-seep dynamics in the context of a major active strike-slip fault. Five remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives were performed at selected areas along the North Anatolian Fault and inherited faults. To efficiently detect, select and sample the gas seeps, we applied an original procedure. It combines sequentially (1) the acquisition of ship-borne multibeam acoustic data from the water column prior to each dive to detect gas emission sites and to design the tracks of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Acoustic survey; Authigenic carbonates; Biogeochemistry; Chemical analyses; Cold seeps; Dissolved major elements; Fluid seepage; Geology; In situ Raman analysis; Methane; ROV dives.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00433/54434/55783.pdf
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Overview of recent progress in fisheries acoustics made by Ifremer with examples from the Bay of Biscay ArchiMer
Trenkel, Verena; Berger, Laurent; Bourguignon, Sebastien; Doray, Mathieu; Fablet, Ronan; Masse, Jacques; Mazauric, Valerie; Poncelet, Cyrille; Quemener, Gael; Scalabrin, Carla; Villalobos, Hector.
This paper provides an overview of the progress Ifremer has made recently in fisheries acoustics and the study of small pelagic fish by: i) pushing observation frontiers using a range of platforms including an autonomous underwater vehicle, AUV, ii) developing measuring instruments and methods and iii) studying fish distributions. Presently, information from several frequencies of single-beam echosounders is routinely collected together with data from the ME70 multibeam echosounder. For onboard data acquisition control the HERMES software was developed. The new MOVIES 3D software includes modules for simultaneous realistic 3D visualisation and post-processing such as bottom detection, school extraction and calculation of descriptors and integration of all...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Multibeam echosounder; Oceanographic AUV; Pelagic fish; Fisheries acoustics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/11165/7517.pdf
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Pockmarks on the South Aquitaine Margin continental slope: The seabed expression of past fluid circulation and former bottom currents ArchiMer
Michel, Guillaume; Dupre, Stephanie; Baltzer, Agnes; Ehrhold, Axel; Imbert, Patrice; Pitel, Mathilde; Loubrieu, Benoit; Scalabrin, Carla; Lazure, Pascal; Marie, Louis; Geldof, Jean-baptiste; Deville, Eric.
Inactive and mostly elongated pockmarks of 100–200 m in dimension were recently discovered on the South Aquitaine Margin continental slope. They are distributed at water depths greater than 350 m in both interfluve and sediment-wave areas, and are strongly controlled by the sedimentary morphology and architecture. Water column and seafloor backscatter and sub-bottom profiler data do not exhibit present-day or past gas evidence, e.g., massive and continuous gas releases at the seabed and fossil methane-derived authigenic carbonates. It is thus proposed that the pockmarks originated from a shallow source and result from relatively recent and short-duration gas or water expulsion events. Former near-bottom currents may have contributed to the elongation of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pockmark; Fluid; Seabed morphology; Aquitaine slope; GIS; Currents.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00413/52491/53279.pdf
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Tectonic and sedimentary controls on widespread gas emissions in the Sea of Marmara: Results from systematic, shipborne multibeam echo sounder water column imaging ArchiMer
Dupre, Stephanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Grall, Celine; Augustin, Jean-marie; Henry, Pierre; Sengor, A. M. Celal; Goeruer, Naci; Cagatay, M. Namik; Geli, Louis.
Understanding of the evolution of fluid-fault interactions during earthquake cycles is a challenge that acoustic gas emission studies can contribute. A survey of the Sea of Marmara using a shipborne, multibeam echo sounder, with water column records, provided an accurate spatial distribution of offshore seeps. Gas emissions are spatially controlled by a combination of factors, including fault and fracture networks in connection to the Main Marmara Fault system and inherited faults, the nature and thickness of sediments (e.g., occurrence of impermeable or gas-bearing sediments and landslides), and the connectivity between the seafloor and gas sources, particularly in relation to the Eocene Thrace Basin. The relationship between seepage and fault activity is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fluid emissions; Gas; Water column acoustics; Multibeam echo sounder; Sea of Marmara; Tectonics.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00268/37972/36049.pdf
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The Aquitaine Shelf edge (Bay of Biscay): a primary outlet for microbial methane release ArchiMer
Dupré, Stephanie; Loubrieu, Benoit; Pierre, C.; Scalabrin, Carla; Guerin, Charline; Ehrhold, Axel; Ogor, Andre; Gautier, Emeric; Ruffine, Livio; Biville, Romain; Saout, Johan; Breton, C; Floodpage, J.; Lescanne, M..
A few thousand (2612) seeps are releasing microbial methane bubbles from the seafloor at the Aquitaine Shelf edge (Bay of Biscay) at shallow water depths (140‐220 m). This methane contributes to the formation of meter‐scale subcircular carbonate structures, which are (sub‐)outcropping over 375 km2. Based on in situ flow rate measurements and acoustic data, and assuming steady and continuous fluxes over time, the methane entering the water column is estimated to 144 Mg/yr. Microbial methane circulation has been on‐going for at least a few thousand years. This discovery highlights the importance of microbial methane generation, disconnected from deep thermogenic sources and gas hydrates, at continental shelves. The shelf edge may be viewed as a focus area...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microbial methane; Continental shelf; Fluid emissions; High‐resolution acoustics; Aquitaine Margin; Methane‐derived authigenic carbonates.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00618/72982/72057.pdf
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