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Registros recuperados: 16
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Anbau transgener Pflanzen – Räumliche Aspekte der Koexistenz Organic Eprints
Schlatter, Christian; Oehen, Bernadette.
Most of the farmers in Switzerland won’t apply GMO farming. Their organisations support a five-year ban for the marketing of transgenic plants. However, in Switzerland there is no political discussion on co-existence as in the European community and their member states. In this study, the spatial aspects of coexistence of transgenic, conventional and organic farming in Switzerland are investigated. It shows that there are only 28 communities of 2848 where all farmers are bound by different labels to produce GMO-free. Most of these communities are situated in high altitude regions. In contrast, in arable regions of Switzerland, few farmers produce organic crops. In most of the communities in Switzerland, the simultaneous production with and without...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3596/1/3596.pdf
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Approaches to pest management in organic agriculture: a case study in European apple orchards Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Luka, Henryk; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schlatter, Christian; Gabriela, Uehlinger; Daniel, Claudia.
Although the European organic agriculture movement was founded by Rudolf Steiner and Hans Mueller in the years between 1924 and 1940, it was not until the 1980s that pest management researchers began to develop strategies to control pests in organic systems. Today, insect pest management in organic agriculture involves the adoption of scientificallybased and ecologically sound strategies as specified by international and national organic production standards. These include a ban on synthetic insecticides and, more recently, on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The first phase of an insect pest management program for organic systems is the adoption of cultural practices including diverse crop rotation, enhancement of soil quality by incorporation of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/8717/1/Wyss-2005-OrganicResearchAustralien.pdf
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Ausbreitung des Rapsglanzkäfers innerhalb eines Feldes und in der Landschaft Organic Eprints
Géneau, Céline; Schlatter, Christian; Daniel, Claudia.
Pollen beetles (Meligethes sp.) are important pests in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). In our study we wanted to determine which landscape structures have an influence on pollen beetle population in early spring. The dynamics of pollen beetle population and the damages on rape were studied on field scale level with 100 sampling points per field and on landscape scale level with 18 organic oilseed rape fields which differed by the complexity of the surrounding landscapes. The number of pollen beetle was strongly correlated with the distance to a forest. At the beginning of the flight period more pollen beetles were found close to the forest, later they migrated to the rest of the field. In addition, agricultural practices appeared to be determinant...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Crop husbandry Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/20493/1/2009_12RGKMigrationDgaaE.pdf
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Ausbreitung des Rapsglanzkäfers innerhalb eines Feldes und in der Landschaft Organic Eprints
Géneau, Céline; Schlatter, Christian; Daniel, Claudia.
Pollen beetles (Meligethes sp.) are important pests in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). In our study we wanted to determine which landscape structures have an influence on pollen beetle population in early spring. The dynamics of pollen beetle population and the damages on rape were studied on field scale level with 100 sampling points per field and on landscape scale level with 18 organic oilseed rape fields which differed by the complexity of the surrounding landscapes. The number of pollen beetle was strongly correlated with the distance to a forest. At the beginning of the flight period more pollen beetles were found close to the forest, later they migrated to the rest of the field. In addition, agricultural practices appeared to be determinant for...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/13966/1/Geneau_13966.pdf
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Einfluss von Habitatmanagement auf die Reduktion von Schadlepidopteren im Kohl Organic Eprints
Luka, Henryk; Leimgruber, Andrea; Willareth, Martin; Nagel, Peter; Pfiffner, Lukas; Wyss, Eric; Schlatter, Christian; Schied, Johannes; Traugott, Michael.
Beneficials can prevent or reduce outbreaks of pest species. To strengthen the populations of beneficials, their food sources must be improved in cultivated areas. The effects of habitat management for augmenting beneficial population on parasitism and predation rates of three lepidopteran pest species were investigated on two organic fields in Alten (Switzerland). The aim was to improve pest regulation through wild flower strips along fields and by planting Centaurea cyanus as companion plant within the crop. Strips of Centaurea cyanus and Fagopyrum esculentum increased parasitsm on the lepidopteran pests. C. cyanus planted as companion plant furthermore increased predation on the eggs and parasitism of the larvae of Mamestra brassicae. Several...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14127/1/Luka_14127.pdf
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Funktionelle Biodiversität, Schädlingsregulation gezielt verbessern Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Luka, Henryk; Schlatter, Christian.
Mit naturnahen Flächen werden Nützlinge als Teil des modernen biologischen Pflanzenschutzes gefördert. Um ihre Effizienz zu steigern, reicht die Förderung der generellen Biodiversität nicht aus; eine maßgeschneiderte,„funktionelle“ Biodiversität ist nötig.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4862/1/Pfiffner%2DLuka%2DSchlatter%2D2005%2DFunktionelle_Biodiversitaet.pdf
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Gentechnik in der Landwirtschaft - Räumliche Aspekte der Koexistenz in der Schweiz Organic Eprints
Schlatter, Christian; Oehen, Bernadette.
Die im Auftrag des Schweizer WWF erstellte Studie beschäftigt sich mit den räumlichen Aspekten der Ko-Existenz in der Schweiz.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/3274/1/oehen%2Dschlatter%2D2004%2Dwwf%2Dgvo.pdf
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Impact of wildflower strips on biological control of cabbage lepidopterans Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Luka, Henryk; Schlatter, Christian; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael.
In a 2-year experiment we investigated whether wildflower strips can be used to enhance the control of cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L., and cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. At two sites, including six organically cultivated fields, M. brassicae egg parasitism and predation rates were determined along with an assessment of larval parasitism rates in M. brassicae and P. rapae using a DNA-based approach. Within each field, plots with and without wildflower strips were sampled and a grid design of 3 m x 3 m was used to analyse the spatial pattern of parasitism. The provision of wildflower strips provided an idiosyncratic effect on the control of lepidopterans: parasitism rates in M. brassicae eggs and larvae were not affected, whereas parasitism...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/17813/1/pfiffner-etal-2009-agriculture-ecosystems-environment.pdf
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Jusqu'à quand restera-t-il des aliments non transgénetiques ? Organic Eprints
Oehen, Bernadette; Schlatter, Christian.
L’Europe entière se demande si les agricultures transgéniques et non trans¬géniques peuvent vivre côte à côte. C’est un débat souvent très théorique, très éloigné du quotidien des agriculteurs. Une étude du FiBL mandatée par le WWF montre ce que l’autorisation des cultures transgéniques signifierait pour les entreprises agricoles suisses.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/3272/1/oehen%2Dschlatter%2D2004%2Daliments%2Dtransgeniques.pdf
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Mit Bio blüht die Vielfalt - wildtierfreundliche Bioproduktion in Osteuropa und der Schweiz. Bericht 2006. Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Schlatter, Christian; Meindl, Peter; Kranzler, Andreas; Urban, Jiri; Malikova, Alena.
Die Artenvielfalt an Pflanzen und Wildtieren und die Vielfalt der Landschaften werden zunehmend durch die sich ausbreitende intensive Landwirtschaft bedroht. Zwar gibt es europäische und nationale Agrarumweltprogramme, die dem entgegenwirken wollen. Sie werden aber zu wenig effizient umgesetzt. Ungenügendes ökologisches Fachwissen und zu wenig ökologisch ausgerichtete Beratung gehören zu den Hauptgründen für die schlechte Umsetzung dieser Programme. Der biologische Landbau geht im Gegensatz zur konventionellen, industriellen Landwirtschaft sehr schonend mit natürlichen Ressourcen um und eignet sich daher besonders zur Förderung einer reichhaltigen Kulturlandschaft mit einer grossen Arten- und Lebensraumvielfalt. Biolandbau kombiniert mit...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/20193/1/WTF_ZWBt_06_CH_A_CH_def.pdf
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Schmetterlingsförderung auf Biogrünlandbetrieben Organic Eprints
Schlatter, Christian; Lang, Andreas; Pfiffner, Lukas; Chevillat, Véronique.
Im Rahmen des Projektes „Wildtierfreundlicher Biolandbau“ erforscht und unterstützt das Forschungsinstitut für Biologischen Landbau (FiBL) Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der Biodiversität im Agrarraum. Leitgrundsätze dieses Projektes sind ein gesamtbetrieblicher Ansatz, die Beteiligung der betreffenden Landwirten vor Ort und eine absolute Freiwilligkeit für die Landwirte bei der Mitarbeit und Umsetzung der vorgeschlagenen Massnahmen. In der Schweiz sind insbesondere die Schmetterlinge stark durch eine intensive Landbewirtschaftung beeinträchtigt und gefährdet. Deshalb wurde in 2007 das FiBL-Pilotprojekt „Schmetterlingsförderung in der Landwirtschaft“ gestartet und durchgeführt. Auf zwei Biogrünland- Betrieben im Jura nahe Saignelégier wurde im Sommer 2007...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/20201/1/ZWB_07_Schmetterlinge_Jurabetriebe.pdf
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The Network of Ecological Compensation Areas in Switzerland Organic Eprints
Schlatter, Christian; Schader, Christian.
Since 1993, the Swiss law and Ordinance on Direct Payments for Agriculture (ODP) enables farmers to be compensated for ecological measures. A catalogue lists different possible measures which can be implemented at farm level both to create space for nature and biodiversity and to generate an alternative income for farmers. Measures include the maintenance of e. g. semi-natural structures in the landscape such as high-stem trees, hedges, pastures and meadows which are not intensively used (detailed catalogue: ART 2009). Succeeding a fast increase in the number of these areas, stagnation has been observed (BIODIVERSITYMONITORING 2009). Additionally, it has become evident, that many compensation areas are in unfavourable conditions for biodiversity and their...
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/20307/1/schlatter-schader-2010-BfN-Skript264_p49-52.pdf
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Umsetzung von Agrarumweltmassnahmen auf Bio- und konventionellen Betrieben der Schweiz Organic Eprints
Schader, Christian; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schlatter, Christian; Stolze, Matthias.
The willingness of farmers to adopt agri-environmental measures depends greatly on the farm type and management as well as on the geographic conditions of the farm. The present paper analyses the differences in uptake of agri-environmental measures between organic and non-organic farms. A statistical comparison based on the 2005 Swiss Farm Census showed that organic farms have on average 68% higher adoption rates than non-organic farms, with a mean level of 22% on organic and 13% on nonorganic farms. The greatest differences were identified for the measures “hedges”, “extensive meadows”, “less intensive meadows”. The differences in uptake can only be partly explained by economic differences, such as different costs at farm level. Differences between...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Policy environments and social economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14351/1/Schader_14351.pdf
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Umsetzung von Ökomassnahmen auf Bio- und ÖLN-Betrieben Organic Eprints
Schader, Christian; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schlatter, Christian; Stolze, Matthias.
Die Bereitschaft, Ökomassnahmen auf dem eigenen Betrieb umzusetzen, hängt entscheidend von der Betriebsstruktur und den naturräumlichen Voraussetzungen ab. Ziel dieser Studie war es festzustellen, ob es Unterschiede in der Umsetzung von Ökomassnahmen auf Bio- im Vergleich zu ÖLN-Betrieben gibt. Ein statistischer Vergleich der Umsetzungsraten beider Landbausysteme anhand der landwirtschaftlichen Betriebsstrukturerhebung 2005 ergab, dass Massnahmen auf Biobetrieben durchschnittlich um zwei Drittel häufiger umgesetzt werden, 20% Ökoflächen auf Bio- und 13% auf ÖLN-Betrieben. Die grössten Unterschiede wurden bei „extensiven Wiesen“, „wenig intensiven Wiesen“ und „Hecken“ festgestellt. „Rotations- und Buntbrachen“ wurden häufiger auf ÖLN-Betrieben angelegt. Die...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Policy environments and social economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/17909/1/Schader%2Detal%2D2008%2Dagrarforschung.pdf
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Wie lange gibt es noch gentechfreie Lebensmittel? Organic Eprints
Oehen, Bernadette; Schlatter, Christian.
Ganz Europa überlegt, ob eine Landwirtschaft mit und eine ohne gentech¬nisch veränderte Pflanzen nebeneinander existieren können. Dabei entsteht viel Theorie, weit weg vom Alltag der Landwirte. Das FiBL klärte im Auftrag des WWF ab, was der Anbau gentechnisch veränderter Pflanzen in der Landwirtschaft für die einzelnen Betriebe bedeuten würde.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/3273/1/oehen%2Dschlatter%2D2004%2Dgvo.pdf
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Wildflower strips to reduce lepidopteran pests in cabbage crops Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Luka, Henryk; Schlatter, Christian; Lichtenhahn, Martin.
Vegetable production systems are highly intensive and the periodic cultivations lead to un-favourable conditions for natural enemies. Using non-crops it is possible to create ecological infra-structure offering suitable food for natural enemies, and shelter from adverse conditions. On four organic farms in Western-Switzerland, we have tested in cabbage crops if wildflower strips are an appropriate tool to reduce lepidopteran pests. Analyses of wildflower strips on parasitism of caterpillars of Pieris rapae and Mamestra brassicae indicated a pest control potential. Grid trial using reared egg batches revealed no significant effect on parasitism of exposed M. brassicae and Plutella xylostella eggs in relation to the distance of the strip.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/13311/1/Pfiffner%2Detal%2D2006%2DIOBC%2Dred3.pdf
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