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Agricultural Policies and Soil Degradation in Western Canada: An Agro-Ecological Economic Assessment: Project Summary AgEcon
Bouzaher, Aziz; Shogren, Jason F.; Holtkamp, Derald; Gassman, Philip W.; Archer, David W.; Lakshminarayan, P.G.; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Reese, Randall; Kakani, Dharmaraju; Furtan, William Hartley; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Kiniry, James R..
This report describes an integrated agro-ecological modeling system that was developed to assess the potential economic and soil erosion impacts of different agricultural policies for the Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The system was constructed by linking erosion metamodels (response functions), based on multiple simulations of the USDA Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIIC), with a modified version of Agriculture Canada's Canadian Regional Agriculture Model (CRAM) denoted as RS-CRAM (resource sensitive CRAM). A summary of both the environmental and agricultural decision (RS-CRAM) components are presented, including a description of the modifications and enhancements that were made to CRAM. Results of policy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18660
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Agricultural Policies and Soil Degradation in Western Canada: An Agro-Ecological Economic Assessment: Report 3. The Integration of the Environmental and Economic Components AgEcon
Bouzaher, Aziz; Shogren, Jason F.; Holtkamp, Derald; Gassman, Philip W.; Archer, David W.; Lakshminarayan, P.G.; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Reese, Randall; Furtan, William Hartley; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Kiniry, James R..
The interface between RS-CRAM and the environmental component of the integrated modeling system is described for crops, crop sequences, and management systems representative of western Canada. An experimentally designed set of EPIC simulations were performed to generate erosion output that was used to construct wind and water erosion metamodels (response functions). The results of the EPIC simulations indicate that wind and water erosion would be the dominant erosion problem over most of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. For Alberta, water erosion was predicted to be the dominant problem, except for the southern portion of the province. Erosion impacts were sensitive to tillage and cropping patterns. EPIC-predicted yields did not vary much across tillage, a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18681
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Agricultural Policies and Soil Degradation in Western Canada: An Agro-Ecological Economic Assessment: Report 4. Modifications to CRAM and Policy Evaluation Results AgEcon
Bouzaher, Aziz; Shogren, Jason F.; Holtkamp, Derald; Gassman, Philip W.; Archer, David W.; Lakshminarayan, P.G.; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Reese, Randall; Kakani, Dharmaraju; Furtan, William Hartley; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Kiniry, James R..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18674
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AJAE Appendix: Supply Response to Counter-cyclical Payments and Base Acre Updating under Uncertainty: An Experimental Study AgEcon
McIntosh, Christopher R.; Shogren, Jason F.; Dohlman, Erik.
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 89, Number 4, November 2007.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7098
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ARE U.S. CONSUMERS TOLERANT OF GM FOODS? AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused many controversies. One important controversy relates to tolerance - the impurity rate that is tolerated before a commodity must be labeled as genetically modified. Currently, the United States does not have a specific tolerance or threshold level for GM foods. This paper uses experimental auctions to determine consumers' acceptance of non-GM foods with zero, 1 percent, and 5 percent tolerance for genetically modified material. Our results indicate that consumers would pay less for food that tolerates GM material, but the discount is not significantly different for foods with 1-percent and 5-percent GM content.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified (GM) foods; Contamination thresholds; Laboratory auctions; Nth-price auction; Vegetable oil; Tortilla chips; Russet potatoes; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18227
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ARE US CONSUMERS TOLERANT OF GM FOODS? AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
Many countries require labeling for GM food products. These countries often have different levels of genetic modification that they will tolerate before a food product must be labeled as genetically modified. For example, the European Union and Australia allow up to one percent of any ingredient in a food product to be GM before the product must be labeled as genetically modified. Japan allows 5% of any ingredient to be genetically modified before the product must be labeled as such. The United States currently does not require mandatory labeling of GM labeled foods and has no standards for what percentage of an ingredient in a food product can be genetically modified for the product to still be labeled non-GM. For the official "organic"...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19889
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BANKING ON EXTINCTION: IVORY STORAGE AND ELEPHANT CONSERVATION AgEcon
Bulte, Erwin H.; Horan, Richard D.; Shogren, Jason F..
Ivory poachers threaten the half million remaining African elephants. In response, Kremer and Morcom (2000) offer a novel solution to reduce the risk of extinction -- a local government can stockpile ivory and threaten to dump it on the market if the elephant population falls too low lowering the expected returns from ivory sales and driving poachers out of business). We show that ivory stockpiling could be detrimental to elephant conservation because large stocks create strong incentives for strategic extinction by African governments. This result suggests an alternative strategy to enhance the viability of African elephant stocks -- international conservation organizations rather than governments should hold the stockpiles.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20505
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BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS OF COUNTER-CYCLICAL PAYMENTS AND BASE ACREAGE UPDATING UNDER THE 2002 FARM ACT AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F.; Dohlman, Erik; Chambers, William.
The introduction of counter-cyclical payments (CCPs) and a base acreage updating option under the 2002 Farm Act have potential supply response implications. To gain insight into the economic incentives and efficiency implications of these provisions, this paper presents the design of a 3-stage experimental market used to gauge the actual response of economic agents under conditions simulating those faced by U.S. farmers. When completed, the results of the experiment will be used to assess the impact of the CCP system and of policy uncertainty regarding future base-updating options, relative to a market revenue-only baseline.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21937
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BETTER DEAD THAN GM-FED? INFORMATION AND THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GM-FOODS IN HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
This paper addressed the puzzling resistance of Presidents of southern African countries to food aid in 2002, given near certain starvation and long-term negative health effects of malnutrition of their constituents. First, I show that NGOs led by Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are disseminating information claiming that GM foods are dangerous to human health and are "Frankenfoods." Second, people in European Union countries, who are not in any danger of starvation, have strong preferences for non-GM foods, which they can easily afford. Over the long term, however, the tastes of EU consumers matter to southern African countries because some of these countries hope to export agricultural products in the future. GM-food aid, which most likely would...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18208
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Chapter 06: EXPERIMENTAL AUCTIONS TO MEASURE WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR FOOD SAFETY AgEcon
Fox, John A.; Shogren, Jason F.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Kliebenstein, James B..
This book was originally published by Westview Press, Boulder CO, 1995.
Tipo: Book Chapter Palavras-chave: Food safety; Experimental economics; Auctions; Willingness to pay; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25986
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Climate Change Policy AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F.; Toman, Michael.
Having risen from relative obscurity as few as ten years ago, climate change now looms large among environmental policy issues. Its scope is global; the potential environmental and economic impacts are ubiquitous; the potential restrictions on human choices touch the most basic goals of people in all nations; and the sheer scope of the potential response - a significant shift away from using fossil fuels as the primary energy source in the modern economy -is daunting. In this paper, we explore the economics of climate change policy. We examine the risks that climate change poses for society, the benefits of protection against the effects of climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. We organize our discussion around three broad...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Incentive-based policy; International environmental cooperation; Benefit-cost analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10767
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Coevolutionary Investments in Human Speech and Trade AgEcon
Bulte, Erwin H.; Horan, Richard D.; Shogren, Jason F..
We propose a novel explanation for the emergence of language in modern humans, and the lack thereof in other hominids. A coevolutionary process, where trade facilitates speech and speech facilitates trade, driven by expectations and potentially influenced by geography, gives rise to multiple stable development trajectories. While the trade-speech equilibrium is not an inevitable outcome for modern humans, we do find that it is a relatively likely result given that our species evolved in Africa under climatic conditions supporting relatively high population densities.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21318
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Competitive Exclusion, Diversification, and the Origins of Agriculture AgEcon
Horan, Richard D.; Shogren, Jason F.; Bulte, Erwin H..
The beginnings of agriculture, or the agricultural revolution, is now recognized to be the widespread adoption of known practices – a change in behavior – as opposed to a phenomenon of discovery and innovation. In this paper, we combine elements of three theories—climate change, property rights, and competitive exclusion—to create a paleoeconomic model of agriculture and its diffusion. We focus on climate change as a necessary trigger, which combined with group property rights and competitive exclusion processes produced conditions sufficient for the diffusion of early agriculture. In contrast to other models in which farming emerges as technological progress or climate makes it a more productive option than hunting, farming emerges in our model even if...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6410
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Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labels in a Market with Diverse Information: Evidence from Experimental Auctions AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
With the continuing controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods, some groups advocate mandatory labeling of these products, while other groups oppose labeling. An important issue is how GM labels affect consumers' willingness to pay for these food products in the market. Using a statistically based economics experiment with adult consumers as subjects, we examine how willingness to pay changes for three food products--vegetable oil, tortilla chips, and potatoes--when GM labels are introduced. Participants in the experiments discounted GM-labeled foods by approximately 14% relative to their standard-labeled counterparts. The evidence also showed that sequencing of food labels affects willingness to pay, and that randomizing treatments is an important...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer demand; Corn chips; Experimental economics; Food labels; Genetic modification; GM foods; Laboratory auctions; Potatoes; Vegetable oil; Willingness to pay; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31071
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Consumer Willingness to Pay for "Second-Generation" Genetically Engineered Products and the Role of Marketing Information AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Monchuk, Daniel C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Kosa, Katherine M..
Environmental and consumer groups have called for mandatory labeling of genetically engineered (GE) food products in the United States, stating that consumers have the “right to know.” Herein, we use a nonhypothetical field experiment to examine the willingness to pay for GE-labeled products, using the only second-generation GE product currently on the U.S. market-GE cigarettes. Our results suggest consumers pay less for GE-labeled cigarettes when marketing information is absent. But, when presented with marketing information on the attributes of the cigarette, we find no evidence that consumers pay less for GE-labeled cigarettes.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Auctions; BDM mechanism; Cigarettes; Field experiment; Genetically engineered foods; Second-generation; C91; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43501
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CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
This paper examines the market characteristics that push consumers in high income countries to resist GM foods, with an emphasis on negative information from environmental groups and third-party, verifiable information. For this study, unique data were collected from adult consumers in the United States who participated in laboratory auctions of three food types with randomly assigned labeling and information treatments. Using U.S. consumers is important because U.S. consumers are generally supportive of GM foods and free from the BSE "food scare" fears and bias towards "natural" that are hypothesized to lead Europeans to reject GM foods. Key findings are that negative GM-product information supplied by environmental groups pushes some consumers out of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25837
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DO ALL THE RESOURCE PROBLEMS IN THE WEST BEGIN IN THE EAST? AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F..
Economics can make good policy better and bad policy go away- a message often constrained by the political realities surrounding federal resource policy toward the West. This essay responds to these challenges to economic reasoning based on the lessons learned after a stay at the Council of Economic Advisers. My goal is to help make apolitical economists more effective advocates of efficiency.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31202
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Experimental Economics and the Environment: Eliciting Values for Controversial Goods AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F.; Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Hudson, Darren.
We illustrate the experimental method by examining bidding behavior for controversial goods, i.e., goods in which bidders have positive and negative values. Our results suggest that bidding behavior differs across auction type. Bidders with positive induced values bid sincerely in a WTP auction. Bidders bid conservatively, however, in the WTA auction, foregoing profitable opportunities. Informing bidders of their optimal strategy serves to attenuate bidding discrepancies but does not eliminate them. Treating the WTP and WTA auctions as equivalent given positive and negative values could lead one to overstate the costs relative to the benefits of the controversial good.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Experiments; Willingness to pay; Willingness to accept; Positive and negative induced values; Crop Production/Industries; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90824
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EXPERIMENTAL MARKETS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F..
Experimental markets can be a useful tool to guide and evaluate environmental policy. This paper reviews four experiments to illustrate. Two institutional experiments are considered-Coasian bargaining with positive transaction costs, and a gaming experiment of dynamic choice in a conflict. Two valuation experiments are also discussed-the impact of sequential reduction mechanisms on the value of risk, and experimental auction markets to elicit the value of safer food.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31538
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EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN CONSUMER PREFERENCE STUDIES AgEcon
Fox, John A.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Shogren, Jason F.; Kliebenstein, James B..
Controlled experimental auctions can be used to elicit preferences for food products. We describe results from two series of experiments in which subjects revealed their willingness-to-pay for safer food. In one series, the risk reduction technology was not specified; in the other, it was identified as food irradiation. The results provide some evidence on the acceptability of food irradiation as a risk reduction technology.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/27070
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