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Registros recuperados: 69
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A GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE REFORM IN WTO MEMBER COUNTRIES AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Somwaru, Agapi; Roe, Terry L..
The effect on production, trade and well-being from the granting of market access, removing export subsidies, and eliminating trade-distorting forms of direct support to farmers in WTO member countries is analyzed from a world-wide general equilibrium perspective using the most recently available data. The results suggest that removing trade barriers, subsidies and support will cause aggregate world prices of agricultural commodities to rise by over 11 percent relative to an index of all other prices. Agricultural support and protection in the developed countries is found to be the major cause of low agricultural prices, and implicitly, a tax on net agricultural exporters in developing countries. Livestock product prices are likely to increase the most...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12984
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A TRADE LIBERALIZATION IN INTERNATIONAL DAIRY MARKETS AgEcon
Langley, Suchada V.; Blayney, Donald P.; Stout, Jim; Somwaru, Agapi; Normile, Mary Anne; Miller, James J.; Stillman, Richard.
International dairy industries remain among the most distorted agricultural sectors. Dairy average bound tariffs remain among the highest of all agricultural commodities, and dairy trade is characterized by a large number of megatariffs and tariff-rate quotas (TRQs). The objective of our study is to examine how the international dairy markets might respond to policy changes under various assumptions, using a partial equilibrium, multiple-commodity, multiple-region model of agricultural policy and trade. Our results indicate that liberalization will reduce supplies, increase dairy trade, and raise world prices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dairy Markets; Trade Liberalization; Model; Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21997
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ADVERSE SELECTION IN THE MARKET FOR CROP INSURANCE AgEcon
Somwaru, Agapi; Makki, Shiva S.; Coble, Keith H..
This paper examines the potential for adverse selection when farmers are offered a portfolio of insurance policies. We analyze the risk characteristics farmers who bought alternative insurance instruments in 1996-97. Inability to differentiate farmers according to risk types results in pooling equilibrium which may implicitly subsidize high risk farmers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21002
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AGRICULTURAL POLICY REFORM IN THE WTO: THE ROAD AHEAD AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Elbehri, Aziz; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Gibson, Paul R.; Leetmaa, Susan E.; Mitchell, Lorraine; Nelson, Frederick J.; Nimon, R. Wesley; Normile, Mary Anne; Roe, Terry L.; Shapouri, Shahla; Skully, David W.; Smith, Mark; Somwaru, Agapi; Trueblood, Michael A.; Tsigas, Marinos E.; Wainio, John; Whitley, Daniel B.; Young, C. Edwin.
Agricultural trade barriers and producer subsidies inflict real costs, both on the countries that use these policies and on their trade partners. Trade barriers lower demand for trade partners' products, domestic subsidies can induce an oversupply of agricultural products which depresses world prices, and export subsidies create increased competition for producers in other countries. Eliminating global agricultural policy distortions would result in an annual world welfare gain of $56 billion. High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. In 2000, World Trade Organization (WTO) members continued global negotiations on agricultural policy reform. To help policymakers and others...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34015
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Allocation Effects of Policy Reform: A Micro-Simulation of Macro-Model Results for the United States AgEcon
Hopkins, Jeffrey W.; Hanson, Kenneth; Somwaru, Agapi; Burfisher, Mary E..
By changing marginal prices and therefore production incentives, removal of government payments will result in a re-allocation of factors of production as farm households pursue alternative economic opportunities. At the economy-wide level these impacts are small, but closer inspection reveals that some household-level impacts will be larger and other households will be affected little if at all. The underlying heterogeneity of the agricultural sector results in variable adjustment along two dimensions. First, survey data show that payments are not evenly distributed so their removal does not have a uniform impact across the sector. Second, even if payments were evenly distributed, factor endowments are not, so that ability to enter into alternative...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income; Labor; CGE; Micro-simulation; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15750
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An Anatomy of Moroccan Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Li, NaiChia; Roe, Terry L.; Diao, Xinshen; Somwaru, Agapi.
Morocco is engaged in a number of economic reforms to better position the country's integration into world markets. Her agricultural sector is particularly important as its trade, GDP, and employment share are relatively large. We analyze Morocco's agricultural trade growth trends over the past 40 years (1962 - 2004) using SITC 4-digit bilateral agricultural trade data. The data are analyzed using the trend and cycles decomposition (TCD) approach and measurement of trade growth at the intensive and extensive margin. We find a high concentration of agriculture trade in both commodities and trading partners. Morocco has also lost export shares in EU to other EU countries in her top exporting commodities. Another finding suggests that agricultural export...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9834
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Are Urban Consumers in China Ready to Accept Biotech Foods? AgEcon
Lin, William W.; Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C.; Huang, Jikun; Bai, Junfei.
Based on a large-scale survey conducted in 11 large and small eastern cities in 2002, this study employs ordered probit models to estimate the effects of demographic and socio-economic variables on the likelihood of biotech food acceptance in China. This study also employs a dichotomous choice model to estimate consumers' mean willingness to pay (WTP) for biotech foods, including soybean oil and insect-resistant biotech rice. This survey reaffirms that Chinese urban consumers had a low awareness of biotechnology. Despite the low level of awareness, a great majority of respondents had favorable or neutral attitudes toward biotech foods. Only 5-15 percent was strongly or relatively opposed to biotech foods. Results from the models suggest that mid- and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotech foods; Ordered probit model; Consumer acceptance; Willingness to pay; China; Consumer/Household Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q11; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25389
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Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on China's Grain Sector and International Trade AgEcon
Hansen, James M.; Tuan, Francis C.; Somwaru, Agapi.
This study analyzes the potential impact of climate change on China's corn, wheat, and rice, domestic agricultural markets, and the international markets out to the year 2050. The study provides a brief background and reviews research literature of climate change effects on China's crop yields. The paper presents the potential impact of climate change on China's yields and attempts to quantify the domestic and global market impacts. The analysis has four scenarios, which assumes two future levels of greenhouse gas emissions with the effects of CO2 fertilization and no CO2 fertilization. A 27-country commodity partial equilibrium simulation mathematical programming model (PEATSim) is used for this analysis. Results indicate under CO2 fertilization, which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; Trade; Climate change; GHG; CO2 fertilization; Rice; Wheat; Corn; Dynamic partial equilibrium simulation mathematical model.; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103768
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ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION IN COTTON INSURANCE MARKETS: EVIDENCE FROM TEXAS AgEcon
Makki, Shiva S.; Somwaru, Agapi.
In recent years, the crop insurance program has emerged as an important part of the U.S. farm policy. Farmers responded to the crop insurance program with increased participation nationwide. At issue is whether the rapid expansion of the program has worsened the asymmetric information problems in crop insurance markets. This paper investigates the presence of adverse selection in cotton insurance markets. Our results reject the conditional independence of the choice of insurance contracts and risk of loss, implying the presence of informational asymmetries between the insurer and insured in Texas cotton insurance markets. Results show that actual premium rates are significantly different from both pure and fair premium rates.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19827
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Asymmetric Information in the Market for Yield and Revenue Insurance Products AgEcon
Makki, Shiva S.; Somwaru, Agapi.
This report analyzes farmers' choice of crop insurance contracts and tests for the presence of asymmetric information in the market for multiple yield and revenue insurance products. Farmers' risk characteristics, their level of income, and the cost of insurance significantly affect their choices of yield and revenue insurance products as well as their selections of alternative coverage levels. Empirical analysis indicates that, in the presence of asymmetric information, high-risk farmers are more likely to select revenue insurance contracts and higher coverage levels. The results also indicate that premium rates do not accurately reflect the likelihood of losses, implying asymmetrical information in the crop insurance market.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Adverse selection; Crop insurance; Revenue insurance; Risk management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33587
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BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR FARM-LEVEL RISK MANAGEMENT AgEcon
Makki, Shiva S.; Somwaru, Agapi; Harwood, Joy L..
This study examines the risks associated with adoption of biotech crops and discusses their implications for risk management at the farm level. We develop an analytical risk evaluation matrix framework to illustrate changes in production and marketing risks of biotech and non-biotech crops. Price uncertainty generated by consumer concerns is the major risk facing biotech farmers, while cross-pollination with biotech crops and preservation of non-biotech status are major concerns for non-biotech farmers. Improved market infrastructure to handle biotech products and modification of the current risk management tools to accommodate new risks are essential in reducing the farm-level risks.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Marketing risks; Production risks; Risk evaluation matrix; Risk management; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14683
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BRAZIL’S CLIMATE ADAPTATION POLICIES: IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Valdes, Constanza; Arriola, Christine; Somwaru, Agapi; Gasques, Jose Garcia.
Current climate adaptation polices in Brazil are influencing not only the choice of crops but also many agricultural practices at the farm level including changes in planting and sowing periods, use of irrigation-saving technologies, and increased nitrogen fertilization, among others. The shape and content of these adaptation policies and measures for Brazil are not limited to production agriculture, but include also conservation reserve and risk-reducing farm programs. In addition, the decades-old adaptation and management strategies for agricultural production under tropical conditions carried out by EMBRAPA, Brazil’s premier agricultural research agency, continue to play a prominent role. As Brazil is one the world’s largest agricultural producers and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91420
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CHINA'S EMPLOYMENT AND RURAL LABOR MIGRATION AgEcon
Somwaru, Agapi; Diao, Xinshen; Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Tuan, Francis C..
This study examines the rural labor market in China based on the country's first national agricultural census. The analysis highlights distinct differences of employment by age, gender, educational level, size of the household, and size of land holdings. We use a generalized polytomous logits (GPL) framework to analyze the patterns of rural labor employment, capture the dynamic trends of the rural labor force, and gauge rural migration. The estimation results, based on more than 4 million records of rural persons, indicate that the land size followed by the education level and age are the main factors affecting the chances of rural labor force by employment categories.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20459
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CHINA'S HOG PRODUCTION STRUCTURE AND EFFICIENCY AgEcon
Somwaru, Agapi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Tuan, Francis C..
Over the last 20 years, China's demand for and supply of livestock products has increased dramatically. Although, China's livestock production has changed, with the share of pork production declining, pork production remains the core of the country's livestock industry. China's hog industry is adjusting to capture the benefits of specialization. This paper attempts to capture structural changes in China's hog production, its evolving trends, and economic efficiency. We estimate parametrically the overall efficiency and scale elasticity of 2500 surveyed hog farms in China. Our analysis indicates that the large commercialized farms are the most efficient but the middle size specialized farms with increasing returns to scale production technology are the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22003
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CHINA'S ROLE IN WORLD COTTON AND TEXTILE MARKETS AgEcon
MacDonald, Stephen; Pan, Suwen; Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C..
The growth of China's textile industry has been one of the dominant factors shaping world cotton and textile markets in recent years. Since China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, China's textile and apparel (T&A) exports have grown by more than 40 percent and China's cotton consumption has grown by 34 percent. By the end of 2003, China had nearly doubled its share of world T&A exports in less than a decade, to about 21 percent. T&A exports from China and other developing countries are constrained by quotas originally implemented by developed countries under the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA). Under the Uruguay Round's Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), these quotas have been gradually phased-out since...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20054
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Consumer Attitudes Toward Biotech Foods in China AgEcon
Lin, William W.; Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C.; Huang, Jikun; Bai, Junfei.
Based on a large-scale survey in 11 cities, this study employs probit and logit models to estimate the effects of various explanatory variables on the likelihood of biotech food acceptance in China. Analyses focus on biotech soybean oil, input- and output-trait biotech rice, and livestock products fed with biotech corn.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20359
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Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Biotech Foods in China AgEcon
Lin, William W.; Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C.; Huang, Jikun; Bai, Junfei.
Based on a large-scale consumer survey, this study employs a semi-double-bounded dichotomous choice model to estimate the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for biotech foods in China. The study also accounts for the effects of respondents' characteristics on the probability of purchasing biotech foods and WTP. Analyses focus on biotech soybean oil and insect-resistant biotech rice.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotech foods; Willingness to pay; China; Contingent valuation method; Semi-double-bounded dichotomous choice model; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19569
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Country of Origin Labeling: Evaluating the Impacts on U.S. and World Markets AgEcon
Jones, Keithly G.; Somwaru, Agapi; Whitaker, James B..
A provision of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 requires country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural commodities. To comply with the law, producers, processors, and retailers face additional production costs associated with labeling, separating, and tracking commodities. Using estimated costs provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), we simulate the impacts of mandatory COOL on U.S. and global agricultural markets using a global static general equilibrium model (STAGEM). The results show resource adjustments that lead to decreases in production, consumption, and trade flows. The results assume no demand premium for labeled commodities relative to unlabeled commodities.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Country of origin labeling; Agricultural trade; Global general equilibrium; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59253
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Cross-Commodity Analysis of China's Grain Sector: Sources of Growth and Supply Response AgEcon
Colby, Hunter; Diao, Xinshen; Somwaru, Agapi.
We investigate sources of output growth and supply response in rice, wheat, corn, and soybeans, the four most important crops in China's grain sector, during 1978-97. Using a growth accounting methodology, we found large total factor productivity (TFP) contributions to growth in grain production immediately following China's rural economic reform (1978-85). In 1995-97, the TFP contribution dropped to only 16 percent of growth in grain production, as greater use of inputs increasingly drove growth. In the supply response analysis, the results of the econometrically estimated restricted profit function confirm a joint and nonseparable multiproduct technology for China's grain sector. Complementarity prevails in the grain sector among different outputs and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: China agriculture; Growth accounting; Total factor productivity (TFP); Multi-product supply response; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33565
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Decomposing Trade Flows: the Case of China in Global Markets AgEcon
Tuan, Francis C.; Somwaru, Agapi; Hansen, James M..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61784
Registros recuperados: 69
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