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A Holistic Approach to Marine Eco-Systems Biology ArchiMer
Karsenti, Eric; Acinas, Silvia G.; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; De Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen; Sullivan, Matthew; Arendt, Detlev; Benzoni, Francesca; Claverie, Jean-michel; Follows, Mick; Gorsky, Gaby; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Kandels-lewis, Stefanie; Krzic, Uros; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Reynaud, Emmanuel Georges; Sardet, Christian; Sieracki, Michael E.; Speich, Sabrina; Velayoudon, Didier; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick.
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00051/16224/13748.pdf
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A hydrographic section from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at the Greenwich meridian ArchiMer
Gladyshev, S; Arhan, Michel; Sokov, A; Speich, Sabrina.
The properties and circulation of water masses leaving and entering the Atlantic Ocean south of Africa are examined using data from a hydrographic and Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler section from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). At the upper levels, the ACC fronts are well determined using either classical water mass definitions or gradient-based criteria. While the locations of the Subantarctic Front (SAF), Polar Front (PF), and Southern ACC Front (SACCF) seem controlled by the neighbouring ridges, that of the Subtropical Front (STF) is much influenced in this region (similar to 10 degrees E) by northwestward propagating Agulhas rings. No large amount of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) is observed,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Water masses; Fronts; Bottom circulation; Transport; Agulhas eddies; Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6097.pdf
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A Lagrangian analysis of the Indian-Atlantic interocean exchange in a regional model - art. no. L14611 ArchiMer
Doglioli, Andrea; Veneziani, M; Blanke, Bruno; Speich, Sabrina; Griffa, A.
We present a new numerical Lagrangian technique based on the coupling of transport computation with spin analysis of trajectories. This method was applied to results from a high-resolution numerical model of the oceanic region around South Africa. We estimated an Indian-Atlantic leakage of about 14 Sv. In the western Cape Basin, approximately 30% of this transport is due to trapping eddies with a ratio between cyclones and anticyclones transport of 1.3. These findings are briefly discussed with respect to recent observations of the highly nonlinear regime found in this area of the Cape Basin.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Anticyclones transport; Cyclones transport; The Indian Atlantic interocean exchange; South Africa; Numerical model.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-1847.pdf
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A regional numerical ocean model of the circulation in the Bay of Biscay ArchiMer
Friocourt, Yann; Levier, Bruno; Speich, Sabrina; Blanke, Bruno; Drijfhout, S.
The seasonal circulation along the northern Iberian Peninsula and in the Bay of Biscay is investigated by means of a regional ocean model. In particular, the modeled velocities and tracers are compared to available observations and used to hypothesize what the circulation may look like in areas where the density of observations is scarcer. Despite a few biases in the thermohaline properties of some water masses, the model is able to represent the various water masses present in the region in an acceptable way. In particular, the density and depth ranges of most water masses are in good agreement with observed ranges. Similarly, the circulation schemes compare generally well with observations, both in annual mean as for the seasonal features. The model...
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2007 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3024.pdf
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An altimetry-based gravest empirical mode south of Africa: 1. Development and validation ArchiMer
Swart, Sebastiaan; Speich, Sabrina; Ansorge, Isabelle J.; Lutjeharms, Johann.
Hydrographic transects of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) south of Africa are projected into baroclinic stream function space parameterized by pressure and dynamic height. This produces a two-dimensional gravest empirical mode (GEM) that captures more than 97% of the total density and temperature variance in the ACC domain. Weekly maps of absolute dynamic topography data, derived from satellite altimetry, are combined with the GEM to obtain a 16 year time series of temperature and salinity fields. The time series of thermohaline fields are compared with independent in situ observations. The residuals decrease sharply below the thermocline and through the entire water column the mean root-mean-square (RMS) error is 0.15 degrees C, 0.02, and 0.02 kg...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00008/11901/8613.pdf
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An altimetry-based gravest empirical mode south of Africa: 2. Dynamic nature of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current fronts ArchiMer
Swart, Sebastiaan; Speich, Sabrina.
Swart et al. (2010) applied altimetry data to the gravest empirical mode south of Africa to yield a 16 year time series of temperature and salinity sections. In this study we use these thermohaline sections to derive weekly estimates of heat content (HC) and salt content (SC) at the GoodHope meridional transect of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These estimates compare favorably to observed data. The resulting 16 year time series of HC and SC estimates are used to explain the subsurface thermohaline variability at each ACC front and frontal zone. The variability at the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is principally driven by the presence of Agulhas Rings, which occur in this region approximately 2.7 times per annum and are responsible for the longest and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Altimetry; ACC; Fronts.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00002/11307/7892.pdf
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Anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies of subtropical origin in the subantarctic zone south of Africa ArchiMer
Arhan, Michel; Speich, Sabrina; Messager, Christophe; Dencausse, Guillaume; Fine, Rana; Boye, Marie.
Two eddies, one anticyclonic and the other cyclonic, intersected in the Subantarctic Zone south of South Africa during a hydrographic transect, are described using a large set of measurements including full depth hydrography, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocities, biogeochemical tracers, air-sea fluxes and altimetric sea surface height. Both eddies have a subtropical origin. The anticyclone is an Agulhas ring with convected core water of similar to 12 degrees C, and swirl velocities of 1 m s(-1). It was 9.5 months old when sampled and had crossed the Agulhas Ridge. Though sampled in summer, it was releasing similar to 200 W m(-2) (sensible plus latent heat flux) to the atmosphere. It was observed adjacent to the Subantarctic Front, illustrating the...
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00051/16220/13745.pdf
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Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed Transport and Variability ArchiMer
Frajka-williams, Eleanor; Ansorge, Isabelle J.; Baehr, Johanna; Bryden, Harry L.; Chidichimo, Maria Paz; Cunningham, Stuart A.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Dong, Shenfu; Donohue, Kathleen A.; Elipot, Shane; Heimbach, Patrick; Holliday, N. Penny; Hummels, Rebecca; Jackson, Laura C.; Karstensen, Johannes; Lankhorst, Matthias; Le Bras, Isabela A.; Lozier, M. Susan; Mcdonagh, Elaine L.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Mercier, Herle; Moat, Bengamin I.; Perez, Renellys C; Piecuch, Christopher G.; Rhein, Monika; Srokosz, Meric A.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Bacon, Sheldon; Forget, Gael; Goni, Gustavo; Kieke, Dagmar; Koelling, Jannes; Lamont, Tarron; Mccarthy, Gerard D.; Mertens, Christian; Send, Uwe; Smeed, David A.; Speich, Sabrina; Van Den Berg, Marcel; Volkov, Denis; Wilson, Chris.
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) extends from the Southern Ocean to the northern North Atlantic, transporting heat northwards throughout the South and North Atlantic, and sinking carbon and nutrients into the deep ocean. Climate models indicate that changes to the AMOC both herald and drive climate shifts. Intensive trans-basin AMOC observational systems have been put in place to continuously monitor meridional volume transport variability, and in some cases, heat, freshwater and carbon transport. These observational programs have been used to diagnose the magnitude and origins of transport variability, and to investigate impacts of variability on essential climate variables such as sea surface temperature, ocean heat content and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Meridional overturning circulation; Thermohaline circulation; Observing systems; Ocean heat transport; Carbon storage; Moorings; Circulation variability.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00503/61507/65342.pdf
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Basin-Wide Oceanographic Array Bridges the South Atlantic ArchiMer
Ansorge, Isabelle J.; Baringer, Molly; Campos, Edmo J.d.; Dong, S.; Fine, R.a.; Garzoli, Silvia L.; Goni, Gustavo; Meinen, Christopher S.; Perez, R.c.; Piola, Alberto R.; Roberts, M.j.; Speich, Sabrina; Sprintall, J.; Terre Terrillon, Thierry; Van Den Berg, M.a..
The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a global system of surface, intermediate, and deep ocean currents. The MOC connects the surface layer of the ocean and the atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea and is the primary mechanism for transporting heat, freshwater, and carbon between ocean basins. Climate models show that past changes in the strength of the MOC were linked to historical climate variations. Further research suggests that the MOC will continue to modulate climate change scenarios on time scales ranging from decades to centuries [Latif et al., 2006].
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: South Atlantic; Meridional Overturning Circulation; CPIES.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00175/28609/27109.pdf
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Carbonate system in the water masses of the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during February and March 2008 ArchiMer
Gonzalez-davila, M.; Santana-casiano, J. M.; Fine, R. A.; Happell, J.; Delille, B.; Speich, Sabrina.
Carbonate system variables were measured in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) from February to March 2008. Eddies detached from the retroflection of the Agulhas Current increased the gradients observed along the fronts. Minima in the fugacity of CO2, fCO(2), and maxima in pH on either side of the frontal zone were observed, noting that within the frontal zone fCO(2) reached maximum values and pH was at a minimum. Vertical distributions of water masses were described by their carbonate system properties and their relationship to CFC concentrations. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) offered pH(T,25)...
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Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00039/15057/12376.pdf
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Community-Level Responses to Iron Availability in Open Ocean Planktonic Ecosystems ArchiMer
Caputi, Luigi; Carradec, Quentin; Eveillard, Damien; Kirilovsky, Amos; Pelletier, Eric; Karlusich, Juan J. Pierella; Vieira, Fabio Rocha Jimenez; Villar, Emilie; Chaffron, Samuel; Malviya, Shruti; Scalco, Eleonora; Acinas, Silvia G.; Alberti, Adriana; Aury, Jean-marc; Benoiston, Anne-sophie; Bertrand, Arnaud; Biard, Tristan; Bittner, Lucie; Boccara, Martine; Brum, Jennifer R.; Brunet, Cedric; Busseni, Greta; Carratala, Anna; Claustre, Herve; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Colin, Sbastien; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Da Silva, Corinne; Del Core, Marianna; Dore, Hugo; Gasparini, Stephane; Kokoszka, Florian; Jamet, Jean-louis; Lejeusne, Christophe; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lescot, Magali; Lima-mendez, Gipsi; Lombard, Fabien; Lukes, Julius; Maillet, Nicolas; Madoui, Mohammed-amin; Martinez, Elodie; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Neou, Mario B.; Paz-yepes, Javier; Poulain, Julie; Ramondenc, Simon; Romagnan, Jean-baptiste; Roux, Simon; Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Sanges, Remo; Speich, Sabrina; Sprovieri, Mario; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Taillandier, Vincent; Tanaka, Atsuko; Tirichine, Leila; Trottier, Camille; Uitz, Julia; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Vesela, Jana; Vincent, Flora; Yau, Sheree; Kandels-lewis, Stefanie; Searson, Sarah; Dimier, Cline; Picheral, Marc; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; De Vargas, Colomban; Follows, Michael J.; Grimsley, Nigel; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Karsenti, Eric; Sordino, Paolo; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Zingone, Adriana; Garczarek, Laurence; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Testor, Pierre; Not, Fabrice; D'Alcala, Maurizio Ribera; Wincker, Patrick; Bowler, Chris; Iudicone, Daniele; Gorsky, Gabriel; Jaillon, Olivier; Karp-boss, Lee; Krzic, Uros; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Raes, Jeroen; Reynaud, Emmanuel G.; Sardet, Christian; Sieracki, Mike; Velayoudon, Didier; Weissenbach, Jean.
Predicting responses of plankton to variations in essential nutrients is hampered by limited in situ measurements, a poor understanding of community composition, and the lack of reference gene catalogs for key taxa. Iron is a key driver of plankton dynamics and, therefore, of global biogeochemical cycles and climate. To assess the impact of iron availability on plankton communities we explored the comprehensive bio‐oceanographic and ‐omics datasets from Tara Oceans in the context of the iron products from two state‐of‐the‐art global scale biogeochemical models. We obtained novel information about adaptation and acclimation towards iron in a range of phytoplankton, including picocyanobacteria and diatoms, and identified whole sub‐communities co‐varying with...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00475/58680/61184.pdf
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Consistency of the current global ocean observing systems from an Argo perspective ArchiMer
Von Schuckmann, Karina; Sallee, Jean-baptiste; Chambers, D.; Le Traon, Pierre-yves; Cabanes, Cecile; Gaillard, Fabienne; Speich, Sabrina; Hamon, Mathieu.
Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the earth's energy and sea level budget. Estimating global ocean heat content (GOHC) and global steric sea level (GSSL) with temperature/salinity data from the Argo network reveals a positive change of 0.5 +/- 0.1 W m(-2) (applied to the surface area of the ocean) and 0.5 +/- 0.1 mm year(-1) during the years 2005 to 2012, averaged between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees N and the 10-1500m depth layer. In this study, we present an intercomparison of three global ocean observing systems: the Argo network, satellite gravimetry from GRACE and satellite altimetry. Their consistency is investigated from an Argo perspective at global...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00202/31365/29753.pdf
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Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean ArchiMer
De Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stephane; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Mahe, Frederic; Logares, Ramiro; Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cedric; Le Bescot, Noan; Probert, Ian; Carmichael, Margaux; Poulain, Julie; Romac, Sarah; Colin, Sebastien; Aury, Jean-marc; Bittner, Lucie; Chaffron, Samuel; Dunthorn, Micah; Engelen, Stefan; Flegontova, Olga; Guidi, Lionel; Horak, Ales; Jaillon, Olivier; Lima-mendez, Gipsi; Lukes, Julius; Malviya, Shruti; Morard, Raphael; Mulot, Matthieu; Scalco, Eleonora; Siano, Raffaele; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Celine; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G.; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Raes, Jeroen; Sieracki, Michael E.; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric.
Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, > 0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at similar to 150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups....
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00270/38135/37217.pdf
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Gene Expression Changes and Community Turnover Differentially Shape the Global Ocean Metatranscriptome ArchiMer
Salazar, Guillem; Paoli, Lucas; Alberti, Adriana; Huerta-cepas, Jaime; Cuenca, Miguelangel; Field, Christopher M.; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Cruaud, Corinne; Engelen, Stefan; Gregory, Ann C.; Labadie, Karine; Marec, Claudie; Pelletier, Eric; Royo-llonch, Marta; Roux, Simon; Sánchez, Pablo; Uehara, Hideya; Zayed, Ahmed A.; Zeller, Georg; Carmichael, Margaux; Dimier, Céline; Ferland, Joannie; Kandels, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Pisarev, Sergey; Poulain, Julie; Acinas, Silvia G.; Babin, Marcel; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; De Vargas, Colomban; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Karp-boss, Lee; Karsenti, Eric; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Wincker, Patrick; Sunagawa, Shinichi.
Ocean microbial communities strongly influence the biogeochemistry, food webs, and climate of our planet. Despite recent advances in understanding their taxonomic and genomic compositions, little is known about how their transcriptomes vary globally. Here, we present a dataset of 187 metatranscriptomes and 370 metagenomes from 126 globally distributed sampling stations and establish a resource of 47 million genes to study community-level transcriptomes across depth layers from pole-to-pole. We examine gene expression changes and community turnover as the underlying mechanisms shaping community transcriptomes along these axes of environmental variation and show how their individual contributions differ for multiple biogeochemically relevant processes....
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00591/70339/68396.pdf
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Global Trends in Marine Plankton Diversity across Kingdoms of Life ArchiMer
Ibarbalz, Federico M.; Henry, Nicolas; Costa Brandao, Manoela; Martini, Verine; Busseni, Greta; Byrne, Hannah; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Endo, Hisashi; Gasol, Josep M.; Gregory, Ann C.; Mahe, Frederic; Rigonato, Janaina; Royo-llonch, Marta; Salazar, Guillem; Sanz-saez, Isabel; Scalco, Eleonora; Soviadan, Dodji; Zayed, Ahmed A.; Zingone, Adriana; Labadie, Karine; Ferland, Joannie; Marec, Claudie; Kandels, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Dimier, Celine; Poulain, Julie; Pisarev, Sergey; Carmichael, Margaux; Pesant, Stephane; Acinas, Silvia G.; Babin, Marcel; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; Bowler, Chris; Cochrane, Guy; De Vargas, Colomban; Follows, Mick; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Guidi, Lionel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Kandels, Stefanie; Karp-boss, Lee; Karsenti, Eric; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Poulton, Nicole; Raes, Jeroen; Sardet, Christian; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Bopp, Laurent; Lombard, Fabien; Zinger, Lucie.
The ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus Glades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most planktonic groups toward the poles, mainly driven by decreasing ocean temperatures. Projections into the future suggest that severe warming of the surface ocean by the end of the 21st century could lead to tropicalization of the diversity of most planktonic...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00597/70911/69146.pdf
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Heat budget of the surface mixed layer south of Africa ArchiMer
Faure, Vincent; Arhan, Michel; Speich, Sabrina; Gladyshev, Sergey.
ARGO hydrographic profiles, two hydrographic transects and satellite measurements of air-sea exchange parameters were used to characterize the properties and seasonal heat budget variations of the Surface Mixed Layer (SML) south of Africa. The analysis distinguishes the Subtropical domain (STZ) and the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. While no Subantarctic Mode Water forms in that region, occurrences of deep SML (up to similar to 450 m) are observed in the SAZ in anticyclones detached from the Agulhas Current retroflection or Agulhas Return Current. These are present latitudinally throughout the SAZ, but preferentially at longitudes 10-20A degrees E where, according to previous...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ocean surface mixed layer; Heat budget; Southern Ocean; Agulhas Current retroflection.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00048/15953/15833.pdf
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Impacts of the ocean lateral diffusion on the El Nino/Southern Oscillation-like variability of a global coupled General Circulation Model ArchiMer
Raynaud, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Guilyardi, E; Madec, G.
A global coupled General Circulation Model is used to investigate effects of the lateral ocean mixing on the amplitude and spectral characteristics of the ENSO-like variability. Three 40-year coupled simulations are analysed. They only differ by the lateral ocean physics parametrized: a horizontal diffusion scheme; an isopycnal scheme; isopycnal scheme with an Eddy Induced Velocity (EIV) term.The Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis is used to extract linear modes of variability from each simulation and from observations. The strength of the variability, close to that observed in the horizontal and only-isopycnal simulations, is stronger in the two isopycnal configurations, and more especially when the EIV is added. The dominant periods of the...
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Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/10451/9563.pdf
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Indo-Atlantic Exchange, Mesoscale Dynamics, and Antarctic Intermediate Water ArchiMer
Capuano, Tonia Astrid; Speich, Sabrina; Carton, Xavier; Laxenaire, Remi.
This study evaluates the capability of eddy-permitting regional ocean models to reproduce the interocean exchange south of Africa. In this highly turbulent region, we show that the vertical structure of the horizontal flows need to be appropriately resolved to realistically advect thermocline water masses into the South Atlantic. Our results point out that a grid-spacing of 1/24 degrees on the horizontal and 50 m on the vertical homogeneously distributed are required to account for a correct transport of surface and subsurface water masses properties and their in-route transformation by mixing. Preliminary Lagrangian analyses highlight the primary role of the upper-ocean mesoscale eddies on water masses transport and fate, with a particular emphasis on...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eddy dynamics; Indo-Atlantic exchange; AAIW.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00600/71245/69616.pdf
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Interocean exchanges and the spreading of Antarctic Intermediate Water south of Africa ArchiMer
Rusciano, Emanuela; Speich, Sabrina; Ollitrault, Michel.
Argo hydrographic profiles collected from 2004 to 2011 in the southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are used in combination with hydrographic transects to describe the characteristics of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the region. Making use of the recently developed ANDRO velocity data set, we estimate the evolution of the dynamical properties of different AAIW varieties along their pathways within the isoneutral layer (27.1 < gamma(n) < 27.6). Three different regional varieties of intermediate water converge in the southeast Atlantic: Atlantic AAIW (A-AAIW, characterized by S <= 34.2), Indian AAIW (I-AAIW, S >= 34.3), and a previously unknown variety that we named Indo-Atlantic intermediate water (IA-AAIW, 34.2 < S <...
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Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00106/21719/19298.pdf
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Is there a continuous Subtropical Front south of Africa? ArchiMer
Dencausse, Guillaume; Arhan, Michel; Speich, Sabrina.
A 14.3 year series of weekly absolute sea surface height (SSH) and associated geostrophic velocities is used for a study of the subtropical-to-subantarctic frontal system in the region south of Africa. Detecting the fronts from surface velocity maxima confirms a two-stepped transition in both the southeastern Atlantic Ocean (the Northern and Southern Subtropical fronts (NSTF, SSTF)) and southwestern Indian Ocean (the Agulhas Front and SSTF), as proposed previously from hydrographic data. An additional front associated with westward flow north of the NSTF is indicative of a partial eastern closure of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre between 11°E and 17.5°E. The role of northwestward propagating Agulhas rings in connecting the two fronts explains the...
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Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00030/14096/11323.pdf
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