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Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea ArchiMer
Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia.
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N=680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N=891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00248/35917/34450.pdf
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The physical oceanography of the transport of floating marine debris ArchiMer
Van Sebille, Erik; Aliani, Stefano; Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai; Alsina, José M; Bagaev, Andrei; Bergmann, Melanie; Chapron, Bertrand; Chubarenko, Irina; Cózar, Andrés; Delandmeter, Philippe; Egger, Matthias; Fox-kemper, Baylor; Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Goddijn-murphy, Lonneke; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Hoffman, Matthew J; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Jongedijk, Cleo E; Kaandorp, Mikael L A; Khatmullina, Liliya; Koelmans, Albert A; Kukulka, Tobias; Laufkötter, Charlotte; Lebreton, Laurent; Lobelle, Delphine; Maes, Christophe; Martinez-vicente, Victor; Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Poulain-zarcos, Marie; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Ryan, Peter G; Shanks, Alan L; Shim, Won Joon; Suaria, Giuseppe; Thiel, Martin; Van Den Bremer, Ton S; Wichmann, David.
Marine plastic debris floating on the ocean surface is a major environmental problem. However, its distribution in the ocean is poorly mapped, and most of the plastic waste estimated to have entered the ocean from land is unaccounted for. Better understanding of how plastic debris is transported from coastal and marine sources is crucial to quantify and close the global inventory of marine plastics, which in turn represents critical information for mitigation or policy strategies. At the same time, plastic is a unique tracer that provides an opportunity to learn more about the physics and dynamics of our ocean across multiple scales, from the Ekman convergence in basin-scale gyres to individual waves in the surfzone. In this review, we comprehensively...
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Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00610/72213/71011.pdf
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Toward the Integrated Marine Debris Observing System ArchiMer
Maximenko, Nikolai; Corradi, Paolo; Law, Kara Lavender; Van Sebille, Erik; Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P.; Lampitt, Richard Stephen; Galgani, Francois; Martinez-vicente, Victor; Goddijn-murphy, Lonneke; Veiga, Joana Mira; Thompson, Richard C.; Maes, Christophe; Moller, Delwyn; Löscher, Carolin Regina; Addamo, Anna Maria; Lamson, Megan R.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Posth, Nicole R.; Lumpkin, Rick; Vinci, Matteo; Martins, Ana Maria; Pieper, Catharina Diogo; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Hanke, Georg; Edwards, Margo; Chubarenko, Irina P.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Aliani, Stefano; Arias, Manuel; Asner, Gregory P.; Brosich, Alberto; Carlton, James T.; Chao, Yi; Cook, Anna-marie; Cundy, Andrew B.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Guichoux, Yann; Haram, Linsey E.; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Holdsworth, Neil; Lebreton, Laurent; Leslie, Heather A.; Macadam-somer, Ilan; Mace, Thomas; Manuel, Mark; Marsh, Robert; Martinez, Elodie; Mayor, Daniel J.; Le Moigne, Morgan; Molina Jack, Maria Eugenia; Mowlem, Matt Charles; Obbard, Rachel W.; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Robberson, Bill; Rotaru, Amelia-elena; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Thiel, Martin; Turra, Alexander; Wilcox, Chris.
Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made debris in the ocean and on the shore, temporal trends in these amounts under exponentially increasing production, as well as degradation processes, vertical fluxes, and time scales are largely unknown. Present ocean circulation models are not able to accurately simulate drift of debris because of its complex hydrodynamics. In this paper we discuss the structure of the future integrated marine debris observing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Plastics; Marine debris; Sensor development; Observing network; Ecosystemstressors; Maritime safety.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00511/62272/66477.pdf
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