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Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments ArchiMer
Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton.
One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microplastic; Landfill; Plastic production; Marine debris; Persistent organic pollutants.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6952.pdf
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Measuring Marine Plastic Debris from Space: Initial Assessment of Observation Requirements ArchiMer
Martínez-vicente, Víctor; Clark, James R.; Corradi, Paolo; Aliani, Stefano; Arias, Manuel; Bochow, Mathias; Bonnery, Guillaume; Cole, Matthew; Cózar, Andrés; Donnelly, Rory; Echevarría, Fidel; Galgani, Francois; Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P.; Goddijn-murphy, Lonneke; Lebreton, Laurent; Leslie, Heather A.; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Maximenko, Nikolai; Martin-lauzer, François-régis; Moller, Delwyn; Murphy, Peter; Palombi, Lorenzo; Raimondi, Valentina; Reisser, Julia; Romero, Laia; Simis, Stefan G.h.; Sterckx, Sindy; Thompson, Richard C.; Topouzelis, Konstantinos N.; Van Sebille, Erik Van; Veiga, Joana Mira; Vethaak, A. Dick.
Sustained observations are required to determine the marine plastic debris mass balance and to support effective policy for planning remedial action. However, observations currently remain scarce at the global scale. A satellite remote sensing system could make a substantial contribution to tackling this problem. Here, we make initial steps towards the potential design of such a remote sensing system by: (1) identifying the properties of marine plastic debris amenable to remote sensing methods and (2) highlighting the oceanic processes relevant to scientific questions about marine plastic debris. Remote sensing approaches are reviewed and matched to the optical properties of marine plastic debris and the relevant spatio-temporal scales of observation to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Remote sensing; Marine plastic debris; Mission requirements; Hyperspectral sensors; Multispectral imagers; High spatial resolution; Sensors synergy; Submesoscale processes.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00589/70077/68050.pdf
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Microplastics in Seawater: Recommendations from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Implementation Process ArchiMer
Gago, Jesus; Galgani, Francois; Maes, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C..
Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in marine systems across the globe. The legacy of microplastics pollution in the marine environment today may remain for years to come due to the persistence of these materials. Microplastics are emerging contaminants of potential concern and as yet there are few recognized approaches for monitoring. In 2008, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) included microplastics as an aspect to be measured. Here we outline the approach as discussed by the European Union expert group on marine litter, the technical Subgroup on Marine litter (TSG-ML), with a focus on the implementation of monitoring microplastics in seawater in European seas. It is concluded that harmonization and coherence...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine debris; Plastics; Microplastics; Monitoring.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00358/46932/46836.pdf
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Toward the Integrated Marine Debris Observing System ArchiMer
Maximenko, Nikolai; Corradi, Paolo; Law, Kara Lavender; Van Sebille, Erik; Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P.; Lampitt, Richard Stephen; Galgani, Francois; Martinez-vicente, Victor; Goddijn-murphy, Lonneke; Veiga, Joana Mira; Thompson, Richard C.; Maes, Christophe; Moller, Delwyn; Löscher, Carolin Regina; Addamo, Anna Maria; Lamson, Megan R.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Posth, Nicole R.; Lumpkin, Rick; Vinci, Matteo; Martins, Ana Maria; Pieper, Catharina Diogo; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Hanke, Georg; Edwards, Margo; Chubarenko, Irina P.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Aliani, Stefano; Arias, Manuel; Asner, Gregory P.; Brosich, Alberto; Carlton, James T.; Chao, Yi; Cook, Anna-marie; Cundy, Andrew B.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Guichoux, Yann; Haram, Linsey E.; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Holdsworth, Neil; Lebreton, Laurent; Leslie, Heather A.; Macadam-somer, Ilan; Mace, Thomas; Manuel, Mark; Marsh, Robert; Martinez, Elodie; Mayor, Daniel J.; Le Moigne, Morgan; Molina Jack, Maria Eugenia; Mowlem, Matt Charles; Obbard, Rachel W.; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Robberson, Bill; Rotaru, Amelia-elena; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Thiel, Martin; Turra, Alexander; Wilcox, Chris.
Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made debris in the ocean and on the shore, temporal trends in these amounts under exponentially increasing production, as well as degradation processes, vertical fluxes, and time scales are largely unknown. Present ocean circulation models are not able to accurately simulate drift of debris because of its complex hydrodynamics. In this paper we discuss the structure of the future integrated marine debris observing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Plastics; Marine debris; Sensor development; Observing network; Ecosystemstressors; Maritime safety.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00511/62272/66477.pdf
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