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Registros recuperados: 24
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Accumulative Pollution, "Clean Technology," and Policy Design AgEcon
Withagen, Cees; Toman, Michael.
Environmental policymakers must address the adverse effects of a number of pollutants that accumulate in the environment. Goals for the regulation of these damages often involve holding long-term emissions below a level deemed to be "dangerous", or outright banning of offending products or processes along with subsidization of more "green" alternatives. This paper builds upon previous studies by Keeler, Spence, and Zeckhauser (1971) and Tahvonen and Withagen (1996) in addressing the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilatable pollutant through policies that restrict more damaging production processes and thereby induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Stock externalities; Nonconvexities; Sustainable development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; D62.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10748
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Assessing Sustainability: Some Conceptual and Empirical Challenges AgEcon
Toman, Michael; Lile, Ronald D.; King, Dennis M..
In this paper we address two related conceptual and practical challenges in assessing "sustainability." The first is the criteria to be used, in particular the relationship between sustainability and measures of economic well-being and the use of monetary versus nonmonetary indicators. The second is the problem of determining which physical scales to use for sustainability assessments when there are multiple and overlapping "communities" or stakeholder groups. While neither set of challenges admits a definitive solution, there has been progress on the first set of issues - in particular, through the development of multicriteria assessment strategies and stakeholder involvement processes. In contrast, the problem of how to assess sustainability in practice...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Integrated assessment; Environmental indicators; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; R19; D57.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10756
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Assessing the Constraints and Opportunities for Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly: Two Case Studies from the US Initiative for Joint Implementation AgEcon
Powell, Mark R.; Lile, Ronald D.; Toman, Michael.
This paper assesses the constraints and opportunities for private-sector participation in Activities Implemented Jointly under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. After some initial background, the discussion turns to the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) - its objectives, proposal review and evaluation criteria, and a classification of project proposals by project type and stage of development. Two USIJI projects are developed as case studies. One case is an energy end use project that has gained formal acceptance and financing. The other case is an energy production project proposal that has not secured acceptance or financing. In both cases, transaction costs were substantial, and project proponents regarded...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Public Economics; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10555
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Can Carbon Sinks Be Operational? RFF Workshop Proceedings AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A.; Toman, Michael.
An RFF Workshop brought together experts from around the world to assess the feasibility of using biological sinks to sequester carbon as part of a global atmospheric mitigation effort. The chapters of this proceeding are a result of that effort. Although the intent of the workshop was not to generate a consensus, a number of studies suggest that sinks could be a relatively inexpensive and effective carbon management tool. The chapters cover a variety of aspects and topics related to the monitoring and measurement of carbon in biological systems. They tend to support the view the carbon sequestration using biological systems is technically feasible with relatively good precision and at relatively low cost. Thus carbon sinks can be operational.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon; Sinks; Global warming; Sequestration; Forests; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q10; Q15; Q21; Q23; Q24.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10480
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Climate Change Policy AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F.; Toman, Michael.
Having risen from relative obscurity as few as ten years ago, climate change now looms large among environmental policy issues. Its scope is global; the potential environmental and economic impacts are ubiquitous; the potential restrictions on human choices touch the most basic goals of people in all nations; and the sheer scope of the potential response - a significant shift away from using fossil fuels as the primary energy source in the modern economy -is daunting. In this paper, we explore the economics of climate change policy. We examine the risks that climate change poses for society, the benefits of protection against the effects of climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. We organize our discussion around three broad...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Incentive-based policy; International environmental cooperation; Benefit-cost analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10767
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Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform: An Assessment of the Science and the Art AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Toman, Michael.
The continuing efforts in the 104th Congress to legislate requirements for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the revised Office of Management and Budget guidelines for the conduct of such assessments during a regulatory rulemaking process highlight the need for a comprehensive examination of the role that CBA can play in agency decision-making. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge regarding CBA and offers suggestions for improvement in its use, especially in the context of environmental regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Risk management; Regulatory reform; Demand and Price Analysis; D6; L5.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10851
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Early Emissions Reduction Programs: An Application to CO2 Policy AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Toman, Michael.
In the wake of the December 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which, if implemented, would oblige the United States and other industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 2008-2012, a number of proposals have been offered to increase the incentives for reducing emissions over the nearer term. The existence of an interim period between setting and implementing environmental goals is ubiquitous in environmental policymaking. The existence of this interim period gives rise to several potential rationales for early emissions reductions. In this paper we use a series of simple models and numerical illustrations to analyze some aspects of the performance of early emissions reduction programs in the case of GHGs. We show that there is a compelling economic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Early reduction credits; Carbon emissions; Welfare impacts; Permit banking; Cap-and-trade; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; H23; Q48.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10791
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Economic Analysis and the Formulation of U.S. Climate Policy AgEcon
Toman, Michael.
Economic analysts within government agencies as well as outside government has played a noticeable and increasing role in formulating U.S. climate policy. However, that role has remained limited; in particular, economic analysis has largely been ignored and occasionally even derided in the context of setting targets for GHG control. This paper explores this uneasy relationship between analysis and policy during several U.S. administrations. Some of these problems stem from the incompleteness of the economic analyses themselves, and economic analysts sometimes have not been the most effective advocates for their own findings. However, I think one of the biggest obstacles to more effective use of economic analysis in climate policymaking has been a basic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Kyoto Protocol; Council of Economic Advisers; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10528
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Energy and Economic Development: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge AgEcon
Toman, Michael; Jemelkova, Barbora.
Energy development is an integral part of enhanced economic development. The fact that expanded provision and use of energy services is strongly associated with economic development leaves open how important energy is as a causal factor in economic development, however; and energy development competes with other opportunities for scarce capital and opportunities for policy and institutional reform. In this paper we first give a brief conceptual discussion that seeks to identify the channels through which increased availability of energy services might be a key to stimulating economic development along different stages of the development process. We then examine some empirical work to see what evidence it might provide regarding possible channels of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy; Economic development; Productivity; Poverty alleviation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q41; Q43.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10685
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Fundamental Economics of Depletable Energy Supply AgEcon
Krautkraemer, Jeffrey A.; Toman, Michael.
In this paper, we first present and discuss the basic logic underlying all neoclassical economic theories of "optimal" energy supply: maximization of the present value of some stream of economic returns. We then discuss how the economic theory of optimal resource depletion has evolved since Hotelling's classic 1931 article. We also consider the power of the theory to support improved empirical understanding of actual behavior. Our discussion of empirical literature indicates that this work has so far provided only limited empirical understanding.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Depletable resources; Energy; Intertemporal optimization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q4.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10842
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Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism: Lessons from U.S. Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Powell, Mark R.; Toman, Michael.
The "Clean Development Mechanism" (CDM) contained in the December 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides, for the first time, the capacity for industrialized countries to claim credits for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions or offsets undertaken in cooperation with host developing countries. However, the Protocol provides no guidance on how these cooperative activities for GHG reduction and sustainable development would be undertaken in practice, including the particularly important issue of the relationship of the private sector vis-à-vis government institutions in designing, financing, and securing approval for jointly implemented GHG abatement projects. The pilot program for "Activities...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10868
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Optimal Investment in Clean Production Capacity AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Toman, Michael; Withagen, Cees.
For the mitigation of long-term pollution threats, one must consider that both the process of environmental degradation and the switchover to new and cleaner technologies are dynamic. We develop a model of a uniform good that can be produced by either a polluting technology or a clean one; the latter is more expensive and requires investment in capacity. We derive the socially optimal pollution stock accumulation and creation of nonpolluting production capacity, weighing the tradeoffs among consumption, investment and adjustment costs, and environmental damages. We consider the effects of changes in the pollution decay rate, the capacity depreciation rate, and the initial state of the environment on both the steady state and the transition period. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pollution accumulation; Clean technology; Capacity investment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q42.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10622
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Research Frontiers in the Economics of Climate Change AgEcon
Toman, Michael.
Academic and policy debates over climate change risks and policies have stimulated economic research in a variety of fields. In this article I briefly discuss eight overlapping areas of current research in which further effort particularly is warranted. These areas include decision criteria for policy; risk assessment and adaptation; uncertainty and learning; abatement cost and the innovation and diffusion of technology; and the credibility of policies and international agreements. Further analysis in these areas not only will advance academic understanding but also will provide insights of considerable importance to policymakers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Sustainable development; Integrated assessment; Environmental uncertainty; Environmental policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10507
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Scarcity and Growth in the New Millennium: Summary AgEcon
Simpson, R. David; Toman, Michael; Ayres, Robert U..
In their 1963 classic Scarcity and Growth Howard Barnett and Chandler Morse argued that resource scarcity did not threaten economic growth. A second investigation in the late 1970s, Scarcity and Growth Reconsidered, reached largely the same conclusion. The 25 years since that work was published have witnessed many developments. The message of Scarcity and Growth that depletion of market resources was not a problem has given way to a concern that "new scarcities" of environmental quality, global climate, and biological diversity are emerging. Resources for the Future recently assembled a distinguished group of international scholars to again address scarcity and growth. This paper describes their charge and summarizes their findings. Technological progress...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: History of economic thought; Technological change; Renewable resources and economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; B12; B20; N50; O13; O14; O33; O47; Q20; Q32.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10835
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Sustainable Decision-making: The State of the Art from an Economics Perspective AgEcon
Toman, Michael.
Government, corporate and other decision makers are more and more often being urged to 'act sustainably' and to pursue policy paths toward 'sustainable development.' However, application of these concepts is hampered by serious interdisciplinary disagreements about the interactions of humans with their environment. Moreover, reducing disagreements about sustainability cannot be achieved solely through an improvement in scientific knowledge. These observations lead me to express skepticism about the capacity of any more or less mechanistic rule, economic, scientific or otherwise, to provide definitive and reliable answers about sustainable policies or conduct. However, there are processes and procedures that can help guide decision-making. I underscore the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Cost-benefit analysis; Intergenerational equity; Multicriteria analysis; Social values; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; A12; A13; B41; D61; D63; H43; Q28.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10602
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The Benefits of Reduced Air Pollutants in the U.S. from Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Toman, Michael.
Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. This paper first describes how these "ancillary" benefits--benefits in addition to reduced risks of climate change--can result from greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation efforts. It then discusses methodologies for assessing ancillary benefits and provides a critical review of estimates associated with reductions of criteria air pollutants. We find that these benefits in the U.S. may be significant, indicating a higher level of "no regrets" greenhouse gas abatement than might be expected based on simple economic calculations of abatement cost. However, the magnitude of ancillary...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10496
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The Economics of Climate Policy AgEcon
Kolstad, Charles D.; Toman, Michael.
Economics has played an increasingly important role in shaping policy, in the United States and elsewhere. This paper reviews some of the dimensions of the economic approach to analyzing, understanding, and developing solutions to the problem of climate change. We then turn to the issue of designing regulatory instruments to control the problem. The paper concludes with a discussion of the political economy of greenhouse gas control in an international context.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Climate policy design; Integrated assessment; Environmental policy coordination; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q28; Q48; D61; D62; D63.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10783
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The Economics of Sustainability: A Review of Journal Articles AgEcon
Pezzey, John C.V.; Toman, Michael.
Concern about sustainability helped to launch a new agenda for development and environmental economics and challenged many of the fundamental goals and assumptions of the conventional, neoclassical economics of growth and development. We review 25 years' of refereed journal articles on the economics of sustainability, with emphasis on analyses that involve concern for intergenerational equity in the long-term decision-making of a society; recognition of the role of finite environmental resources in long-term decision-making; and recognizable, if perhaps unconventional, use of economic concepts, such as instantaneous utility, cost, or intertemporal welfare. Taken as a whole, the articles reviewed here indicate that several areas must be addressed in future...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic efficiency; Intergenerational equity; Social optimality; Sustainable development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; D60; D90.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10683
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The Economics of "When" Flexibility in the Design of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Policies AgEcon
Toman, Michael; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Anderson, John W..
This paper focuses on the economic desirability of the fixed and relatively short-term greenhouse gas targets and timetables in the Kyoto Protocol. The Protocol provides flexibility in which greenhouse gases to control, where control can be implemented, and what domestic policy measures are used. However, the Protocol does not allow much flexibility in when emission reductions take place in pursuit of longer-term environmental goals. Nor does it allow more flexible shorter-term environmental targets through price-based policy instruments that balance environmental goals and compliance costs. The relative inflexibility of the Protocol with respect to these elements may derive, in part, from a misplaced analogy between the global warming issue and the highly...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change policy; Kyoto Protocol; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10763
Registros recuperados: 24
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