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A community perspective on the concept of marine holobionts: state-of-the-art, challenges, and future directions ArchiMer
Dittami, Simon M; Arboleda, Enrique; Auguet, Jean-christophe; Bigalke, Arite; Briand, Enora; Cardenas, Paco; Cardini, Ulisse; Decelle, Johan; Engelen, Aschwin; Eveillard, Damien; Gachon, Claire Mm; Griffiths, Sarah; Harder, Tilmann; Kayal, Ehsan; Kazamia, Elena; Lallier, François H; Media, Monica; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Morganti, Teresa; Nunez Pons, Laura; Prado, Soizik; Pintado, José; Saha, Mahasweta; Selosse, Marc-andré; Skillings, Derek; Stock, Willem; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Toulza, Eve; Vorobev, Alexey; Leblanc, Catherine; Not, Fabrice.
Host-microbe interactions play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, but we still have very little understanding of the mechanisms that govern these relationships, the evolutionary processes that shape them, and their ecological consequences. The holobiont concept is a renewed paradigm in biology that can help describe and understand these complex systems. It posits that a host and its associated microbiota, living together in a long-lasting relationship, form the holobiont, and have to be studied together, as a coherent biological and functional unit, in order to understand the biology, ecology and evolution of the organisms. Here we discuss critical concepts and opportunities in marine holobiont research and identify key challenges in the field. We...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00480/59209/61904.pdf
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A Genome Wide Comparison to Identify Markers to Differentiate the Sex of Larval Stages of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma bovis and their Respective Hybrids ArchiMer
Kincaid-smith, Julien; Boissier, Jerome; Allienne, Jean-francois; Oleaga, Ana; Djuikwo-teukeng, Felicite; Toulza, Eve.
For scientists working on gonochoric organisms, determining sex can be crucial for many biological questions and experimental studies, such as crossbreeding, but it can also be a challenging task, particularly when no sexual dimorphism is visible or cannot be directly observed. In metazoan parasites of the genus Schistosoma responsible for schistosomiasis, sex is genetically determined in the zygote with a female heterogametic ZW/ZZ system. Adult flukes have a pronounced sexual dimorphism, whereas the sexes of the larval stages are morphologically indistinguishable but can be distinguished uniquely by using molecular methods. Therefore, reliable methods are needed to identify the sex of larvae individuals. Here, we present an endpoint PCR-based assay using...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00372/48333/71858.pdf
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A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control? ArchiMer
Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean Francois; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Theron, Andre; Gourbal, Benjamin.
Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail...
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Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00615/72716/71712.pdf
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Changements globaux et infections parasitaires à mollusques vecteurs. Un schistosome hybride atteint l’Europe ArchiMer
Boissier, Jerome; Kincaid-smith, Julien; Berry, Antoine; Allienne, Jean-francois; Fillaux, Judith; Toulza, Eve.
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Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00311/42264/71853.pdf
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Diversity of quorum sensing autoinducer synthases in the Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic database ArchiMer
Doberva, Margot; Sanchez-ferandin, Sophie; Toulza, Eve; Lebaron, Philippe; Lami, Raphael.
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell signalling pathway that allows bacteria to synchronize their genetic expression. It is mediated by autoinducers (AI), including (1) acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs or AI-1), produced by Proteobacteria using AinS, LuxI and HdtS synthase families and (2) furanosyl-diester-borate (FDB or AI-2), produced by a large range of phylogenetically diverse bacteria and synthetized by the LuxS family. Few data have been collected about the presence and importance of QS in marine waters using culture independent methods. In this study, we examined the presence and the diversity of AI-1 and AI-2 synthases in the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS), a large metagenomic database, covering 68 stations across 3 oceans. We built 4 reference...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Quorum sensing; Acyl-homoserine lactone synthases; Global Ocean Sampling; Environmental metagenomes.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00615/72718/71710.pdf
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Immune-suppression by OsHV-1 viral infection causes fatal bacteraemia in Pacific oysters ArchiMer
De Lorgeril, Julien; Lucasson, Aude; Petton, Bruno; Toulza, Eve; Montagnani, Caroline; Clerissi, Camille; Vidal-dupiol, Jeremie; Chaparro, Cristian; Galinier, Richard; Escoubas, Jean Michel; Haffner, Philippe; Degremont, Lionel; Charriere, Guillaume; Lafont, Maxime; Delort, Abigail; Vergnes, Agnes; Chiarello, Marlene; Faury, Nicole; Rubio, Tristan; Leroy, Marc; Perignon, Adeline; Regler, Denis; Morga, Benjamin; Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Boudry, Pierre; Le Roux, Frederique; Destoumieux-garzon, Delphine; Gueguen, Yannick; Mitta, Guillaume.
Infectious diseases are mostly explored using reductionist approaches despite repeated evidence showing them to be strongly in fluenced by numerous interacting host and environmental factors. Many diseases with a complex aetiology therefore remain misunderstood. By developing a holistic approach to tackle the complexity of interactions, we decipher the complex intra-host interactions underlying Pacific oyster mortality syndrome affecting juveniles of Crassostrea gigas, the main oyster species exploited worldwide. Using experimental infections reproducing the natural route of infection and combining thorough molecular analyses of oyster families with contrasted susceptibilities, we demonstrate that the disease is caused by multiple infection with an initial...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00461/57234/59228.pdf
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Metagenomes of the Picoalga Bathycoccus from the Chile Coastal Upwelling ArchiMer
Vaulot, Daniel; Lepere, Cecile; Toulza, Eve; De La Iglesia, Rodrigo; Poulain, Julie; Gaboyer, Frederic; Moreau, Herve; Vandepoele, Klaas; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Gavory, Frederick; Piganeau, Gwenael.
Among small photosynthetic eukaryotes that play a key role in oceanic food webs, picoplanktonic Mamiellophyceae such as Bathycoccus, Micromonas, and Ostreococcus are particularly important in coastal regions. By using a combination of cell sorting by flow cytometry, whole genome amplification (WGA), and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained metagenomic data for two natural picophytoplankton populations from the coastal upwelling waters off central Chile. About 60% of the reads of each sample could be mapped to the genome of Bathycoccus strain from the Mediterranean Sea (RCC1105), representing a total of 9 Mbp (sample T142) and 13 Mbp (sample T149) of non-redundant Bathycoccus genome sequences. WGA did not amplify all regions uniformly, resulting in unequal...
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Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00129/23987/21945.pdf
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Microbial iron metabolism as revealed by gene expression profiles in contrasted Southern Ocean regimes ArchiMer
Debeljak, Pavla; Toulza, Eve; Beier, Sara; Blain, Stephane; Obernosterer, Ingrid.
Iron (Fe) is a limiting nutrient in large regions of the ocean, but the strategies of prokaryotes to cope with this micronutrient are poorly known. Using a gene‐specific approach from metatranscriptomics data, we investigated 7 Fe‐related metabolic pathways in microbial communities from High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll and naturally Fe‐fertilized waters in the Southern Ocean. We observed major differences in the contribution of prokaryotic groups at different taxonomic levels to transcripts encoding Fe uptake‐mechanisms, intracellular Fe storage and replacement, and Fe‐related pathways in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The composition of the prokaryotic communities contributing to the transcripts of a given Fe‐related pathway was overall independent of...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00488/59921/63113.eps
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Microbiota Composition and Evenness Predict Survival Rate of Oysters Confronted to Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome ArchiMer
Clerissi, Camille; De Lorgeril, Julien; Petton, Bruno; Lucasson, Aude; Escoubas, Jean Michel; Gueguen, Yannick; Dégremont, Lionel; Mitta, Guillaume; Toulza, Eve.
Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome (POMS) affects Crassostrea gigas oysters worldwide and causes important economic losses. Disease dynamic was recently deciphered and revealed a multiple and progressive infection caused by the Ostreid herpesvirus OsHV-1 μVar, triggering an immunosuppression followed by microbiota destabilization and bacteraemia by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. However, it remains unknown if microbiota might participate to protect oysters against POMS, and if microbiota characteristics might be predictive of oyster mortalities. To tackle this issue, we transferred full-sib progenies of resistant and susceptible oyster families from hatchery to the field during a period in favor of POMS. After 5 days of transplantation, oysters from...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Holobiont; Microbiome; Metabarcoding; Fitness; Bacteria.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00621/73332/72500.pdf
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Protists Within Corals: The Hidden Diversity ArchiMer
Clerissi, Camille; Brunet, Sebastien; Vidal-dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Lepage, Pierre; Guillou, Laure; Escoubas, Jean Michel; Toulza, Eve.
Previous observations suggested that microbial communities contribute to coral health and the ecological resilience of coral reefs. However, most studies of coral microbiology focused on prokaryotes and the endosymbiotic algae Symbiodinium. In contrast, knowledge concerning diversity of other protists is still lacking, possibly due to methodological constraints. As most eukaryotic DNA in coral samples was derived from hosts, protist diversity was missed in metagenome analyses. To tackle this issue, we designed blocking primers for Scleractinia sequences amplified with two primer sets that targeted variable loops of the 18S rRNA gene (18SV1V2 and 18SV4). These blocking primers were used on environmental colonies of Pocillopora damicornis sensu lato from two...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Holobiont; Protists; Symbiosis; Metabarcoding; Blocking primer; Scleractinia; Pocillopora damicornis.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00457/56823/58661.pdf
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Schistosomiasis Vector Snails and Their Microbiota Display a Phylosymbiosis Pattern ArchiMer
Huot, Camille; Clerissi, Camille; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Duval, David; Toulza, Eve.
Planorbidae snails are the intermediate host for the trematode parasite of the Schistosoma genus, which is responsible for schistosomiasis, a disease that affects both humans and cattle. The microbiota for Schistosoma has already been described as having an effect on host/parasite interactions, specifically through immunological interactions. Here, we sought to characterize the microbiota composition of seven Planorbidae species and strains. Individual snail microbiota was determined using 16S ribosomal DNA amplicon sequencing. The bacterial composition was highly specific to the host strain with limited interindividual variation. In addition, it displayed complete congruence with host phylogeny, revealing a phylosymbiosis pattern. These results were...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microbiota; Phylosymbiosis; Metabarcoding; Planorbid snails; Tripartite interactions; Schistosomiasis.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00606/71807/70295.pdf
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Sex-Biased Transcriptome of Schistosoma mansoni: Host-Parasite Interaction, Genetic Determinants and Epigenetic Regulators Are Associated with Sexual Differentiation ArchiMer
Picard, Marion A. L.; Boissier, Jerome; Roquis, David; Grunau, Christoph; Allienne, Jean-francois; Duval, David; Toulza, Eve; Arancibia, Nathalie; Caffrey, Conor R.; Long, Thavy; Nidelet, Sabine; Rohmer, Marine; Cosseau, Celine.
Background Among more than 20,000 species of hermaphroditic trematodes, Schistosomatidae are unusual since they have evolved gonochorism. In schistosomes, sex is determined by a female heterogametic system, but phenotypic sexual dimorphism appears only after infection of the vertebrate definitive host. The completion of gonad maturation occurs even later, after pairing. To date, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the sexual differentiation in these species remain unknown, and in vivo studies on the developing schistosomulum stages are lacking. To study the molecular basis of sex determination and sexual differentiation in schistosomes, we investigated the whole transcriptome of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni in a stage-and sex-comparative...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00358/46876/71864.pdf
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Species-specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity toward immune cells determine the successful outcome of Vibrio infections ArchiMer
Rubio, Tristan; Oyanedel, Daniel; Labreuche, Yannick; Toulza, Eve; Luo, Xing; Bruto, Maxime; Chaparro, Cristian; Torres, Marta; De Lorgeril, Julien; Haffner, Philippe; Vidal-dupiol, Jeremie; Lagorce, Arnaud; Petton, Bruno; Mitta, Guillaume; Jacq, Annick; Le Roux, Frederique; Charriere, Guillaume; Destoumieux-garzon, Delphine.
Vibrio species cause infectious diseases in humans and animals, but they can also live as commensals within their host tissues. How Vibrio subverts the host defenses to mount a successful infection remains poorly understood, and this knowledge is critical for predicting and managing disease. Here, we have investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning infection and colonization of 2 virulent Vibrio species in an ecologically relevant host model, oyster, to study interactions with marine Vibrio species. All Vibrio strains were recognized by the immune system, but only nonvirulent strains were controlled. We showed that virulent strains were cytotoxic to hemocytes, oyster immune cells. By analyzing host and bacterial transcriptional...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: T6SS; Toxin; Dual RNA-seq; Cytolysis; Pathogenesis.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00507/61837/65900.pdf
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Thermal regime and host clade, rather than geography, drive Symbiodinium and bacterial assemblages in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis sensu lato ArchiMer
Brener-raffalli, Kelly; Clerissi, Camille; Vidal-dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Bonhomme, Francois; Pratlong, Marine; Aurelle, Didier; Mitta, Guillaume; Toulza, Eve.
Background: Although the term holobiont has been popularized in corals with the advent of the hologenome theory of evolution, the underlying concepts are still a matter of debate. Indeed, the relative contribution of host and environment and especially thermal regime in shaping the microbial communities should be examined carefully to evaluate the potential role of symbionts for holobiont adaptation in the context of global changes. We used the sessile, long-lived, symbiotic and environmentally sensitive reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis to address these issues. Results: We sampled Pocillopora damicornis colonies corresponding to two different mitochondrial lineages in different geographic areas displaying different thermal regimes: Djibouti,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Coral holobiont; Microbiota; Bacterial communities; Symbiodinium assemblages; Thermal adaptation; Scleractinian corals; Coral reefs; Pocillopora damicornis.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00429/54076/55380.pdf
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