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A Guide to Nutrient Budgeting on Organic Farms Organic Eprints
Watson, Christine; Topp, Cairistiona F E; Stockdale, Elizabeth.
The leaflet gives practical guidance on using data and calculating farm-gate nutrient budgets with sections on soil analysis, nutrient inputs, nutrient losses and flows, nitrogen fixation through leys and how inputs and outputs from organic manures and livestock feed can be recorded. It contains one example table of a farm-gate annual nutrient budget for a mixed cattle and arable farm. The tool is specific to organic farming. It was drafted for the UK but has relevance in other countries.
Tipo: Practice tool Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/31654/1/a-guide-to-nutrient-budgeting-on-farms.pdf
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Development of software to plan conversion to organic production (OrgPlan) Organic Eprints
Padel, Susanne; Tzilivakis, John; Measures, Mark; Stockdale, Elizabeth; Watson, Christine.
This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. OrgPlan is a computer programme aimed at farmers and advisors assisting with the planning of an organic conversion. The programme is divided into technical modules, supported by a standard enterprise database, a report builder and an advisory section. Through the farm profile builder, rotation, cropping and livestock planner, conversion scenarios over several years can be developed and are evaluated for technical and financial feasibility by calculating farm gate budgets for key resources (forage energy and key nutrients) and financial reports (cash flow budget and profit and loss account). The poster illustrates the basic functioning of the software as well as the underlying rationale...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Education; Extension and communication Farm economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8388/1/padel_orgplan_conversion_software.pdf
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Laboratory mineral soil analysis and soil mineral management in organic farming Organic Eprints
Watson, Christine; Stockdale, Elizabeth; Philipps, Lois.
The objective of this research review is to draw together all the available relevant research findings in order to develop the knowledge and expertise of organic advisers and thereby to improve soil management practice on organic farms. The Review will concentrate on N, P and K and: 1. Identify all the relevant research undertaken 2. Collate the results of research and summarise the findings of each project 3. Draw on practical experience 4. Analyse the research and summarise the conclusions in a form that is easily accessible by advisers and can be used to help them select appropriate soil analytical techniques and to interpret the results and provide practical advice to farmers on soil management and amendments.
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: Soil quality.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/5981/1/Res_review_15_soils.doc
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Legume based plant mixtures for delivery of multiple ecosystem services: An overview of benefits Organic Eprints
Döring, Thomas F.; Baddeley, J. A.; Brown, RJ; Collins, R; Crowley, Oliver; Cuttle, Steve; McCalman, Heather; Pearce, Bruce; Roderick, Stephen; Stobart, Ron; Storkey, Jonathan; Watson, Christine; Wolfe, Martin; Jones, H E.
As costs for mineral fertilizers rise, legume-based leys are recognised as a potential alternative nitrogen source for crops. Here we demonstrate that including species-rich legume-based leys in the rotation helps to maximize synergies between agricultural productivity and other ecosystem services. By using functionally diverse plant species mixtures these services can be optimised and fine-tuned to regional and farm-specific needs. Field experiments run over three years at multiple locations showed that the stability of ley performance was greater in multi-species mixtures than in legume monocultures. In addition, mixing different legume species in the ley helps to suppress both early and late weeds. Further, combining complementary phenologies of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Pasture and forage crops; Nutrient turnover; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20718/1/Doring_et_al_2012_Legume_mixtures_for_ecosystem_service_delivery_%2D_overview.pdf
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Long-term management of nutrients in organic farming - priciples and practice Organic Eprints
Watson, Christine; Stockdale, Elizabeth.
Organic farming faces a number of challenges as it moves forward. It has become a part of the global agricultural industry and therefore organic products are traded not just between farms and regions but between countries and continents. Inevitably, large amounts of nutrients are exported from farms as part of this process. These farms can only continue to produce acceptable quantities of quality food if these nutrients are replaced. Soil has a finite capacity to supply crop nutrients unless they are replenished. The solution is perhaps easiest for nitrogen where biological fixation by legumes can be harnessed to provide the engine for crop production. For other major and micronutrients more consideration needs to be given to acceptable sources for...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23590/1/23590.pdf
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Nitrogen fixation and soil nitrogen in organic ley arable rotations Organic Eprints
Sanders, Ian; Watson, Christine; Rees, Robert; Atkinson, David.
This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Nitrogen (N) fixation in a white clover/ryegrass mixture was measured in 1,2,3 and 4-year-old organically managed leys during 2000. N fixation varied between 73.7 in 1-year-old leys and 33.5 kg ha-1 in 4-year-old leys. Soil nitrate-N, grass N yield and N content of grass and clover were all lowest in 2-year-old leys and highest in 3-year-old leys. The proportion of clover nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (pNdfa) was significantly lower in 3-year-old leys.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8366/1/sanders_Nitrogen_fixation_ley_rotations.pdf
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Nutrient budgeting for trace elements: Examples from Scottish organic farms Organic Eprints
Owens, Katie; Watson, Christine.
This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Farmgate nutrient budgets have been calculated for Cu, Co and Mo for six farms in NE Scotland. All five livestock farms studied had a positive balance for Co, one showed a negative balance for Cu and two showed negative balances for Mo. The stockless farm studied showed a positive balance for Cu but negative balances for Co and Mo. These balances were calculated for a one-year period only and may thus have been strongly influenced by one-off purchases e.g. calcified seaweed. Future work will calculate budgets over whole rotations to provide a clearer picture of the long-term sustainability of trace element use on organic farms.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8385/1/owens_watson_Nutrient_budgeting_trace.pdf
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Nutrient budgets for organic farming Organic Eprints
Topp, Kairsty; Watson, Christine.
This review identifies the research done on nutrient budgeting and presents the latest input and output data for use in nutrient budgeting on farm to support rotation and soil management decision making. Based on the research and practice of Nutrient Budgeting (NB) the review provides a draft guide for farmers, advisors and others on the theory and use of NB, including a guide to nutrient budgeting on organic farms. The review identifies all the relevant organic and where appropriate, the non organic research undertaken on nutrient budgeting and related subjects. The review identifies sources of nutrient input/output data for nutrient budgeting, based on available information makes recommendations on updating exisiting data for populating a NB tool,...
Tipo: Other Palavras-chave: Pasture and forage crops; Quality and evaluation of inputs.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/5581/1/Res_review_19_topp.doc
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Nutrient cycling on organic farms Organic Eprints
Goulding, Keith; Stockdale, Elizabeth; Fortune, Sharon; Watson, Christine.
This paper examines the sustainability of nutrient cycling on organic farms. After a brief consideration of the principles of nutrient cycling in organic agriculture, data on soil P and K indices and farm nutrient budgets is used to assess the integrity of nutrient cycling, including some consideration of losses to the environment. An attempt is made to assess the wider sustainability of organic farming in the context of the limited amount of recycling possible.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil quality.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://orgprints.org/8053/2/Goulding_Orgprints_8053.pdf
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Organic Knowledge Network Arable - D.3.1 State-of-the-art research results and best practices Organic Eprints
Niggli, Urs; Schmidt, Jennifer; Watson, Christine; Kriipsalu, Mait; Shanskiy, Merrit; Barberi, Paolo; Kowalska, Jolanta; Schmitt, Annegret; Daniel, Claudia; Wenthe, Ulla; Conder, Malgorzarta; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Schild, Marion; Dierauer, Hansueli; Krauss, Maike; Moeskops, Bram; Padel, Susanne; Micheloni, Cristina; Constanzo, Ambrogio; Thonar, Cécile; Wilbois, Klaus-Peter.
In this deliverable of the Project OK-Net Arable project, the findings from peer-review research on the productivity of organic arable crops are reported. Then the conclusions and recommendations for five most important levers which can be used by the farmers are presented. Finally, the most important recommendations of the EIP-AGRI Focus Group on Organic Farming - Optimizing Arable Yields are summarized in order to put innovation on organic farms in its social context.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30506/1/OK_Net_WP3_D31_final.pdf
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Research to support development of organic food and farming Organic Eprints
Watson, Christine; Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen.
Agriculture and organic agriculture in particular are developing rapidly, due not only to technological change but also to changes in agricultural policy and public expectation. Research allows new knowledge to be developed and is thus vital for the future of organic agriculture. We can ask the question, what is the purpose of research on organic farming? Is it to increase yield and productivity, to compare it with other forms of agriculture, or to quantify its environmental and social impact, minimise the adverse effects and maximise the benefits etc? The answer is of course that research has a role to play in all of these and many other aspects of developing the organic food chain. The precise purpose of the research is usually defined by the funder, and...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Research methodology and philosophy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/6280/1/Watson.pdf
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Review of key causes and sources for N2O emmisions and NO3-leaching from organic arable crop rotations Organic Eprints
Hansen, Sissel; Frøseth, Randi Berland; Stenberg, Maria; Stalenga, Jarosław; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Krauss, Maike; Radzikowski, Pawel; Doltra, Jordi; Nadeem, Shahid; Torp, Torfinn; Pappa, Valentini; Watson, Christine.
Abstract. The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and leaching of nitrate (NO3) have considerable negative impacts on climate and the environment. Although these environmental burdens are on average less per unit area in organic than in non-organic production, they are not smaller per unit of product. If organic farming is to maintain its goal of being an environmentally friendly production system, these emissions should be mitigated. We discuss the impact of possible triggers within organic arable farming practice for the risk of N2O emissions and NO3 leaching under European climatic conditions, and possible strategies to reduce these. Organic arable crop rotations can be characterised as diverse with frequent use of legumes, intercropping and organic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Crop husbandry; Air and water emissions; Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34138/2/FertilCrop%20WP5.2%20%20N2O%20_%20NO3%20version%2029%20submitted%20with%20captions.pdf
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Reviews and syntheses: Review of causes and sources of N2O emissions and NO3 leaching from organic arable crop rotations Organic Eprints
Hansen, Sissel; Frøseth, Randi Berland; Stenberg, Maria; Stalenga, Jarosław; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Krauss, Maike; Radzikowski, Pawel; Doltra, Jordi; Nadeem, Shahid; Torp, Torfinn; Pappa, Valentini; Watson, Christine.
The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and leaching of nitrate (NO3) from agricultural cropping systems have considerable negative impacts on climate and the environment. Although these environmental burdens are less per unit area in organic than in non-organic production on average, they are roughly similar per unit of product. If organic farming is to maintain its goal of being environmentally friendly, these loadings must be addressed. We discuss the impact of possible drivers of N2O emissions and NO3 leaching within organic arable farming practice under European climatic conditions, and potential strategies to reduce these. Organic arable crop rotations are generally diverse with the frequent use of legumes, intercropping and organic fertilisers. The...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36302/1/bg-16-2795-2019.pdf
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The devil is the detail: finding meaning indicators of nutrient management on organic and low-input farms Organic Eprints
Padel, Susanne; Gerrard, Catherine L; Leach, Katharine; Smith, Laurence G; Topp, C F E; Watson, Christine.
In low-input and organic systems, nutrient management is key to ensuring the short-term productivity and the longer-term sustainability of the farming system. Farm-gate nutrient budgets/balances calculate the inputs of nutrients to, and outputs from a system. Hence, they can be used to assess the nutrient use efficiency. Nutrient balances of 69 organic and low-input dairy farms in seven European countries were carried out using a sustainability assessment tool. The tool assesses each individual farm against a number of indicators. Part of the assessment of nutrient management is the calculation of an N,P,K budget, based on physical inputs and outputs for each enterprise. The results show considerable variation in the calculated N,P,K balances. The paper...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/25556/1/15%20PADEL_GERRARD.pdf
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