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A Bioeconomic Analysis of the Duration of Conservation Contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict.
Conservation and restoration of native vegetation is often a gradual process which may require many years to transform an ecosystem from one vegetative state to a target ecosystem. This process is stochastic, with some changes potentially irreversible. In contrast, contracts with landholders to undertake conservation measures on their property are typically for less than ten years and often make no contingencies for re-contracting at the end of the contract period. The risk to land holders and conservation agencies of contracts not being renewed and the consequent potential loss of previous investment means including covenants in conservation contracts may be attractive to both parties. A model is developed to empirically examine the optimal dynamic...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: POMDP; Biodiversity; Contracts; Monitoring; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9457
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A Non-Parametric Analysis of Rice Production Efficiency in Sri Lanka AgEcon
Thibbotuwawa, Manoj; Mugera, Amin W.; White, Benedict.
This article investigates the production efficiency of rice farming in Sri Lanka using cross section survey data of 90 farms. Past studies on rice farming have mostly focused on technical efficiency (TE). Here, we examine technical efficiency, allocative efficiency (AE) and cost efficiency (CE) using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. On average, the farms were 87% technically efficient; irrigated farms were more efficient (88%) than rain-fed farms (82%). Average cost, allocative and scale efficiencies were 73%, 84% and 87%. Bias corrected TE estimate suggests an expected output expansion of 25% with a given input combination in order to become fully efficient as opposed to 16% based on the original estimates. In addition, a second stage Tobit...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Cost efficiency; Bootstrap; Rice farming; Sri Lanka; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124423
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Agri-environment Policy Design With Hidden Information and Hidden Action: Input Quotas vs Input Charges AgEcon
Ozanne, Adam; White, Benedict.
Moxey, White and Ozanne (1999) have shown how transfer payments coupled with input quotas can be used to design optimal truth-telling mechanisms for voluntary agri-environmental schemes under hidden information about compliance costs. Ozanne, Hogan and Colman (2001) adapted the Moxey et al. model to analyze hidden action in such schemes, analyzing the relationships between input abatement, the cost of monitoring compliance and farmers’ risk preferences. White (2002) extended the Moxey et al. model to analyze the design of contracts under both hidden action and hidden information, but used an input charge/transfer payment approach rather than the original input quota/transfer payment one. In addition, he assumed that farmers caught cheating face a variable...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58196
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Agri-environmental Regulation on the Back of a Data Envelopment Analysis AgEcon
White, Benedict; Raguragavan, Jananee; Chambers, Robert G..
A land retirement policy whereby land is taken out of agriculture and converted to natural vegetation or forestry has the potential to reduce environmental damage related to dryland salinity in Western Australia. This paper uses some recent results in the theory of directional distance functions (Chambers and Fare, 2004) to analyse alternative policy designs for a land retirement scheme. The results indicate that a fixed price scheme is inefficient compared with a first-best solution, but performs adequately. A scheme requiring a fixed proportion of area retired by all producers is inefficient. A separating solution, based on mechanism design, gives a small but significant increase in welfare compared to a fixed price scheme.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental policy; Distance functions; Efficiency; Mechanism design; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q12.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7963
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Area-Wide Management of Fruit-Flies: What are the Costs and the Benefits? AgEcon
Florec, Veronique; Sadler, Rohan; White, Benedict.
Increasing volumes and speed of agricultural trade and the opening of new markets for agricultural products create greater challenges to systems established to protect countries from invasive organisms that can be harmful to human and animal health, crops and natural environments. In reaction to the threat of exotic pests and diseases, the World Trade Organization recognises the right of country members to protect themselves from the risks posed by exotic pests and diseases through the application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures. One possible response from exporting countries facing SPS trade barriers is to obtain pest-free area (PFA) certification. While large benefits can potentially be achieved from greater access to world markets through...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Eradication; Surveillance; Queensland Fruit Fly; Area-Wide Management of Pests; Pestfree area; Invasive species; Biosecurity; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; Q1; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100881
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Book Reviews AgEcon
White, Benedict; Walpole, Sandra C.; Reeve, Ian; Peterson, Deborah C.; Hone, Phillip.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117866
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Contracts for Grain Biosecurity and Grain Quality AgEcon
Abougamos, Hoda; White, Benedict; Sadler, Rohan.
The export of grain from Western Australia depends upon a grain supply network that takes grain from farm to port through Cooperative Bulk Handling receival and storage sites. The ability of the network to deliver pest free grain to the port and onto ship depends upon the quality of grain delivered by farmers and the efficacy of phosphine based fumigation in controlling stored grain pests. Phosphine fumigation is critical to the grain supply network because it is the cheapest effective fumigant. In addition, it is also residue free. Unfortunately, over time, common stored-grain pests have evolved to develop resistance to phosphine and there is a risk that phosphine will become less effective and may need to be replaced with more expensive alternative...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Principal-agent model; Supply contracts; Moral hazard; Stored grain; Biosecurity; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124216
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Deregulation of the Australian Wheat Export Market: What Happened to Wheat Prices? AgEcon
Curwen, Reece; Mugera, Amin W.; White, Benedict.
This paper investigates whether deregulation of the Australian wheat export market induced a structural change in the price data generation process. We examine the unit root properties of Western Australian wheat prices by testing for the possibility of single and double structural breaks in the price series. Daily prices for the period 20th of May 2003 to 14th of September 2010 are used. We find that the wheat price series has a unit root with two structural breaks but neither break coincided with the time when the Wheat Export Marketing Act 2008 came into effect on 1 July 2008. We conclude that change in local market behaviour would have started prior to actual deregulation with subsequent effect on local price.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Deregulation; Unit root; Structural breaks; Wheat price; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102023
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Economic analysis of integrated weed management strategies for annual barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli complex) in Philippine rice farming systems AgEcon
Beltran, Jesusa C.; Pannell, David J.; Doole, Graeme J.; White, Benedict.
This paper describes a dynamic simulation model that has been developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of integrated weed management programmes for the control of annual barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli complex) in Philippine rice farming systems. The main outputs of the model include weed seed and plant densities and seasonal and annualised profit over the simulated planning horizon. Model output emphasises the substantial economic benefits associated with effective long-term weed management strategies. In addition, a mixture of chemical and non-chemical treatments provides good weed control in rice crops, and maximises long-term profit for systems where the main weed is annual barnyardgrass. However, the performance of this strategy is...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Barnyardgrass; Bioeconomic model; Integrated weed management; Rice farming systems.; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124236
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Efficiency and technical change in the Western Australian wheatbelt AgEcon
Cattle, Nathan; White, Benedict.
The production performance of wheatbelt farms in Western Australia is analysed to determine whether potential to exploit scale economies and improve technical efficiency has driven the trend towards increased farm size. An input-orientated stochastic frontier model is used to estimate technical efficiency and scale economies using an unbalanced panel dataset provided by BankWest for the period 1995/1996 to 2005/2006. Differences in the relative efficiency of farms are explored by the simultaneous estimation of a model of inefficiency effects. The results show the majority of wheatbelt farms operate at high levels of technical efficiency and experience increasing returns to scale. Over the study period farms became bigger to benefit from economies of scale,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic frontier; Agriculture; Farm size; Scale economies; Technical efficiency; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10392
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Efficiency Policies for Salinity Management: Preliminary Research from a Spatial and Dynamic Metamodel AgEcon
Graham, Tennille; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J..
Dryland salinity, as an externality, has an impact on various public assets, including roads, biodiversity and public water supplies. This has been seen as an important justification for government to take action and internalise the pollution. Economic policy instruments have been identified as a potential solution to the problem, as they may achieve environmental goals at least cost to society. This paper presents a spatial and dynamic model which aims to compare economic instruments for land use change to abate the off-site impacts of salinity on public assets. Preliminary research is presented, along with a discussion of the model’s structure.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dryland salinity; Economic modelling; Meta-modelling; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57879
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Estimating Urban Residential Water-Demand with Increasing Block Prices: The Case of Perth, Western Australia AgEcon
Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Burton, Michael P.; White, Benedict.
This study uses panel data at suburb level to estimates the elasticity water demands in Perth, Australia from 1995 to 2005. After deriving the consumer’s water demand under a non-linear budget constraint, we estimate the water demand model, which accounts for how water (and other purchased goods) is used to satisfy fundamental desires of the household. We have applied the specification of price that provided the correctly estimated marginal price from the block tariff structure, and employed a maximum likelihood estimation technique to tackle the endogeneity and heteroskedasticity issues. Our estimation of water demand price elasticities are slightly higher (more elastic) than previous study in Perth, but broadly in line with other estimates in the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water demand; Water pricing; Block pricing; Water resource management; Household model; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q25; Q23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7061
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Estimating Urban Residential Water-Demand With Increasing Block Prices: The Case of Perth, Western Australia AgEcon
Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Burton, Michael P.; White, Benedict.
This study uses panel data at suburb level to estimates the elasticity water demands in Perth, Australia from 1995 to 2005. After deriving the consumer’s water demand under a non-linear budget constraint, we estimate the water demand model, which accounts for how water (and other purchased goods) is used to satisfy fundamental desires of the household. We have applied the specification of price that provided the correctly estimated marginal price from the block tariff structure, and employed a maximum likelihood estimation technique to tackle the endogeneity and heteroskedasticity issues. Our estimation of water demand price elasticities are slightly higher (more elastic) than previous study in Perth, but broadly in line with other estimates in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Water demand; Water pricing; Block pricing; Water resource management; Household model; Demand and Price Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q25 and Q23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6010
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Hidden action, risk aversion and variable fines in agri-environmental schemes AgEcon
Ozanne, Adam; White, Benedict.
This note analyses the design of agri-environmental schemes for risk-averse producers whose input usage is only observable by costly monitoring. The scheme penalises producers in proportion to input use in excess of a quota. A striking result is that if the scheme is designed in such a way that producers always comply with the quota, risk aversion is not relevant in determining the level of input use.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental policy; Monitoring; Risk aversion; Environmental Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118539
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Measuring the Cost-effectiveness of Conservation Auctions Relative to Alternate Policy Mechanisms AgEcon
White, Benedict; Burton, Michael P..
The principle motivation for using price-discriminating conservation auctions is that they are expected to be significantly more cost-effective than fixed-price mechanisms. This paper measures cost effectiveness for tenders from two rounds of the Auction for Landscape Recovery in Western Australia relative to counterfactual fixed-price mechanisms. If we assume that the bid equals the compliance cost, the auction gives a significant cost saving over fixed-price mechanisms. If instead we assume that bids include an element of rent, fixed-price mechanisms can be more cost effective than the auction. The significance of these results is that a fixed price scheme may achieve a similar level of cost effectiveness to a conservation auction, when one or more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Auctions; Conservation; Bio-diversity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q57.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97798
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Monitoring of compliance in Australian conservation contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J.; Lindner, Robert K..
Government and non-government conservation agencies have long-term goals and objectives to provide environmental services, such as conserving the biodiversity of Australian native vegetation. In addition to national parks and reserves, private lands are often included in conservation programs to achieve these objectives. Formal contracts are entered into between the private landholder and the conservation agency to provide environmental services, or more commonly to provide inputs that are likely to lead to environmental services. The paper examines the costs and benefits of monitoring these conservation contracts when biodiversity change is stochastic.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Compliance; Monitoring; Enforcement; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5990
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Monitoring of Compliance in Western Australian Conservation Contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J..
Contracting with private landholders for labor towards production of environmental services (payment for actions) or the environmental services themselves (payment for outcomes) is reliant on the environmental organization’s ability to monitor and assess the environmental outcomes provided. Inaccurate and costly assessment reduces the cost effectiveness of the contract. Different assessment technologies will have different impacts on the cost effectiveness and optimal contracting choice of the environmental organization. The paper compares the influence of field assessment by a local expert, and remote assessment via satellite imagery, on the optimal contracting decision for the Western Australian wheat belt.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Environmental; Compliance; Monitoring; Enforcement; Environmental regulation; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91155
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RIMPhil: a bioeconomic model for integrated weed management of annual barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Philippine rice farming systems AgEcon
Beltran, Jesusa C.; Pannell, David J.; Doole, Graeme J.; White, Benedict.
This paper describes a complex, dynamic simulation model that has been developed for the analysis of integrated weed management programmes for the control of annual barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in rice farming systems in the Philippines. Users of the model may simulate any feasible combination of 49 weed treatments options across wet and dry cropping seasons over 5, 10, 15, and 20 year periods, subject to a predetermined sequence of planting methods. The main outputs of the model include weed seed and plant densities and seasonal and annualised profit over the simulated planning horizon. Model output emphasises the substantial economic benefits associated with effective long-term weed management strategies. In addition, the most-profitable weed...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Barnyardgrass; Bioeconomic model; Integrated weed management; Rice farming systems.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104637
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Surveillance in Fruit Flies Free Areas: An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Florec, Veronique; Sadler, Rohan; White, Benedict.
Increasing pressure to reduce the use of pre and post-harvest treatment chemicals to control insect pests has led to calls for alternative control methods. As a result, the implementation of area-wide management of pests could be developed as either an alternative to chemicals or as a means of reducing pesticide use. However, maintaining an area-wide management programme can be expensive as it requires the execution of surveillance activities, exclusion measures and contingency plans for a rapid eradication response in the case of a pest outbreak. A sound benefit-cost analysis is an essential starting point to measure gains from research and development into improved methods of surveillance and exclusion. This paper presents a study of the costs of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Surveillance measures; Queensland Fruit Fly; Area-Wide Management of Pests; Pest-free area; Invasive species; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q1; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100882
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The impact of inaccurate and costly assessment in payments for environmental services AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J..
Paying private landholders for environmental services, rather than input-based payments, has been proposed as a way to improve the performance of contracts for conservation agencies. A challenge is that the assessment of environmental services is subjective, raising the question of how assessment accuracy impacts on landholder behaviour and contract design. A model is developed of a contract between a conservation agency and a private landholder for the provision of environmental services. The model is used to estimate the impact of inaccurate and costly assessment on the optimal landholder labour effort and the optimal incentive payment. The model shows that inaccurate and costly assessment reduces the cost-effectiveness of the contract. Application of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58876
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