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Registros recuperados: 15
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A UNIFIED APPROACH TO SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN EQUILIBRIUM DISPLACEMENT MODELS: COMMENT AgEcon
Griffiths, William E.; Zhao, Xueyan.
It is pointed out that the Chebychev confidence intervals and maximum p-values advocated by Davis and Espinoza for sensitivity analysis of equilibrium displacement models are unnecessary. Desired probability intervals and probabilities can be accurately estimated without resorting to gross approximations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Simulation; Probability distributions; Empirical quantiles; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12950
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An Equilibrium Displacement Model of the Australian Beef Industry AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Mullen, John D.; Griffith, Garry R.; Griffiths, William E.; Piggott, Roley R..
Around $100 million has been spent annually on R&D and promotion in the Australian red meat industries in recent years. The R&D investments are made throughout the production, processing and marketing chain in both the grass and grain finished sectors. Promotion investments are made in both export and domestic markets. Despite this large investment of industry and government funds there is great uncertainty about the returns from these investments. Not only is it unclear what the total industry returns are but it is even less clear how producers and the community benefit from the many alternative investment options. Hence, it is unclear how funds should be allocated between these alternatives. Zhao (1999) addressed these issues in research for...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28007
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An Equilibrium Displacement Model of the Australian Sheep and Wool Industries AgEcon
Mounter, Stuart W.; Griffith, Garry R.; Piggott, Roley R.; Fleming, Euan M.; Zhao, Xueyan.
This report documents the specification of an equilibrium displacement model (EDM) of the Australian sheep and wool industries. The model is capable of estimating and comparing the potential benefits from R&D and generic promotion investments, and other policy changes, in the different sectors and markets of the Australian sheep and wool industries. Inclusive in the model are the multiple components of the Australian sheep and wool industries to account for cross-product interactions not considered in most previous studies. A high degree of industry disaggregation within the model enables estimation of the distribution of the potential benefits among the various industry sectors and across different regional environments. A number of hypothetical...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Wool; Sheep meat; Research and development; Economic; Evaluation; Australia; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q160.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37663
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Book reviews AgEcon
Vanselow, Barbara; Griffith, Garry R.; Thorpe, Sally; Connors, Tom; Francis, Michael; Brown, Colin G.; Wittwer, Glyn; Zhao, Xueyan.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117733
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Composition of the National Sheep Flock and Specification of Equilibrium Prices and Quantities for the Australian Sheep and Wool Industries, 2002-03 to 2004-05 AgEcon
Mounter, Stuart W.; Griffith, Garry R.; Piggott, Roley R.; Fleming, Euan M.; Zhao, Xueyan.
The data used, and the methods and assumptions fundamental to the development of an equilibrium displacement model (EDM) of the Australian sheep and wool industries specified in Mounter et al. (2007), are contained in this report. The national sheep flock is disaggregated into Merino and non-Merino sheep in the three agricultural zones of Australia using 2002-03 Australian agricultural and grazing industries survey data. Opening and closing sheep numbers, death rates and weaning percentages were used to derive the supply and use of sheep in each zone. Annual shorn wool production was split into four fibre-diameter categories in each zone corresponding to ABS wool export categories. Wool production percentages and relative greasy fleece weights were used to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Wool; Sheep meat; Research and development; Economic; Evaluation; Australia; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q160.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37664
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Distribution of Gains from Cattle Development in a Multi-Stage Production System: The Case of the Bali Beef Industry AgEcon
Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Zhao, Xueyan; Griffith, Garry R.; Piggott, Roley R..
Beef production in Bali is dominated by smallholders, just like the majority of Indonesian agriculture. A wide range of policies has been implemented to enhance development of the Bali beef industry. Knowledge about the distribution of the returns from the development of the cattle industry, including marketing, informs decision making. This paper examines the benefits from cattle development in a multi-stage production representation of the Bali beef industry using equilibrium displacement modelling (EDM). Benefits are measured as changes in economic surplus. The distribution of benefits among farmers, processors and retailers is also examined.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Beef production; Government policy; EDM; Economic surplus.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57829
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Drugs as a Rational Choice: Preliminary Explorations of Marijuana Consumption in Australia AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan.
Although an illegal commodity, Australian marijuana market is estimated to be in the size of as large as $5 billion annually. Understanding the consumer behaviour of illicit drug consumption is essential in drug policy debate. Using micro unit data from the most recent National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, ordered Probit model is estimated to study the effects of some social, economic and demographic factors on the frequency of an individual’s marijuana consumption. A sequential model is also estimated that examines separately the decisions of whether to participate in regular consumption and how often to consume the drug. Results indicate that some factors may have opposite effects on the two decisions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Illicit drugs; Marijuana demand; Probit model; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58276
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Economic Evaluation of New Technologies and Promotions in the Australian Sheep and Wool Industries AgEcon
Mounter, Stuart W.; Griffith, Garry R.; Piggott, Roley R.; Fleming, Euan M.; Zhao, Xueyan.
Knowledge about the size and distribution of returns from alternative broad types of R&D and promotion investments permit strategic-level decisions about resource allocation, both within and across research programs. The Australian sheep meat and wool industries are characterised by strong cross-commodity relationships due to the joint product nature of the industries. An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian sheep meat and wool industries was developed to account for these relationships and any indirect benefits and costs arising from spill-over and feedback effects between the industries as a result of research-induced innovation or promotion. The potential annual returns and their distribution among the various industry sectors were...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Australian sheep and wool industries; Equilibrium displacement model; Cross-commodity relationships; R&D; Promotion evaluation; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10415
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Economic Surplus Measurement in Multi-Market Models AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Mullen, John D.; Griffith, Garry R..
Despite continuing controversy, economic surplus concepts have continued to be used in empirical cost-benefit analyses as measures of welfare to producers and consumers. In this paper, the issue of measuring changes in producer and consumer surplus resulting from exogenous supply or demand shifts in multi-market models is examined using a two-input and two-output equilibrium displacement model. When markets are related through both demand and supply, it is shown that significant errors are possible when conventional economic surplus areas are used incorrectly. The economic surplus change to producers or consumers should be measured sequentially in the two markets and then added up.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equilibrium displacement model; Multi-market; Economic surplus; R&D evaluation; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12910
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Heterogeneity in Alcohol Consumption: The Case of Beer, Wine and Spirits in Australia AgEcon
Ramful, Preety; Zhao, Xueyan.
This paper examines Australians’ participation in beer, wine and spirits consumption using a trivariate probit model and unit-record data from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys. It estimates the effects of social, economic and demographic factors on an individual’s decisions of alcohol participation. The trivariate probit formulation allows for the potential correlation across the demand for the three products through unobserved personal characteristics. All three beverages are shown to have negative own-price elasticities and to be substitutes in participation. An alarming proportion of young Australians are found to be drinking spirits regularly due to the increasing popularity of pre-mixed sweet drinks.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25359
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Multi-Output Broadacre Agricultural Production: Estimating A Cost Function Using Quasi-Micro Farm Level Data From Australia AgEcon
Nguyen, Duong T.M.; McLaren, Keith Robert; Zhao, Xueyan.
Existing econometric models for Australian broadacre agricultural production are few and have become dated. This paper estimates a multi-product restricted cost function using a unique quasi-micro farm level dataset from the Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey. Both the transcendental logarithmic and normalized quadratic functional forms are employed. Heteroskedasticity caused by the particular nature of the quasi-micro data is also assessed and accommodated. Allen partial elasticities of input substitution and own-and cross-price input demand elasticities are computed. The estimated demands for most production factors are inelastic to prices. Hired labour is responsive to own price and cropping input prices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6009
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Probability distributions for economic surplus changes: the case of technical change in the Australian wool industry AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Griffiths, William E.; Griffith, Garry R.; Mullen, John D..
Mullen, Alston and Wohlgenant (1989) (MAW) examined the distribution of the benefits of technical change in the Australian wool industry. Their conclusions are revisited by examining the probability distributions of changes in the welfare measures, given uncertainty about their model parameters. Subjective probability distributions are specified for the parameters and correlations among some of the parameters are imposed. Hierarchical distributions are also used to model diverse views about the specification of the subjective distributions. A sensitivity elasticity is defined through the estimation of a response surface to measure the sensitivity of the estimated research benefits to individual parameters. MAW’s conclusions are found to be robust under the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117789
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Returns to New Technologies in the Australian Beef Industry: On-farm Research versus Off-farm Research AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Griffith, Garry R.; Mullen, John D..
A multi-sectoral and multi-market model of the Australian beef industry is specified using an equilibrium displacement modelling framework. The model is implemented using average price and quantity data for the period 1991-1997 and market parameter values taken from the literature, derived from theoretical restrictions or from the authors’ subjective judgement. Total returns and the distributions among various industry groups from alternate R&D and promotion investments, which result in 1% shifts in the relevant supply or demand curves, are examined. In this paper, the implications for farmers from various on-farm R&D investments (genetic research and nutrition research in backgrounding cattle for grain-finishing and in grass-finishing) and...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123749
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The Distribution of Gains from Cattle Development in a Multi-Stage Production System: The Case of the Bali Beef Industry AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Piggott, Roley R.; Griffith, Garry R..
Beef production in Bali is dominated by small-holders, like the majority of Indonesian agriculture. A number of different policies have been implemented to enhance development of this and other parts of the Bali beef industry. Knowledge about the returns from these options for the development of the cattle and beef industry, and their distribution among producers, consumers and others, would better inform policy decision making. This paper examines the benefits from cattle development in a multi stage production representation of the Bali beef industry using equilibrium displacement modelling (EDM). For a 1 per cent exogenous shift in the relevant market, improved productivity of Bali cattle production has the largest total benefits (Rp 3.02 billion,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equilibrium displacement model; Research evaluation; Bali; Cattle and beef industry; Economic analysis; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12920
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Who gains from Australian generic wine promotion and R&D? AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Anderson, Kym; Wittwer, Glyn.
The present paper estimates the distributions of aggregate returns from different types of research and promotion investments by the Australian grape and wine industry among grapegrowers, winemakers, domestic and foreign consumers, and the tax office. The results show that most of the gains from cost-reducing R&D in grape and wine production go to producers and that producers get a far larger share of the benefit from export promotion than that from domestic promotion. Foreign consumers of Australian wine also enjoy a significant share of the benefits from Australian R&D. Sensitivity analysis shows that the key results hold for a wide range of parameter values.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116187
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